Skip to main content

Full text of "Napoleon in exile; or, A voice from St. Helena. The opinions and reflections of Napoleon on the most important events in his life and government, in his own words"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 

H^SI .<»S ED,2 C 1 


Stanford UnlvOTJty Libr.-jnt.', 


3 6105 048 814 979 


■ • 







jlTT -s 


opnnoiis JUJD eefleciions of napoleon 


Br BAERY K ^ItlEARA, £«t^ 

JtoJ(ibJ Mnakhp__BpU..riia(.th..>U..i^l«pilUKu> 

NEW YORK: ; ■ ; 


• • • 


• •. 

,•••• ••••, 

• •••• 


• •••• 

• •••• 

• • • 


• •••• 

•• • 

• •• •• 

• • • •• •• 

• • • • • 

• • • • , 

• • • 


• • •• • 



••••• • • • 

••.. • • 

••••* ••••• 

••••• « • 

• • • • * • 

• ••• • 

• •• • • 

• ••• • 
•• •• • 

• • • -•• 

» « » * 

• • 

to » k » 

0* '- 





msw ntox mi, dt sis dtino xoioDnn, the oratdul mrnnanm 

or BIB 










Placed by peculiar circumstances arising 
from my profession, near the person of the 
most extraordinary man perhaps of any age, 
in the most critical juncture of his life, I de- 
termined to profit by the opportunities af- 
forded me, as far as I could consistently with 
honour. The following volumes are the result 
The reader will see in the very outset of the 
work, how it was that T became attached as a 
medical oflBcer to the household of Napoleon. 
That it was in consequence of his own appli- 
cation, by the advice of my superiors, and with 
the full concurrence of the lords of the ad- 
miralty. I never sought the situation ; it was 
in some degree assigned me ; and most as- 
suredly I should have shrunk from the accept- 
ance of it, had I contemplated thepossibility of 
being even remotely called on to compromise 
the principles either of an officer or a gentle- 
man. Before, however I had been long 
scorched upon the rock of St. Helena, I was 
taught to appreciate the embarrassments of 

• • • 


my situation. I saw soon that I must either 
become accessory to vexations for which there 
was no necessity, or incur suspicions of no 
very comfortable nature. Fortunately for my 
honour, my happiness, and indeed for every 
thing except my interests, I did not hesitate. 
Humanity required of me a consideration for 
my patient. The uniform I wore imperiously 
commanded that I should not soil it by indig- 
nities to a captive, and my country's character 
pledged me to hold sacred the tnisfortunes 
of the fallen. This I did. It is my pride to 
avow it : a pride inferior only to that which 
I feel in finding those men my enemies who 
consider it a crime. 

The few alleviations which I had it in my 
power to offer. Napoleon repaid by the con- 
descension with which he honoured me; and 
my necessary professional intercourse was soon 
increased into an intimacy, if I may speak of 
intimacy with such a personage. In fact, in 
the seclusion of Longwood, he soon almost 
entirely laid aside the emperor ; with those 
about him, he conversed familiarly on his 
past life, and sketched the characters, and 
detailed the anecdotes which are here pre- 
sented faithfully to the reader. The unre- 


served manner in which he spoke of every 
thing can only be conceived by- those who 
heard him ; and though where his own con- 
duct was questioned he had a natural human 
leaning towards himself, still truth appeared 
to be his principal if not his only object. 
In the delineation of character he was pecu- 
liarly felicitous. His mind seemed to con- 
centrate its beams on the object he wished 
to elucidate, and its prominent features be- 
came instantly discernible. The intimate ac- 
quaintance which he necessarily possessed 
with all the, great characters who figured 
in Europe for the last thirty years gave to 
his opinions and observations more than or- 
dinary interest ; indeed from no other source 
could such authentic information be ac- 
quired. Notwithstanding the interval which 
elapsed since many of the occurrences al- 
luded to took place, and the distracting oc- 
cupations which must have employed his 
mind, it was wonderful to see how freshly he 
remembered every transaction which became 
the subject of inquiry. If there was any 
thing more extraordinary than this, it was the 
apathy with which he perused the libels which 
were written on him — he seemed inspired 


with a conviction of posthumous fame, beyond 
the reach of contemporary depreciation. But 
perhaps a knowledge of the man may be bet- 
ter acquired from seeing him— as he really was 
during the first three years of his residence at 
St, Helena, than from any speculative deduc- 
tion — as he appeared, spoke, acted, and seemed 
to feel, the reader shall have him. — It may 
perhaps be only right to add, that some of 
the observations or arguments on particular 
subjects were committed to paper from Na- 
poleon's own dictation. 

Before, however, we go further, I feel that 
the public have a right to demand how far 
they can depend on the authenticity of these 
volumes. To the friends who know me I 
hope no verification is necessary — to my de- 
tractors even mathematical proof would be 
unavailing — to those who are prejudiced nei- 
ther on one side nor the other, the following 
corroborations are submitted. 

In the first place, then, I refer to the fac 
simile of Napoleon's hand-writing prefixed to 
the frontispiece, and given to me by himself 
as a proof of the confidence with wliich he 
treated me — the original of this any person 
who chooses to apply to me shall see. I refer 


iijsx) to the whole Longwood household, more 
pacticularly to the executors, Counts Bertraud 
^d MontholQp^and to Count Las Cases, as to 
the facilities I had, and the familiarity with 
which I was honoured. This, I hope, will 
be sufficient on the score of opportunity. 

The next point is as to the accuracy of the 
transcript Upon this subject my plan was 
as follows. I spoke as little and listened as 
attentively as I could, seldom interposing, ex- 
cept for the purpose of leading to those facts 
on which I wished for information. To my 
memory, though naturally retentive, I did not 
entirely trust ; immediately on retiring from 
Napoleon's presence, I hurried to my chamber 
and carefully committed to paper the topics of 
conversation, with, so far as I could, the 
exact words used. Where I had the least 
doubt as to my accuracy, I marked it in my 
journal, and by a subsequent recurrence to 
the topic, when future opportunities offered, 
I satisfied myself; this, although I have avoid- 
ed them as much as possible, may account 
for some occasional repetitions, but 1 have 
thought it better to appear sometimes tedious, 
than ever to run the risk of a mistatement. 
My long residence at Longwood rendered 


those opportunities frequent, and the facility 
of communication which Napoleon allowed, 
made the introduction of almost any subject 
easy. Thus did I form ray original journal ; 
as it increased in interest, it became of course 
to me an object of increased solicitude ; and 
as nothing which could possibly occur at St. 
Helena would have surprised me, I deter- 
mined to place its contents at least beyond 
the power of that spoliation which afterwards 
was perpetrated on some of my other pro- 
perty. Having purchased in the island, a 
machine for that purpose, I transmitted at 
intervals the portions copied, to a friend on 
board one of his majesty's ships in the roads, 
who , forwarded them as opportunities oc- 
curred, to Mr. Holmes of Lyon's Inn, Na- 
poleon's respectable agent in London. The 
entire of this copy Mr. Holmes duly received 
some time previous to my return to England, 
as appears below by his own authentication,* 
and part of the silver paper manuscript as he 
received it, I have deposited with my pub- 

• 8, Lym'i Inn, June 9&d, 1822. 

I certify that I received all the papers alluded to bj Mr. 
O'Meara in the Preface, a connderable time before his ar* 
vml in England. William Houcsi. 

• •• 


lishers for the satisfaction of the scepticaL 
Thus, for the authenticity of the following 
conversations the reader has the guarantees, 
first, of the undoubted opportunities afforded 
me, 2ndly, of their haying been taken on the 
spot, Srdly, of their having been transmitted 
at the moment, and 4thly, of the original do- 
cument itself, authenticated by the person to 
whom it had been consigned and now sub- 
mitted to general inspection. Independent g(^ 
these, I think I may refer with confidence to 
those third persons, whose interviews with 
Napoleon are occasionally introduced ; and 
some of the official members of his majesty's 
government cannot with truth deny, that 
many of the political conversations were by 
me communicated at no great interval after 
their occurrence. Such communications I 
considered it my duty to make wherever I 
thought their import might benefit the coun- 
try. What use ministers may have made of 
them I know not, but certainly the preventive 
system with respect to smugglers was adopted 
soon after the transmission of Napoleon's con- 
versation on the subject. Perhaps, however, 
after all, the best proof of the authenticity of 
these volumes will be found in their own con- 
tents —independent of the internal evidence 



contained in tJie anecdotes themselves, there 
was, on whatever came from Napoleon's mmd, 
an inimitable impress. On this subject if I 
appear to many unnecessarily minute, it is 
because I am well aware that every attempt 
will be made to deny the authenticity of these 
conversations ; there are too many implicated 
— rtoo many interested — too many who must 
wish to cast an impenetrable shade over the 
transactions of St Helena, to suffer the truth 
to obtain an undisputed circulation. The fol- 
lowing official letters will shew, that it was at 
least the desire of his majesty's ministers to 
bury Napoleon's mind with his body in the 
grave of his imprisonment. If I have dis- 
obeyed the injunction, it is because I thought 
that every fragment of such a mind should be 
preserved to history, because I despised the 
despotism which would incarcerate even in- 
tellect: — and because I thought those only 
should become subsidiary to concealment, 
who were conscious of actions which could 
not bear the light. The following creditable 
documents emanating from the ministers of a 
free country, were transmitted by authority 
to me at St. Helena, soon after the publication 
of Mr. Warden's book. Every feeling heart 
will make its own comment on thenu 


Htf Mt^tff's Mp Comqtmror. 
St. Hekna Roadi, 9miJwmary, 1818. 

Sir. — I faferewith inclose to you a copy of a 
letter I have just received from Mr. Secretary 
Barrow, (relative to a work published by Mr. 
Warden, late surgeon of his majesty^s ship Nor- 
thumberland,) which I desire you will pay moet 
particular attention to. I am, Sir 

Your most obedient, humble Servant, 

RoBT. Plampin. 

Rear Adminlj Ciimmmdg^ia'cWafi 
To Mr. Barry CMeara^ Surgeon^ 
R. N. iMgwoodf Si. Helena. 

(No. XII.) AdmireUif Qfee, ISH Stj^imlw, 181 7. 

Sir, — ^My Lords Commissioners of the admir* 
alty having had under their consideration a work 
which has been published by Mr. Warden, late 
surgeon of his majesty*s ship Northumberland, 
their lordships have commanded me to signify 
their directions to you to acquaint all the officers 
employed under your orders, that they are to un- 
derstand, that if they should presume to publish 
any information which they may have obtained 
by being officially employed at St. Helena, they 
will suffer their lordship*s heavy displeasure. 

I am. Sir, 
Your most obedient, humble Servant, 

John Barrow. 

To Rear Adnnral Plampin^ 
SL Helena. 


Such were the attempts, certainly not un- 
accountable, to cancel all recollection of Na- 
poleon^ at least in his captivity — those who 
issued these orders forgot that the power did 
not accompany the mil to subject the publi- 
cations of Englishmen to an imprimatur. De- 
spising the denunciation as I did, and from 
my heart do, I have, however, thought it only 
my duty not to publish these conversations 
till after Napoleon's death ; nor have I done 
so even now, without the knowledge of his 
executors. All danger from them is past : the 
tongue which uttered them is silent for ever, 
and history has a right to them. 

If I was disposed to comment on these let- 
ters, I should say that they proceed altogether 
upon a wrong assumption, namely, that an 
officiid footing at Longwood gave to any one 
the power of obtaining the information which 
I collected. Nothing can be more absurd. 
If I had acted a different part from what I 
did— if, in place of reconciling the allegiance 
of a subject with the compassion of a Chris- 
tian, and preserving the rights of my country, 
while 1 took care not to compromise the feel- 
ings of my nature I tried to make my office 
the avenue to fortune— if I sunk the man in 


the menial — ^if I became an oflScial slave in- 
stead of an honestservant— if I courted power, 
by straining my loyalty to suit the purposes 
of mean vexation and unmanly vengeance — 
if I lifted up my hoof against the dead lion, 
or displayed my pigmy prowess by a dastard 
warfare upon the helpless infirmities of a fallen 
enemy ; I should not only have had no op- 
portunities of access, but 1 should have been 
proscribed Napoleon's, and man's society. 
But I acted altogether upon different princi- 
ples ; after having devoted the best fifteen 
years of my life to combating his soldiers in 
the field, and on the wave, I forgot when he 
was my country's prisoner, that he had ever 
been my country's foe. I thought the con- 
quest of clemency, superior even to that of 
valour, and that a proud country should make 
her enemies confess, not only that she con- 
quered, but that she deserved to conquer. 
In such a place as St. Helena, there could 
have been no danger from the worst man's 
deviating into feelings of humanity ; fenced 
round, as it is, with the most frightful preci- 
pices, with only one practicable place of egress, 
and that one not only bristling with cannon, 
andcrowdedwith guards, but effectually barri- 



cadoedbyour squadron, escape could scarcely 
have been effected by a miracle. The simple 
precaution which Napoleon himself suggested^ 
of never suffering any ship to sail, until his 
actual safety should be ascertained, might 
have obviated the necessity of almost any 
other. Having said thus much upon the mo- 
tives by which my conduct has been ac- 
tuated, I have only to add, that although I 
shall contemptuously pass by any anonymous 
insinuations, I am ready to meet any charge 
before any tribunal whatsoever, where the 
truth can he investigated. Let me only have 
an opportunity of proof and a responsible 
accuser. In the face of the world, I chal- 
lenge investigation. With respect to the 
mandate issued by the Admiralty against pub- 
licaton, it is suited to the meridian rather of 
Algiers, than of England — the very attempt in 
a free country, need only be mentioned to be 
reprobated ; it must have proved as abortive 
as it was despotic, for even were any English- 
man base enough to obey it, the Frenchman 
need not ; so that it was at best but a bungling 
refinement on the revolutionary device said 
to have been proposed, of burning the books 
in Paris, to annihilate learning, as if no other 


copies existed in the world. With this re- 
mark^ however, I shall dismiss the subject, as 
it is difficult to say, whether the credit of the 
measure is due to the present literary board, 
or to those lay philosophers, whose future 
censorship has been since cruelly dispensed 
with by the House of Commons. 

With respect to the views of men and 
things taken by Napoleon in his remarks, I 
beg to guard myself against any adoption of 
them as my own. I am merely the narrator. 
I give them as the substance of bis interesting 
and unreserved conversations, neither vouch- 
ing for the critical exactness of his dates, nor 
the justness of his opinions, nor indeed for 
any thing but the accuracy of my report. I 
only engage to the reader to lay before him 
Napoleon's sentiments as that extraordinary 
man uttered them. 

** Warm from the heart, and faithful to its fires.^ 

In making this remark, however, I am 
bound to add, that I neither avoid nor evade 
inquiry ; in any investigation in which l/ie 
truth can be told I am perfectly willing to 
take my share, ready to abide the event, whe- 
ther it bring reward or responsibility. 


Juguiiftlii, 182^. 

P. S.-"1t has just been communicated to me, that I am 
in error in having stated (vol. i. p. l^T), that it was Sir G. 
Cockburn*$ brother that was seized in Hamburgh by order 
of Napoleon ; the person, according to the information of 
the gentleman who write to me, was Sir George Rumbold. 
Although I can scarcely believe that I was mistaken, yet I 
think it my duty to mention this friendly correction. 

October St4tih, 1822. 
On the subject of the foregoing postscript, the following 
Letter appeared in The Morning Herald of the SSrd Sep- 
tember, 182S :— 

To the Editor of the Morning Herald. 

Sir. — Dr. O'Meara is correct in his statement of Mr. 
Cbckbum, the consul at Hamburgh being seized and made 
a prisoner in the manner related. The writer of this was 
a co»d^Unu with him at Verdun. He owed bis liberation 
to a most singular circumstance. His wife was a French 
lady, and had been a schooMellow with Madame Beauhar- 
Dois. Mr. C. was advised to send her to Paris, to obtain an 
interview with Madame Beauham<nSy and solicit her hus- 
band^s release. She went to Paris : Madame B. recognized 
her, and shewed her great kindness and attention^ promised 
to exert all her interest with the emperor on the first fa- 
vourable opportunity ; but added, that she could not pro- 
mise all the success she wished, as at that moment the em- 
peror had, to use her own words, *< grand rancunt conire les 
Jngloisy In about a month after Mr. Cockbum received 
a passport for England, and his name ordered to be struck 
off the list of the d^enuM at the d^p6t. 

(Signed) A ci-oevant oktbnu at Vbbouii. 




The rapidity with which a Second Edition of 
this Work has been caUed for, is an unequivo* 
cal proof of the favourable opinion of the Pub- 
lic. Its reception has been highly flattering 
to my feelings, and is the best answer that can 
be given to the calumnies by which it has 
been assailed by some of the hirelings of the 
corrupt journals of the present day. 

This edition has been carefully revised, 
a few verbal inaccuracies corrected, and a 
new Engraving added of a drawing from the 
statue presented to me by Napoleon on my 
leaving St. Helena. 

It is with feelings of deep regret that I find 
it necessary to allude to a transaction, the re- 
membrance of which will always be considered 
by me as one of the most unfortunate events 

VOL. I. c 


of my life, inasmuch as, to an upright mind, 
it will ever be a source of sorrow to have 
given, however unintentionally, unmerited 
pain to those from whom it had never received 
any injury : nor can this sentiment find any 
parallel in my breast, unless it be in the regret, 
which will never cease to accompany the re- 
collection of this affair, that, by a fatal error, 
theoffender,forwhomthechastisementwas in- 
tended, escaped the actual punishment due to 
his crime. The Public will however feel, that 
the person to whom I* allude, must be con- 
g^dered las having virttmlly received what 
was due to^ bit brutal attack upon my cha- 
raeteir; an attach which he failed to support 
in tlie only manner that could prove him 
to be in some degree worthy of the character 
of a gentleman. His slanders have a prolific 
birth, but as to himself, he seems to be im- 
palpahh. As &r as respects myself, therefore, 
I hope the public will j^erceive that I have 
not been inattentive to my honour, the pro- 
tection of which has ever been the sentiment 
nearest to my heart; and under which im- 
pressicm, all resentment against those who 
attempted to degrade me ceases« and is sup- 

• •• 


planted bj pUy for the situation in which such 
perscms must stand before the bar of public 

To the strictest critical scrutiny, or review 
of these volumes, I can feel no reluctance to 
their being subjected; if they cannot bear gen- 
tlemanly investigation, they are undeserving 
to remain before the public ; and I should 
consider myself as unworthy of any attention 
from my countrymen were I to flinch from 
their inquiries, or to take offence at their 
scepticism, if they found, after at fair examl^ 
nation, whereon ta rest their doubts-^iJBut to 
the personal, attack whidi ^ I have sustained 
from The Times Newspaper^ I was not dis* 
posed to submit with passive obedience ; an at- 
tack, which was as distant from the duty of an 
impartial Reviewer, holding the balance even 
between the public and the writer, as it was 
from the courtesy, in all matters of contro- 
versy, which one gentleman owes to another. 

A friend has transmitted to me the follow- 
ing communication :— Napoleon was removed 
from the Bellerophon on board of the Nor- 
thumberland on the 7th of August ; and the 
words used by Captain Maitland to Count 
Las CaseS) were as follows :—-" That with the 


orders which he (Captain Maitland), was 
acting upon, he conceived that he might 
receive him on board the Bellerophon, and 
carry him to England ; but that in doing so, 
he was acting upon his own responsibility, 
and that he must consider himself entirely at 
the disposal of the Prince Regent, as Cap- 
tain M. could not enter into any promise as to 
the reception Napoleon was to meet with." 

The following document, omitted in the 
first edition, is of too important a nature not 
to be annexed to the present. It completely 
refutes the assertions of the ministerialists, 
touching the alleged refusal of England to 
recognize the imperial dynasty. 

Protocole des Conferences de ChatiUon sur Seine. 

Ftvrier 4» 

S. E. M. le Due de Vicence, ministre des rela- 
tions ext^rieures, et pl^nipotentiaire de France, 
d'une part, et les pl^nipotentiaires des cours al- 
lies, savoir : M. le Comte de Stadion, &a pour 
TAutriche ; S. E. M. le Comte de Razoumowski, 
&c. pour la Russie ; LL. ElE. Lord Aberdeen, &C., 
Lord Cathcart, &c., et Sir Charles Stewart, &c. 
pour la Grande Bretagne ; et S. £. M. le Baron de 


Hamboldt, &c. pour la Prasse, d*aatre part. S*£-^ 
tant acquitt^s reciproquement des visites d*usage 
dans la journ^ du 4 Fevrier, sent convenas en 
mfime temps de se rdunir en stance le lendemaiu» 
5 du mois de Fevrier. 

Stance du 17 Fevrier, suite du Protocole. 

Le pl6nipotentiaire Autricbien lit en- 
suite le propos du traits pr^liminaire suivant. 

Prajet ttun traiU prdliminaire entre les hautes 
puissances alliies et la France. 

An nom de la tr^ sainte et individble Trinity. 

LL. MM. II. d*Autriche et de Russie, S. M. 
le Roi du Royaume uni de la Grande Bretagne et 
de rirlande, et S. M. le Roi de Prusse, agissant au 
nom de tons leurs allies d'une part, et S« M. TEm- 
pereur des Frangais de Tautre ; d^sirant cimenter 
le repos et le bien-^tre futur de FEurope par une 
paix solide et dumble, sur terre et sur roer, et ayant 
nomro6 pour atteindre k ce but salutaire, leurs 
pl^nipotentiaires actuellement r^unis h, Chatillon 
sur Seine; pour discuter les conditions de cette 
paix, les pl^nipotentiaires sont convenus des arti« 
cles snivants. 


Articles V^. 

II y aura paix et amiti^ eatre LL. MM. IL d*Aa- 
triche et de Rossie^ S. M. le . Roi du Royaume nni 
de la Grande Bretagne et de Flrlande, et S. M. le 
Roi de Prasse^ agissant en m£me temps au noro de 
tons lears allies, et S, M. VEmpereur des Franpais, 
leurs h&itiers et successeurs d( perpdtuiU. 

Les bautes parties contractantes s*engagent &e. 




Due De Vicence. JHumboldt, 

Le Comte de Stadiok, 
Chables Stewabt, 

Lieut. Gen. 

Protocol of the Conference^ of ChatiUon sur Seine. 

His excellency the Dake of Vicenza, minister 
of foreign affairs and plenipotentiary of France, 
on the one part> and the plenipotentiaries of the 



allied courts on the other, to wit : Austria, M. le 
CoiDte de Stadion — ^Russia, S. E. M. le Comte de 
Razotiinowski— ^Great Britain, their excellencies 
Lord Aberdeen, Lord C^hcart, and Sir Charles 
Stewart-*-and &. K AL le Baron de Humboldt, 
on the part of Prussia, haying reciprocally received 
the accustomed visits on the 4th of February, at 
the same time agreed ta assemble in the sitting of 
the next day, the &th of February. 

Sitting of the 17 th Feb. suite of the Protocol. 

The Austrian Plenipotentiary then read the pre- 
liminary arrangements for the following treaty. 

Pra/ed of a preliminanf treaty between the high 

allied powers and France. 

In the name of the holy and indivisible I'nnity. 

Their imperial majesties of Austria and Russia, 
his majesty the King of the united kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland, and his majesty the King of 
Prussia, acting in the name of all their allies, on 
the one part, and his majesty the Emperor of the 
French on the other ; wishing to cement the re- 
pose^and the future welfare of Europe by a solid 
and durable peace, by land and sea, and tc attain 
this salutary end, having named their plenipoten- 
tiaries at present assembled at Chatillon sur 
Seine, to discuss the conditions of the peace, the 
plenipotentiaries have agreed on the following 
articles : 


Article \st.. 

There shall be peace and friendship between 
their imperial majesties of Austria and Russia, his 
majesty the King of the united kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland, and his majesty the King of 
Prussia, acting at the same time in the name of all 
their allies, and his majesty the Emperor of the 
Frenchj their heirs and successors^for ever. 

The high contracting parties engage to, &c. &c. 

(Signed^ S^c. &:c.J 

Caulaincourt, J Lb Cobite dk Razoumowsvi, 
Due De Vicence, I Humboldt, 

Le Comte de Stadion, 
Charles Stewabt, 


IBB Cameo, an engraving from which is given in the 
irontispiecey was executed before the battle of Marengo, 
previous to the time when Napoleon became corpulent 
Madame Mire,^ when she preseqted it to me, informed me 
that it was then considered to be an excellent likeness ; 
and indeed its resemblance to what he was when I saw him, 
was striking, making allowance for his features having lost 
much of the sharpness shewn in the Cameo. 

The engraving from the Cameo has been pronounced by 
M. Revelli, of Duncan-place, Leicester-square, Prqfessore 
emerito of the university of Turin, to be a most striking 
likeness of Napoleon at the period mentioned. It may be 
necessary to observe, that no other painter was favoured 
with such opportunities of forming a correct judgment on 
the subject as M. Revelli ; as, independent of having fre- 
quently seen him at an early age, he resided for several 
months with Napoleon at Elba, as his painter^ and exe- 
cuted a beautiful portrait of him, which is now in bis pos- 

The following is a translation of the fac-simile of Napo- 
leon^s hand-writing under the Cameo — ** If he sees my good 
Louise, I beg of her to permit him to kiss her handJ^ 

The engraving from the Medal to be placed after the 
Prefaces in Vol. I. 

The whole length portrait of Napoleon to face the 
title of the second volume. 

* Napoleon's Mother. 


Explanation of the fgura in the representation of the 
House in front of the Appendix^ Volume IL 


1. Billiard-Room. 
S. Drawing-room. 

3. Napoleon's Writing-room, af- 
terwards converted into a 

4. His first Bed-Room. 

5. Marchand's-Room. 

6. Inferior Servant's Hall* 

7. Kitchen. 


8. Count Las Cases' first Room. 
The Garret above for his 

9. Orderly Officer's Room. 

10. General Gourgand's. 

11. Mr. O'Meara's. 

12. New Rooms built for Count 

and Countess Montholon and 

The Commissioners were allowed to come as far as the 
jgiate lepretiented in the plate. 




1 N cxinsequence of the resolation which had beea 
adopted by the British government to send the 
former sovereign of France to a distant settle- 
ment, and communicated to him by Major-Gene- 
ral Sir Henry Bunbury, under secretary of state, 
on board of the Belleraphon, 74> Captain Mait- 
land, at Plymouth, a few days before, Napoleon, 
accompanied by S!ich of his suite as were permit- 
ted by our government, was removed on the 7th of 
August, 1815, from the Bellerophon to the North- 
umberland, 74, Captain Ross. The vessel bore the 
flag of Rear-admiral Sir George Cockbum, G, C. B. 
who was entrusted with the charge of conveying 
Napoleon to St. Helena, and of regulating all mea- 
sures necessary to the security of his personal deten- 
tion after his arrival at the place of his confinement. 
Out of the suite that had followed his fortunes on 
board of the Bellerophon and Myrmidon, his ma- 
jesty's government permitted four of his officers, 
liis surgeon, and twelve of his household, to share 
his exile. The undermentioned persons were 
consequently selected, and accompanied him on 
board of the Northumberland : — Counts Bertrand, 




Montholon, and Las Cases, Baron Gourgaad^ 
Countess Bertrand and her three children. Coun- 
tess Montholon and child, Marchand, premier 
valet de chambre, Cipriani, maitre dli6tel, Pieron, 
St, Denis, Novarre, Le Page, two Archambauds, 
Santini, Rousseau, Grentilini, Josepaine, Bernard, 
and his wife, domestics to Count Bertmnd. A 
fine youth of about fourteen, son to Count Las 
Cases, was also permitted to accompany his father. 
Previous to their removal from the Bellerophou, 
the swords and other arms of the prisoners were 
demanded from them, and their luggage was sub- 
sequently examined, in order that possession 
fhight be taken of their property, whether in bills, 
money, or jewels. After paying those of his suite 
who were not |>ermitted to accompany him, only 
four thousand Napoleons in gold w:ere found, 
which were taken possession of by persons autho- 
rized by his majesty'^ government. 

When the determination of the British minis- 
ters to send Napoleon to St. Helena was commu- 
nicated to his suite, M. Maingaud, the surgeon 
who had accompanied him from Rochefort, re- 
fused to follow him to the tropics. M. Maingaud 
'Was a i young man unknown to Napoleon, and had 
been fortuitously chosen to attend him until M. 
Fourreau de Beauregard, who had been his sur- 
geon in Elba, coidd join him ; and I was informed 
that even had he been willing to proceed to St. 
Heletia, his services would not have been ac- 
tepted. On the day that Napoleon first came on 


baard the Bellerophon, after he had gone round 
the ship, he addressed me on the poop, and asked 
if I were the chirurgien major ? I replied in the 
affirmative, in the Italian language. He then 
asked in the same language, what country I was 
a native of r I replied, of Ireland. ^ Where did 
you study your profession T ^ In Dublin and 
London.^ ^ Which of the two is the best school 
of physic! I replied that I thought Dublin the 
best school of anatomy, and London of surgery* 
^ Oh,** -said he, smiling, ^ you say Dublin is the 
best sdiodi of anatomy because you are an Irish- 
man.** I answered that I begged pardon, that I 
had said so because it was true ; as in DuUin the 
subjects for dissection were to be procured at a 
fourth of the price paid for them in London, and 
Che professors were equally good« He smiled at 
this reply, and asked what actions I had been in, 
and in what parts of the globe I had served ? I 
mentioned several, and amongst others, Egypt- 
At the word Egypt, lie commenced a series of 
questions, which I answered to the best of my 
ability. I mentioned to him that the corps of 
officers to which I then belonged messed in a 
house that had formerly served as a stable for 
his horses* He laughed at this, and ever after^ 
wards noticed me when walking on deck, and oc- 
casionally called me to interpret or explain. On 
the passage from Rochefort to Torbay, Colonel 
Planat, one of his orderly officers, was t^en very 
iil^ and attended by me, as M. Maingaud was in- 


capable^ through sear^ickness, of oifering any a» 
mtance. During the period of his ilhiess, Napo* 
leon fi'equently asked about him, and conversed 
with me on the nature of his malady and the mode 
of cure. After our arrival at Plymouth, General 
Gourgaud also was very unwell, and did me the 
honour to have recourse to n>e for advice. All 
those circumstances had the effect of bringing me 
more in contact with Napoleon than any other 
officer in the ship, with the exception of Captain 
Maitland; and the day before the Bellerophon 
lefk Torbay, the Duke of Rovigo, with whom I 
was frequently in the habit of conversing, asked 
me if I were willing to accompany Napoleon to 
St. Helena as surgeon, adding, that if I were, I 
should receive a communication to that effect frcmi 
Count Bertrand, the grand mar^chal. I replied 
that I had no objection, provided the British go* 
vemment and my captain were willing to permit 
me, and also under certain stipulations. I com* 
municated this immediately to Captain Maitland, 
who was good enough to fevour me with his advice 
and opinion ; which were, that I ought to accept of 
the offer, provided the sanction of Admiral Lord 
Keith and of the English government could be 
obtained, adding, that he would mention the mat- 
ter ^to his lordship. On our arrival at Torbay 
Count Bertrand made the proposal to Captain 
Maitland and to myself, which was immediately 
communicated to Lord Keith. His tordsliip sent 
Cmt me <Hi board of the Tonuant» and after some 


preliminary conTersution, in wnich I explained 
the nature of the stipulations I was desirous of 
oialcing, did me the honour to recommend me in 
•strong terms to accept of the situation, adding, 
that he ccnld not order me to do so, as it was 
foreign to the naval service, and a business alto- 
gether extraordinary ; but that he advised me to 
accept of it, ai>d expressed his conviction that go* 
vemment would feel obliged to me, as they were 
very anxious that Napoleon should be accompanied 
by a surgeon of his own choice. His lordship ad- 
ded, that it was an employment which I could hold 
perfectly consistent with my honour, and mth the 
duty I owed to my country and my sovereign. 

Feeling highly gratified that the step which I 
bad in contemplation had met with the approba- 
tion of character so distinguished in the service, 
as Admiral Lord Keith, and Captain Maitland,* 

* It is DO small gratificatroa to me to be able to produce such 

a testimonial as the following^ from a captain with whom 1 

cerved in three different ships. 

November 6th, 1814. 
Dear Sir, 

The attention and meritorious conduct of Mr. Barry O'Mea- 
ra, while surgeon with me in the Goliath, calls upon me as an 
act of justice to him and of benefit to the service, to state, that 
during- the fifteen years I have commanded some one of his 
majesty's ships, I have never had the pleasure of sailing with 
an officer in his situation who so fully answered my expecta- 
tions. Not being a judge of his professional abilities, though 
1 have every reason to believe them of the first class, and 
know that to be the opinion of some of the oldest and most 
rtftfpectablq surgeons in the navy, I shall only state, that du« 


laxccepted of the situation, and proceeded oi 
board of the Northnn^berland, stipulating, how 
ever, by letter to his lordship, thi^ I should be 
always considered as a British officer, and upor 
the list of naval surgeons on full pay, paid by the 
British government, and that I should be at liberty 
to quit so peculiar a service, should I find it not to 
be consonant to my wishes. 

During the voyage, which lasted about ten 
weeks. Napoleon did not suffer much from sea- 
sickness after the first week. He rarely made his 
appearance on deck until after dinner. He break- 
&8ted in his own cabin d la fourchette at ten or 
eleven o'clock, and spent a considerable portion of 
the day in writing and reading. Before he sat 
down to dinner he generally played a game at 
chess, and remained at that meal, in compliment 
to the admiral, about an hour : at which time cof- 

ring' a period of very bad weather, which occasioDed the Go- 
liath to be extremely sickly, hb attention and tendemess to 
the men was such as to call forth my warmest approbation, 
and the grateful affection of both oflBcers and men. Were it 
probable that I should soon obtain another appointment, 1 
know of no man in the service 1 should wish to have as sur- 
geon so much as Mr. (yMeara, As, however, in the present 
state of the war, that b not likely, I trust you will do me the 
fkvour of giving him an appointment, as an encouragement to 
young men of his description, and believe me. 

Dear Sir, fcc. &e. &c 

Frederick L. M attliiNd 
To Dr. Hanu99, S^e. S^e. 8^. 

Tranttport Board. 

* Appendix, No. 1« 


fee was broagfat ta him^ and he left the companjr: 
to take a walk upon deck, accompaiiied by Coijiiits 
Bertrand or Las Cases, while the admiral and the 
rest contimied afc table for an hour or two longer. 
While walking the quarter-deck, he frequently 
q)oke to such of the officers as could understand 
and converse with him ; and often asked Mr. 
Warden, (the surgeon of the Northumberland), 
questions touching the prevailing complaints, and 
mode of treatment of the sick. He occasionally 
played a game at whist, hut generally retired to 
his cabin at nine or ten o*clock. Such was the 
uniform course of his life during the voyage. 

Hie^ Northumberland hove to off Funchal, and 
the Havannah frigate was sent in to procure r^^ 
freshments. During the time we were off the an« 
chorage a violent sciracco levante prevailed, which 
did great mischief to the grapes. We were inform- 
ed that some of the ignorant and superstitious in- 
habitants attributed it to the presence of Napoleon. 
Fourteen or fifteen hundred volumes of books 
were ordered from England for Napoleon*s use, by 
Count Bertrand. 

We arrived at St. Helena on the 15th of Octo- 
ber. Nothing can be more desolate or repulsive 
than the appearance of the exterior of the island. 
When we had anchored, it was expected that Na- 
poleon would have been invited to stop at Planta- 
tion House, the country-seat of the governor, until 
a house could have been got ready for him; as 
heretofore passengers of distinction had invariaUy 

VOL. I. c 


been asked to pass the time they remained on the 
island there. Some forcible reason possibly existed, 
as this courtesy was not extended to him. 

On the evening of the 17th, about seven o'clock. 
Napoleon landed at James Town, accompanied by 
,^ the admiral, Count and Countess Bertrand, Las 
Cases, Count and Countess Montholon, &c., and 
proceeded to a house belonging to a gentleman 
named Porteous, which had been taken for that 
purpose by the admiral, and was one of the best 
in the town. It was not, however, free from in- 
convenience, as Napoleon could not make his ap- 
peai'ance at the windows, or even descend from his 
bedchamber, without being exposed to the rude 
and ardent gaze of those who wished to gratify 
their curiosity with a sight of the imperial captive. 
There was no house in the town at all calculated 
for privacy, except the governor's, to which there 
belonged a court, and in front there was a walk 
upon the ramparts facing the sea, and overlooking 
the Marino, which proximity to the ocean probably 
was the cause of its not having been selected for him. 

The inhabitants of the island were in very anx- 
ious expectation during the greatest part of the day 
to obtain a sierht of the exiled niier when he should 
make his entree to the place of his confinement. 
Numbers of persons of every description crowded 
the Marino, the street, and the houses by which he 
was to pass, in the eager hope of catching a glimpse 
of him. The expectations of most of them were 
however disappointed, as he did not land till after 


sim-eet, at which time, the majority of the island- 
en, tired of waiting, and supposing that his land- 
ing was deferred mitil the following morning, had 
retired to their homes. It was also at this time 
nearly impossible to recognise his person. 

Counts Bertrand and Montholon with their 
ladies. Count Las Cases and son. General Gour- 
gaud, and myself, were also accommodated in Mr. 
Porteous*s house. 

At a very early hour on the morning of the 18th^ 
.Napoleon, accompanied by the admiral and Las 
Cases, proceeded up to Longwood, a country-seat 
of the lieut. governor s, which he was informed was 
the place deemed most proper for his future resi- 
dence. He was mounted on a spirited little black 
horse, which was lent for the occasion by the go- 
vernor. Colonel Wilks. On his way up he observed 
a neat little spot called the Briars, situated about 
two hundred yards from the road, belonging to a 
gentleman named Balcombe, who, he was informed, 
was to be his purveyor, and appeared pleased with 
its romantic situation. 

Longwood is situated on a plain, formed on the 
summit of a mountain about eighteen hundred feet 
above the level of the sea ; and including Dead- 
wood, comprises fourteen or fifteen hundred acres 
of land, a great part of which is planted with an 
indigenous tree called gumwood. Its appearance 
is sombre and unpromising. Napoleon, however, 
said that he should be more contented to fix his 
residence there, than to remain in the town as a 


mark for the prj^ng curiosity 
tators. Unfprtunatdy the house only condstedo^ 
five rooms on a ground-floor, which hadi been iniHti 
one after the other, according to the wants of dte 
fiunily, and without any regard to dther order or 
conTcnience, and were totally inadequate for the 
accommodation of himself and his suite. Several 
additions were consequently necessary, which it 
was evident could not be accomplished for some 
weeks, even under the superintendence of so active 
an officer as Sir George Cockbum. Upon his re- 
turn from Longwood, Napoleon proceeded to the 
Briars, and intimated to Sir George that he should 
prefer remaining there, until the necessary addi- 
tions were made to Longwood, to returning to 
town, provided the proprietors consent could be 
obtained. This request was immediately granted. 
The Briars is the ns^me of an estate romantically 
situated about a mile and a half from James Town; 
comprising a few acres of highly cultivated land; 
excellent fruit and kitchen gardens, plentifully 
supplied with water, adorned with many delightM 
shady walks, and long celebrated for the genuine 
old English hospitality of the proprietor, Mr « Bal- 
combe. About twenty yards from the dwelling* 
house stood a little pavilion, consistiiig of xme 
good room on the ground-floor, and two garrets, 
which Napoleon, not willing to cause any inconve^ 
nience to the fomily of his host, Belected for hig 
abode. In the lower room his camp-bed wbs pat 
up^ and in this room he at^ slept^ rea4 ^^ 

A TOICB FmOM , AT. HB|iBN4. 13 

tated a porticm of his eventM life« Las Cases 
and Ms son were accommodated in one of the 
garreta abov^ and NapoIeon*s premier valet de 
ehambre, and others of his househcdd, slept in the 
other, and upon the floor in the little buil oppo- 
site the entrance of the lower room; At* first his 
dinner was sent ready cooked from the town ; but 
afterwards^' Mr. Balcombe found means to get a 
kitchen fitted up for his use. The accommoda- 
tions were so insufficient, that Napoleon frequently 
walked out after he had finished his dinner, in or« 
der to allow his domestics an opportunity of eating 
theirs in the room which he had just quitted. 

Mr Balcombe*s family consisted of his wife, two 
daughters, one about twelve and the other fifteen 
years of age, and two boys of five or six. The 
young ladies tipoke French fluently, and Napoleon 
frequently dropt in to play a rubber of whist or 
hold a little cmwersazione. On one occasion he 
indulged them by participating in a game of blind- 
man's buff, very much to the amusement of the 
young ladies. Nothing was left undone by this 
worthy family that could contribute to lessen the 
inconveniences of his situation. A Captain of ar 
tilleiy resided at the Briars as orderly officer ; and 
at first a seijeant and some soldiers were also sta 
tioned there as an additional security : but upon 
a remonstrance being made to Sir George Cock- 
bum, the latter convinced of their inutility, or- 
dered them to be removed. Counts Bertrand and 
Mor.tholon^ with their respective ladies and chil« 


dren^ General Gourgaad, and myself, lived tog6* 
ther, at Mr. Porteou8*s^ where a suitable table in 
the French style was provided by Mr. Balcombe. 
When any of them were desirous of paying a visit 
to the Briars or of going out of the town else- 
where, no further restriction was imposed upon 
them than causing them to be accompanied by 
myself or by some other British officer, or followed 
by a soldier. In this manner, they were permitted 
to visit any part of the island they pleased, except 
the forts and batteries. They were visited by 
Colonel and Mrs. Wilks, Lieutenant-colonel and 
Mrs. Skelton, the members of council, and by 
most of the respectable inhabitants, and the offi- 
cers, both military and naval, belonging to the 
garrison and squadron, and by their wives and 
families. Little evening parties were occasionally 
given by the French to their visitors, and matters 
were managed in such a manner that there was 
not much appearance of constraint. Sometimes the 
Countesses Bertrand and Montholon, accompa- 
nied by one or two casual island visitors, passed 
an hour or two in viewing and occasionally pur- 
chasing some of the productions of the East and 
of Europe, exhibited in the shops of the trades- 
men ; which, though far from offering the variety 
or the magnificence of those of the Rue Vivienne, 
tended nevertheless to distraire them a little from 
the tedious monotony of a St. Helena residence, 
-v Sir George Cockbum gave several well attended 
baUs, to all of which they were invited; and 

A TC»CB raOM 8T. HBLBMA* 15 

wheie^ with the excq>tioii of Ni^xdeon^ they fte- 
qnently went. Attention was paid to thdr feel 
ings; and, upon the whole, matters, if not entirely 
satisfiEu^ry to them upon some points, were at 
least placed upon such a footing as to render their 
existence tolerable, had not the island in itself pre- 
sented so many local wants and miseries. It 
would, perhaps, have been much better and more 
consistent with propriety, had Napoleon been ac- 
cmnmodated at Plantation House, until the repairs 
and additions making to Longwood were finished, 
instead of being so indifferently provided for in 
point of lodg^g at the Briars. I must, however, 
do the admiral the justice to say, that upon this 
point I have reason to believe he was not at liber- 
ty to carry his own wishes into effect. In the 
mean time^ no exertions were spared by Sir George 
Cockbum to enlarge and improve the old build- 
ing, so as to render it capable of containing so 
great an increase of inmates. For this purpose, 
all the workmen, not only of the squadron, but in 
the island, were put in requisition ; and Long- 
wood, for nearly two months presented as busy a 
scene as has ever been witnessed during the war, 
in any of his majesty's dock-yards, whilst a fleet 
was fitting out under the personal directions of 
some of our first naval commanders. The admi- 
ral, indefatigable in his exertions, was frequently 
seen to arrive at Longwood shortly after 8un-rise5 
stimulating by his presence the St. Helena work- 
men, who, in general lazy and indolent, beheld 

16 AV VOiCB KftOM 6T; 

with'^aMtomshment the despatch and activity of a 
nMo-af-^war succeed to the characteristic idlenesa 
wfaick/ until then^ they had been accustomed both 
to witness and to practise. 

Erery day, bodies of two or three hundred sea- 
men were employed in carrying up from James 
Town, timber and other materials for building 
together with furniture, which, though the best 
w»s purchased at an enormous expense wherever 
it couM be procured, was paltry and old fashioned. 
So deficient was the island in the means of trans- 
port, that almost every thing, even the very stones 
for building, were carried up the steep side-path 
on the heads and shoulders of the seamen, occa- 
sionally assisted by fatigue-parties of the fifty- 
third regiment. By means of incessant labour, 
Longwood House was enlarged so as to admit, on 
the 9th of December, Napoleon and part of his 
household. Count and Countess Montholon and 
children. Count and young Las Cases. 

Napoleon himself had a small narrow bed-room 
on the grounds-floor, a writing-room of the same 
dimensions, and a sort of small ante-chamber, in 
which a bath was put up. The writing-room 
opened into a dark and low apartment, which was 
converted into a dining room. The opposite wing 
consisted of a bed-room larger than that of Napo- 
leon*s, which, with an ante-chamber and closet, 
formed the accommodation for Count and Countess 
Montholon and son. From the dining-room a 
door led to a drawing-room, about eighteen feet 


by fifteen. In prolongation of this, one longer, 
much higher, and more airy, was built of wood 
by Sir George Cockbum, with three windows, on 
each side, and a viranda leadlig to the garden. 
This, although it laboured under the inconve- 
nience of becoming intolerably hot towards the 
evening, whenever the sun shone forth in tropical 
splendour, by the rays penetrating the wood of 
which it was composed, was the only good room 
in the building. Las Cases had a room next the 
kitchen,* which had formerly been occupied by 
some of Colonel Skelton*s servants, through the 
ceiling of which an opening was cut so as to ad- 
mit a very narrow stair, leading to a sort of cock- 
loft above, where his son reposed. The garrets 
over the old building were floored, and converted 
into apartments for Marchand, Cipriani, St. Denis, 
Josephine, &c. From the sloping structure of the 
roof, it was impossible to stand upright in those 
garrets, unless in the centre, and the sun, pene- 
trating through the slating, rendered them occa- 
sionally insupportably hot. Additional rooms were 
constructing for them and for General Gourgaud, 
the orderly officer, and myself, who, in the mean 
time, were accommodated with tents. Lieutenant 

* Some time afterwards an apartment was built for the count 
and his son at the back of the house, which was subsequently 
divided into a bed and sitting room, with one for their servant. 
They were so small that there was not room for a chair between 
the bedsteads of the father and son ; and so low, that the 
ceiling could be touched by a person standing on the floor. 

TOIn I. D 


Bloody and Mr. Cooper, carpenter of the Northum- 
berland, with several artificers from the ship, also 
resided upon the premises ; the two former under 
an old studding sail, which had been converted 
into a tent, A very liberal table, (considering St. 
Helena,) was found by order of Sir George Cock- 
bum, for the orderly officers and myself. 

Count and Countess Bertrand and family were 
lodged in a little house* at Hut's Gate, about a mile 
from Longwood, which, though uncomfortable, 
was nevertheless hired at their own request, and 
was the only one, which could be procured at a 
moderate rate in the neighbourhood, as it was 
found impossible to accommodate them at Long- 
wood, until a new house, the foundation of which 
was immediately laid down by Sir George Cock- 
burn, could be finished. 

During the time that Napoleon resided at the 
Briars, I kept no regular journal, and consequent- 
ly can give only a brief outline of what took 
place. His time was occupied principally in dic- 
tating to Las Cases and his son, or to Counts Ber- 
trandy Montholon, and Gourgaud, some of whom 
daily waited upon him. He occasionally received 
visitors, (who came to pay their respects to him,) 
on the lawn before the house ; and, in a few in- 
stances, some who had received that permission, 
were presented to him, when at Mr. Balcombe's in 
the evening. During the whole time he was there, 
he never left the grounds but once, when he strolled 
down to the little residence of Major Hodson of 
the St. Helena regiment^. where he conversed with 


the Major and Mrs. Hodson for half an . hour^ 
taking great notice of their children^ who were 
exti'emely handsome. He frequently, however, 
walked for hours in the shady paths and shrub* 
beries of the Briars, where care was taken to pre- 
vent his being intruded upon. ' During one of 
these walks, he stopped and pointed out to me the 
frightful precipices which environed us, and said^ 
** Behold your country's generosity, this is their 
liberality to the unfortunate man, who, blindly re- 
lying on what he so falsely imagined to be their 
national character, in an evil hour unsuspectingly 
confided himself to them. I once thought thaJ; 
you were free : I now see that your ministers laugh 
at your laws, which are, like those of other nations, 
formed only to oppress the defenceless, and screen 
the powerful, whenever your government has any 
object in view- 

At another time he discovei-ed through the inter- 
pretation of Las Cases, that an old Malay, who 
was hired by Mr. Balcombe as gardener, had been 
entrapped from his native place on board of an 
English ship several years before, brought to St. 
Helena, smuggled on shore, illegally sold for a 
slave, let out to whoever would hire him, and his 
earnings chiefly appropriated to his master. This 
he communicated to the admiral, who immediatdy 
set on foot an enquiry ; the probable result would 
have been the emancipation of poor Toby, had the 
admiral remdned in command.* 

^ When Napoleon discoyered, some time after the depar- 
ture of Sir George Ck>ekbam, that the poor man bad not 



Arrangements were made with the purveyor to 
snpply certain quantities of provisions, wines, &c. 
The scale of allowances was liberal, and such as 
was deemed sufficient for the service of the liouse 
by Cipriani, the maitre d'hot^l. It is true, that 
sometimes the provisions were deficient in quan- 
tity or bad in quality, but this was often caused, 
either by the absolute want of resources on the 
island, or by accident, and was generally reme- 
died wherever such remedy could be applied, by 
Sir George Cockbum. 

A space of ahout twelve miles in circumference 
was allotted to Napoleon, within which he might . 
ride or walk, without being accompanied by a 
British officer. Within this space was placed the 
camp of the 53d, at Deadwood, about a mile from 
Longwood House, and another at Hut's Gate, op* 
posite Bertrand's, close to whose door there was an 
officers guard. An arrangement was made with 
Bertraud, by means of which persons famished 
with a pass from him, had permission to enter 
Longwood grounds. This was not productive of 
inctovenience, as no person could, in the first in- 
i^tance, go to Bertrand's, without permission from 
' the admiral, the governor, or Sir George Bingham^ 
^ and consequently no improper persons were per- 
^ttutted to h&ve access to him. The French also * 

««been emancipated, he directed Mr. Balcombe to purchase him 
from his master, set him at liberty, abd charge the amount 
to Count Bertrand's private account. Sir Hudson Lowe, 

- homteieir thought pioper to prohibit this« and the man wm 
•till ia a slate of slateiy when I left fit. Heleaa. 


were aDowed to send sealed letters to the inhabi- 
tants and others residing upon the island, a regu- 
lation not likely to prove injurious, as it was evi- 
dent, that if they wished to transmit letters to 
Europe, this could only be attempted after previous 
arrangements having been made ; and it was highly 
improbable that they would send, through the 
medium of an English servant, or dragoon, letters^ 
the contents of which would compromise either 
themselves or their friends, when the more simple 
and natural mode of delivering them personally to 
the individuals for whom they were intended, was 
entirely in their power, and with whom they were 
at liberty to visit and converse at pleasure.* 

A subsdtem^s guard was posted at the entrance 
of Longwood, about six hundred paces frpm the 
house, and a cordon of sentinels and picquets, 
were placed round the limits- At nine o'clock the 
sentinels were drawn in and stationed in commu- 
nication with each other ; surrounding the house 
in such positions, that no person could come in or 
go out without being seen and scrutinized by them. 
At the entrance of the house double sentinels were 
placed, and patroles were continually passing back- 
ward and forward. After nine Napoleon was not 
at liberty to leave the house, unless in company 
with a field-officer ; and no person whatever was 
allowed to pass without the counter-sign. This 

* A strong proof of this is, that during the nine months 
Sir George Cockburn had this system put in force^ not a sin- 
gle letter was ever sent to Europe, unless through the 
wgalar government channels. 


State of affairs continued until day-light in the morn- 
ing. Every landing-place in the island, and, indeed, 
every place which presented the semblance of one, 
was furnished with a picquet, and sentinels were 
even placed upon e^fevy goat-path leading to the 
sea, though, in truth, the obstacles presented by 
nature in almost all the paths in that direction, 
would, of themselves, have proved insurmountable 
to so unwieldy a person as Napoleon. 

From the various signal-posts on the island 
ships are frequently discovered at twenty-four 
leagues distance, and always long before they can 
approach the shore. Two ships of war conti- 
nually cruised, one to windward and the other 
to leeward, to whom signals were made as soon as 
a vessel was discovered from the posts on shore. 
Every ship, except a British man of war, was ac- 
companied down to the road by one of the cruizers, 
who remained with her until she was either per- 
mitted to anchor or was sent away. No foreign 
vessels were allowed to anchor unless under cir- 
cumstances of great distress, in which case, no 
person from them was permitted to land, and an 
oflSicer and party from one of the ships of war waa 
sent on board to take charge of them as long as 
they remained, as well as in order to prevent any 
improper communication. Every fishing-boat be- 
longing to the island was numbered, and anchored 
every evening at sun-set, under the superinten- 
dence of a lieutenant in the navy. No boats, ex- 
cepting guard-boats from the ships of war, which 
puUed about the island all night, were allowed ta 


be down after sun set. The orderly officer was 
also instructed to ascertain the actual presence of 
Napoleon, twice, in the twenty-four hours, which 
was done with as much delicacy as possible. In 
feet, every human precaution to prevent escape, 
short of actually incarcerating or ench^ning him, 
was adopted by Sir George Cockburn. 

The officers of the 53d, and several of the most 
respectable inhabitants, the officers of the St. He- 
lena corps ahd their wives were introduced to Na- 
poleon, at whose table some were weekly invited to 
dme, and amongst them Mr. Doveton, Miss Dove- 
ton, Colonel and Mrs. Skelton, Captain and Mrs. 
Younghusband, Mr. Balcombe and family, &c. 
Officers and other respectable passengers from 
India and China, came in numbers to Longwood to 
request a presentation to the fallen chief; in which 
expectation, they were rarely disappointed, unless 
mdisposition on his part, or the shortness of their 
stay on the island prevented it. Many ladies and 
gentlemen who came up at an inconvenient time, 
have remained in my room long after the fore-top- 
saal of the ship, which was to waft them to England^ 
was loosed, in the hope of Napoleon's presenting 
himself at the windows of his apartments. I have 
frequently been unable to withstand the solicita- 
tions of more than one anxious fair expectant to 
place some of the servants of the house in a situa- 
tion, where they might be enabled to apprize them 
of his approach to the windows tr door of the draw- 
ing-room, whereby they might be afforded an oppor- 
timity of stealing a glance at the renowned captive. 

34 Awaicm from &t. hslbwa. 

Some short time after his arrival at Longwood^ 
I communicated to him the news of Murat's death. 
He heard it with calmness, and immediately de- 
manded, if he had perished on the field of battle ? 
At first, I hesitated to tell him that his brothei^in^ 
law had been executed like a criminal. On his 
repeating the question, I informed him of the 
manner in which Murat had been put to deaths 
which he listened to without any change of coun-* 
tenance. I also communicated the intelligence of 
the death of Ney, ** He was a brave man, nobody 
more so ; but he was a madman," said he. ^ He 
has died without having the esteem of mankind. 
He betrayed me at Fontainbleau : the proclama- 
tion against the Bourbons which he said in his de« 
fence I caused to be given to him, was written by 
himself, and I never knew any thing about that 
document until it was read to the troops. It is 
true, that I sent him orders to obey me. What 
could he do? His troops abandoned him. Not 
only the troops, but the people wished to join me.** 

I had lent him Miss Williams's " Present State of 
Prance** to read. Two or three days afterwards he 
said to me, while dressing, ^'That is a vile production 
of that lady of yours. It is a heap of falsehoods. 
This,** opening his shirt, and shewing his flannel 
waistcoat, ** is the only coat of mail I ever wore. 
My hat lined with steel too! There is the hat I 
wore,** pointing to the one he always carried. **Oh, 
she has doubtless lliken well paid for all the malice 
and the falsehoods she has poured forth. 

VwpoleoDiS hours of rising were uncertain, moch 


depending upon the quantum of rest be hadao* 
joyed during the night. He was in general a bad 
sleeper, and frequently got up at three or four 
o'clock, in which case he read or wi'ote until six 
or seven, at which time, when the weather was 
fine, he sometimes went out to ride, attended by 
some of his generals, or laid down again to repose 
for a couple of hours. When he retired to bed, he 
could not sleep unless the most perfect state of 
darkness was obtained, by the closing of every 
cranny through which a ray of light might pasi^ 
although I have sometimes seen him fall asleep on 
the sofa, and remain so for a few minutes in broad 
daylight. When ill, Marchand occasionally read 
to him until he fell asleep. At times he rose at 
seven, and wrote or dictated until breakfast time, 
or, if the morning was very fine, he went out to 
ride. When he breakfasted in his own room, it was 
generally served on a little round table, at between 
nine and ten ; when along with the rest of his suit^ 
at eleven : in either case a la fourchette. After 
breakfast, he generally dictated to some of his suite 
for a few hours, and at two or three o'clock re- 
ceived such visitors, as, by previous appointment, 
had been directed to present themselves. Between 
four and five, when the weather permitted, he rode 
out on horseback, or in the carriage for an hour 
or two, accompanied by all his suite ; then return- 
ed, and dictated or read until eight, or occasionally 

VOL. I. E 


played a game at chess^ at which tune dinner was 
announced^ which rarely exceeded twenty minutes 
or half an hour in duration. He ate heartily and 
fast^ and did not appear to be partial to high sea- 
soned, or rich food. One of his most favourite 
dishes was a roasted leg of mutton, of which I have 
seen him sometimes pare the outside brown part 
off; he was also partial to mutton chops. He 
rarely drank as much as a pint of claret at his din* 
ner, which was generally much diluted with water. 
After dinner when the servants had withdrawn, 
and when there were no visitors, he sometimes 
played at chess or at whist, but more frequently 
sent for a volume of Corneille, or of some other 
esteemed author, and read aloud for an hour, or 
conversed with the ladies and the rest of his suite. 
He usually retired to his bed-room at ten or eleven, 
and to rest, immediately afterwards. When he 
breakfasted or dined in his own apartment, in the 
inner rooms, (dans rintdrieur), he sometimes sent 
for one of his suite to converse with him during 
the repast. He never ate more than two meals a 
day, nor, since I knew him, had he ever taken 
more than a very small cup of coffee after each re- 
past, and at no other time. I have also been in- 
formed by those who have been in his semce for 
fifteen years, that he had never exceeded that 
quantity since they first knew him. 

On the 14th of April, the Phaeton frigate. Cap- 
tain Stanfell, arrived from England, having on 

board LieatirGeneral Sir Hudson Lowe^ Lady 
Lowe, Sir Thomas Reade^ Deputy Adjt. General, 
Major Gorrequer, aid-d&-camp to Sir Hudson 
Lowe, Lieut.-colonel Lyster, inspector of militia. 
Major Emmet of the engineers, Mr. Baxter, deputy 
inspector of hospitals, Lieutenants Wortham and 
Jackson of the engineers and staff corps, and 
other officers. The following day, Sir Hudson 
Lowe landed and was installed as governor, with 
the customary forms. A message was then sent 
to Longwood that the new governor would visit 
Napoleon at nine o*clock on the following morn- 
ing. Accordingly, a little before that time. Sir 
Hudson Lowe arrived, in the midst of a pelting 
storm of rain and wind, accompanied by Sir 
George Cockbum, and followed by his numerous 
staff. As the hour fixed upon was rather unsea- 
sonable, and one, at which Napoleon had never 
received any person, intimation was given to the 
governor on his arrival, that Napoleon was indis- 
posed, and could not receive any visitors that 
morning. This appeared to disconcert Sir Hud- 
son Lowe, who, after pacing up and down be- 
fore the windows of the drawing-room for a few 
minutes, demanded at what time on the follow- 
ing day he could be introduced: two o'clock 
was fixed upon for the interview, at which time 
he arrived, accompanied as before by the admiral, 
and followed by his staff« They were at first 

2S: M^i/mem noM an HBidBNiu 

QfAiei^d into the dimng^room behind which waai 
the saloon, where they were to be received. A 
proposal was made by Sir George Cockbum 
to Sir Hudson Lowe, that the latter should be 
introduced by him, as being, in his opinion, the 
most official and proper manner of resigning to 
him the charge of the prisoner ; for which pur-^ 
pose. Sir George suggested, that they should en* 
ter the room together. This was acceded to by 
Sir Hudson Lowe. At the door of the di*awing 
room stood Novarre, one of the French valets, 
whose business it was to announce the namea 
of the persons introduced. After waiting a few 
minutes, the door was opened and the governor 
called for. As soon as the word Governor, was 
pronounced, Sir Hudson Lowe started up, and 
stepped forward so hastily, that he entered the 
room before Sir Greorge Cockbum was well ap- 
prised of it. The door was then closed, and 
when the admual presented himself, the valet^ 
not having heard his name called, told him that 
be could not enter. Sir Hudson Lowe remained 
about a quarter of an hour with Napoleon, during 
which time, the conversation was chiefly carried 
on in Italian, and subsequently the officers of his 
Btafl* were introduced. The admiral did not again 
apply for admittance. 

Qn the 18th I brought up some newspapers to 
Napoleoi^ who^ B&ex asking me some questions 


^conoeming^ the meeting of parliament^ inquired 
irho had lent the newspapers ? I replied^ that the 
fidmiral had lent them to me. Napoleon said, ^^ I 
believe that he was rather ill-treated the day be 
-came up with the new governor, what does he say 
abont it ?** I replied, " the admiral conceived it as 
^m insult offered to him, and certainly felt greatly 
offended at it. Some explanation has, however, 
been given by General Montholon upon the sub- 
ject." Napoleon said, "I shall never see him 
with pleasure, but he did not announce him- 
. self as being desirous of seeing me." I replied, 
^ he wished to introduce officially to you the 
new governor, and thought, that, as he was to act 
in that capacity, it was not necessary to be pre- 
viously announced." Napoleon answered, " He 
should have sent me word that he wanted to see 
me by Bertrand ; but," continued he, " he wished 
to embroil me with the new governor, and for that 
purpose persuaded him to come up here at nine 
o'clock in the morning, though he well knew that 
I never had received any persons, nor ever would, 
at that hour. It is a pity that a man who really 
has talents, for I believe him to be a very good 
officer in his own service, should have behaved in 
the manner he has done to me. It shews the 
greatest want of generosity to insult the unfor 
tunate ; because insulting those who are in youi 
power, and consequently cannot make any op 


position, is a certain sign of an ignoble mind.** 
I said, that I was perfectly convinced the whole 
was a mistake, that the admiral never had the 
smallest intention of insulting or embroiling him 
with the governor. He resumed, *' I, in my mis- 
fortunes, sought an asylum, and instead of that, 
1 have found contempt, ill-treatment, and in- 
sult. Shortly after I came on board of his ship, 
as I did not wish to sit at table for two or three 
hours, guzzling down wine to make myself drunk, 
I got up from table, and walked out upon deck. 
While I was going out, he said, in a contemp- 
tuous manner, * I believe the general has never 
read Lord Chesterfield ;* meaning, that I was 
deficient in politeness, and did not know how 
to conduct myself at table.** I endeavoured to 
^explain to him that the English, and above all, 
naval officers, were not in the habit of going 
through many forms, and that it was wholly un- 
intentional on the part of the admiral. " If," said 
he, *^ Sir George wanted to see Lord St. Vincent, 
or Lord Keith, would he not have sent before- 
hand, and asked, at what hour it might be con- 
venient to see him ; and should not I be treated 
with at least as much respect as either of them ? 
Putting out of the question that I have been a 
Crowned head, I think,** said he, laughing, " that 
the actions which I have performed, are at least 
as well known as any thing they have done.* I 


endeavoured again to excuse the admiral^ upon 
which he recalled to my mind, what he had just 
related about Lord Chesterfield^ and asked me 
" what could that mean T 

General Montholon came in at this moment 
with a translation of a paper sent by Sir Hudson 
Lowe, which the domestics, who were willing to 
remain, were required to sign ; it was accen>panied 
by a translation of the following letter ; — * 

Downing Street, lOth January, 1816. 

I have at present to let you know, that it is the 
pleasure of his Royal Highness the Prince Regent, 
that on your arrival at St. Helena, you should 
communicate to all the persons forming the suite 
of Napoleon Bonaparte, including the domestics, 
that they are at liberty to quit the island imme- 
diately to return to Europe ; adding, that none 
vnll be permitted to remain at St. Helena, unless 
those who shall give a written declaration, which 
shall be deposited in your hands, that it is their 
desire to remain in the island, and to participate 
in the restrictions which it is necessary to impose 
upon Napoleon Bonaparte personally. 

(Signed) Bathurst. 

• Those amongst them who shall determine to 
return to Europe, must be sent by the first fa- 

* The translation is given in Appendix No. 2. — The reader will 
not consider me accountable for the accuracy of the French sent from 
Plantation House to Longwood. 


Toorable occasion to the Cape of good Hope ; the 
governor of that colony wiU be charged to pro- 
vide those persons with the means of passage to 

(Signed) Bathurst. 

The tenor of the accompanying declaration, 
which the domestics were thus required to sign, 
was not approved of by Napoleon, who, moreover, 
pronounced it to be too literally translated to be 
easily comprehended by a Frenchman. He ac- 
cordingly desired Count Montholon to retire into 
the next room, where the following was substi- 
tuted: — ^^*Nous soussign6s, voulant continuer k 
rester au service de S. M. TEmpereur Napol^n, 
consentons, quelqu* affreux que soit le s^jour de 
Ste, Hd^ne, a y rester, nous soumettant aux re- 
strictionSj quoiqu'injustes et arbitraires, qu'on a 
impos^es k S. M. et aux personnes de son service."* 
— *^ There," said he, " let those who please sign 
that ; but do not attempt to influence them, either 
one way or the other" 

The demand made to the domestics to sign the 

* Trantlation^^-'We the undersigned^ desiring to remain in the 
service of the Emperor Napoleon, consent^ however frightful the abode 
in St, Helena may he, to remain there> submitting ourselves to the 
restrictions^ however unjust and arbitrary , which are imposed upon hij 
tai^estj^ and the persons in his service. 

(Here followed the signatures.) 


paper sent by Sir II. Lowe, had produced a wish 
for fntiher explanation amongst them ; and some 
who applied to Sir Thomas lleade for that pur- 
pose, received answers of a nature to inculcate a 
belief that those who signed it, would be com 
pelied to remain in the island during the life-time 
of Bonaparte. This, however, did not prevent 
any of them from signing the paper whicii was 
presented to them. 

I9th. — ^The weather has been extremely bad for 
some days, which has contributed, with other cir- 
cumstances, to make Napoleon a little dissatisfied. 
** In this accursed island {tsola maladetta)^ said he, 
" there is neither sun nor moon to be seen for the 
gi'eatest part of the year. Constant rain and fog, 
It is worse than Capri. Have you ever been at 
Capri ?" continued he. I replied in the affirmative. 
" There,** said he, " you can have cveiy thing you 
want from the continent in a few hours." He after- 
wards made a few remarks upon some absurd false- 
hoods which had been published in the ministerial 
papers respecting him ; and asked if it were " possi- 
ble that the English could be so foolishly credulous 
as to believe all the stuff we published about him.** 

21a/. — Captain Hamilton of the Havannah fri- 
gate had an audience with Napoleon in the garden. 
Napoleon told him, that when he (Napoleon) had 
arrived on the island, he had been asked what he 
desired to have ? He therefore begged of liim to 

Vol. I. p 


say that he desired his liberty^ or^ the executioner 
(le bourreau). That the English ministers had un- 
worthily violated the most sacred rights of hospi- 
tality towards him by declaring him a prisoner, 
which savages would not have done in the situation 
in which he stood. 

Colonel and Miss Wilks were to proceed to 
England in the Havannah. Before their departure, 
they came up to Longwood, and had a long inter- 
view with Napoleon. He was highly pleased with 
Miss Wilks, (a highly accomplished and elegant 
young lady,) and gallantly told her that ^* she ex- 
ceeded the description which had been given of 
her to him.** 

24th. — ^The weather still gloomy. Napoleon at 
first was out of spirits, but gradually became 
enlivened. Conversed much about the admiral, 
whom he professed to esteem as a man of talent in 
his profession. ^' He is not,** said he, " a man of 
a bad heart ; on the contrary, I believe him to be 
capable of a generous action; but he is rough, 
overbearing, vain, choleric, and capricious ; never 
consulting any body ; jealous of his authority ; 
caring little of the manner in which he exercises 
it, and sometimes violent without dignity.** 

He then made some observations about the bul- 
locks which had been brought from the Cape of 
Good Hope by the government, and amongst 
which a great mortality had taken place. "The 


admiral, said he, " ought to have contracted for 
them, instead of making them government pro- 
perty. It is well known that whatever belongs to 
a government is never taken any care of, and is 
plundered by every body. If he had contracted 
with some person, I will venture to say very few 
would have died, instead of a third, as has been 
the case.** He then asked me many questions 
about the relative price of articles in England and 
St. Helena, and concluded by inquiring if I took 
any fees for attending sick people on the island. 
I replied in the negative, which seemed to surprise 
him. " Corvisart,** said he, *^ notwithstanding his 
being my first physician, possessed of great wealth, 
and in the habit of receiving many rich presents 
from me, constantly took a Napoleon for each 
visit he paid to the sick. In your country par- 
ticularly every man has his trade : the member 
of parliament takes money for his vote, the mi- 
nisters for their places, the lawyers for their opi- 


26th. — ^Napoleon asked several questions relative 
to the ships which had been sent to approach the 
island. Was anxious to know if Lady Bingham, 
who had been expected for some time, had ar- 
rived. Observed how anxious Sir George Bing- 
ham must be about her. Asked me if the ship 
was furnished with a chronometer by government ; 
to which I replied in the negative. He observed 


that the vessel might very probably miss the 
island, through the want of one. ^' How shame- 
ful it is,** said he, "for your government to put 
three or four hundred men on board of a ship 
destined for this place without a chronometer, 
thereby running the risk of ship and cargo, of the 
value perhaps of half a million, together with the 
lives of so many poor devils, (poveri diavoli) for the 
sake of saving three or four hundred francs for a 
watch. I,** continued he, ordered that every ship 
employed in the French service should be supplied 
with one. It is a weakness in your government 
not to be accounted for." He then asked me if it 
were true that a court of inquiry was then holding 
upon some officer for having made too free with 
the bottle. " Is it a crime added he, " for the 
English to get drunk, and will a court-martial be 
the consequence ? for, if that were the case, you 
would have nothing but courts-martial every day. 

was a little merry on board every day after 

dinner." I observed that there was a wide differ- 
ence between being merry and getting drunk. 
He laughed and repeated what he had said rela- 
tive to courts-martial. " Is it true," said he then, 
'* that they are sending out a house and furniture 
for me, as there are so many lies in your news- 
papers, that I have my doubts, especially as I 
have heard nothing about it officially t I told him 
^hat Sir Hudson Lowe had assured me of the 


feet, and that Sir Thomas Reade professed to have 
seen both the house and the furniture. 

Many changes relative to the treatment of the 
French have taken place since Sir Hudson ar- 
rived. Mr. Brooke, the colonial secretary, Major 
Gorrequer, Sir Hudson's aid-de-camp, and other 
official persons went round to the different shop- 
keepers in the town, ordering them, in the name 
of the governor, not to give credit to any of the 
French, or to sell them any article, unless for 
ready money, under pain of not only losing the 
amount of the sum so credited, but of suffering 
such other punishment as the governor might think 
proper to award. They were further directed to 
hold no communication whatsoever with them, 
without special permission from the governor, 
under pain of being turned off the island. 

Many of the officers of the 53d, who were in the 
habit of calling to see Madame Bertrand at Hut*8 
Gate, received hints that their visits were not 
pleasing to the authorities lately arrived ; and the 
officer of the Hut's Gate guard was ordered to 
report the names of all persons entering Ber- 
trantfs house. Sentinels were placed in different 
directions to prevent the approach of visitors, se- 
veral of whom, including some ladies, were turned 
back. A sensation of unwillingness, or rather 
fear, to approach the exiles, very different from 
the feeling which existed a few days ago, appeared 


to be pretty general amongst the inhabitants^ and 
even amongst the military and naval officers. The 
governor was very minute in his inquiries to those 
persons who had formerly conversed with Napo- 
leon, or any of his suite. Several of the officers 
of the 53d went to Hut*s Gate to take leave of 
Countess Bertrand, (to use their own words,) as 
they declared the impossibility there was for men 
of honour to comply with the new regulations. It 
was expected and required that all persons who 
visited at Hut's Gate, or at Longwood,* should 
make a report to the governor or to Sir Thomas 
Reade of the conversations they had held with the 
French. Several additional sentinels were placed 
around Longwood House and grounds. 

May 3rd. — ^The weather has been extremely wet 
and foggy, with high wind for several days, during 
which time Napoleon did not stir out of doors^ 
Messengers and letters continually arrived from 
Plantation House. TTie governor was apparently 
very anxious to see Napoleon, and seemingly dis- 
trustful, although the i-esidents of Longwood were 
assured of his actual presence by the sound of 
his voice. He had some communications with 
Count Bertrand relative to the necessity which he 
said there was, that some of his officers should 
see Napoleon daily. He also came to Longwood 
frequently himself, and, finally, after some diffi- 
culty, succeeded in obtaining an interview with 


Napoleon in his bed-chamber, which lasted about 
a quarter of an hour. Some days before, he sent 
for me, asked a variety of questions concerning 
the captive, walked round the house several times, 
and before the windows, measuring and laying 
down the plan of a new ditch, which he said he 
would have dug, in order to prevent the cattle 
from trespassing. On his arrival at the angle, 
formed by the union of two of the old ditches, he 
observed a tree, the branches of which consider- 
ably overhung it. This appeared to excite consi- 
derable alarm in his excellency's breast, as he de- 
sired me to send instantly for Mr. Porteous, the 
superintendent of the company's gardens. Some 
minutes having elapsed after I had despatched a 
messenger for that gentleman, the governor, who 
had his eyes continually fixed upon the tree, de- 
sired me, in a hasty manner, to go and fetch Mr. 
Porteous instantly myself. On my return with 
him, I found Sir Hudson Lowe walking up and 
down, contemplating the object which appeared 
to be such a source of alarm. In a hurried man- 
ner, he ordered Mr. Porteous to send some men 
instantly to have the tree grubbed up, and before 
leaving the ground, directed me in an undertone 
to " see that it was done." 

On the 4th, Sir Hudson Lowe went to see 
Count Bertrand, with whom he had an hour's 
conversation, which did not appear to be of a 


nature very pleasing to him, as, on retiring, he 
mounted his horse, muttering something, and 
evidently out of humour. Shortly afterwards, I 
learned the purport of liis visit. He commenced 
by saying, that the French made a great many 
complaints without any reason ; that, considering 
their situations, they were very well treated, and 
ought to be thankful, instead of making any com- 
plaints. It appeared to him, however, that in- 
stead of being so, they abused the libenxl treat- 
ment which was practised towards them. That 
he was determined to assure himself of General 
Bonaparte's actual presence daily, by the obser- 
vation of an officer appointed by him, and that 
this officer should visit him, at fixed hours, for 
such pui-pose. During the whole of it, he spoke 
in a very authoritative and indeed contemptuous 
manner, frequently referring to the great powers 
with which he was invested. 

6th. — ^Napoleon sent Marchand for me at about 
nine o'clock. Was introduced by the back-door 
into his bed-room, a description of which I shall 
endeavour to give as minutely and as correctly 
as possible. It was about fourteen feet by twelve, 
and ten or eleven feet in height. The walls were 
lined with brown nankeen, bordered and edged 
with common green bordering paper, and desti- 
tute of surbace. Two small windows, without 
pullles^ looking towards the camp of the 53d re- 


gixnent, one of which was thrown up and fastened 
, Irjr a piece of notched wood. Window-curtains 
of white long cloth, a small fire-place, a shabby 
grate, and fire-irons to match, with a paltry man* 
tailpiece . of wood, painted white, upon which 
stood a small marble bust of his son. Above the 
mantel-piece hung the portrait of Marie Louise, 
and four or five of young Napoleon, one of which 
was embroidered by the hands of the mother. A 
little more to the right hung also a miniature 
picture of the Empress Josephine, and to the left 
was suspended the alarm chamber-watch of Fre- 
deric the Great, obtained by Napoleon at Pots- 
dam ; while on the right, the consular watch, en- 
graved with the cypher B, hung by a chain of the 
plaited hair of Marie Louise, from a pin stuck in 
the nankeen lining. The floor was covered with a 
second-hand carpet, which had once decorated the 
dining-room of a lieutenant of the St. Helena artil- 
lery. In the right-hand corner was placed the 
little plain iron camp-bedstead, with green silk 
curtains, upon which its master had reposed on the 
fields of Marengo and Austerlitz. Between the 
windows there was a paltry second-hand chest 
of drawers : and an old book-case with green 
blinds, stood on the left of the door leading to 
the next apartment. Four or five cane-bottomed 
chairs painted green were standing here and there 
about the room. Before the back-door, there was 

VOL. I. G 


a screen covered with nankeen, and between that 
and the fire-place, an old-fashioned sofa covered , 
with white long cloth, upon which reclined Napo- 
leon, clothed in his white morning gown, white 
loose trowsers and stockings all in one. A che- 
quered red madras upon his head, and his shirt 
collar open without a cravat. His air was melan* 
choly and troubled. Before him stood a little round 
table, with some books, at the foot of which lay, 
in confusion upon the carpet, a heap of those which 
he had already perused, and at the foot of the sofa, 
facing him, was suspended a portrait of the Em- 
press Marie Louise, with her son in her arms. In 
front of the fire-place stood Las Cases with his 
arms folded over his breast, and some papers in 
one of his hands. Of all the former magnificence 
of the once mighty emperor of France, nothing 
was present except a superb wash-hand stand, con- 
taining a silver basin, and water-jug of the same 
metal, in the left hand corner. 

Napoleon, after a few questions of no impor- 
tance, asked me in both French and Italian in the 
presence of Count Las Cases, the following ques- 
tions : — ^^ You know that it was in consequence 
of my application that you were appointed to at- 
tend upon me. Now I want to know from you 
precisely and truly, as a man of honour, in what 
rituation you conceive yourself to be, whether as 
my surgeon^ as M. Maingaud was, or the sui^geon 


of a prison-ship and prisoners ? Whether you have 
orders to report every trifling occurrence, or ill- 
nesSy or what I say to you, to the governor ? 
Answer me candidly ; What situation do you con< 
ceive yourself to be in ?" I replied, " As your sur- 
geon, and to attend upon you and your suite. I have 
received no other orders than to make an imme* 
diate report in case of your being taken seriously 
ill, in order to have promptly the advice and as- 
sistance of other physicians."* '^ First obtaining 
my consent to call in others," demanded he, ^^is 
it not soT I answered, that I would certainly 
obtain his previous consent. He then said, *^iS 
you were appointed as surgeon to a prison, and 
to report my conversations to the governor, whom 
I take to be, the head of the spies, (tm capo di spia- 
ni) I would never see you again. Do not,** conti- 
nued he, (on my replying that I was placed about 
him as a surgeon, and by no means as a spy^) '^ sup- 
pose that I take you for a spy ; on the contrary, I 
have never had the least occasion to find fault with 
you, and I have a friendship for you and an esteem 
for your character, a greater proof of which I could 
not give you than asking you candidly your own 
opinion of your situation ; as you being an English- 
man, and paid by the EngUsh government, might 
perhaps be obliged to do what I have asked." I 
replied as before, and that in my professional ca- 
pacity I did not consider myself to belong to any 


particular country. ^^ If I am taken seriously ill," 
said he, " then acquaint me with your opinion, and 
ask my consent to call in others. This governor, 
during the few days that I was melancholy, and 
had a mental affliction in consequence of the treat- 
ment I receive, which prevented me from going 
out, in order that I might not weary {ennvyer) 
others with my afflictions, wanted to send his physi- 
cian to me under the pretext of enquiring after my 
health. I desired Bertrand to tell him that I had 
not sufficient confidence in his physician to take 
any thing from his hands. That if I were ideally 
ill, I would send for you, in whom I have confi- 
dence, but that a physician was of no use in such 
cases, and that I only wanted to be left alone. I 
undei-stand that he proposed an officer should enter 
my chamber to see me, if I did not stir out. Any 
person," continued he, with much emotion, "who 
endeavours to force his way into my apartment, 
shall be a corpse the moment he enters it. If he 
ever eats bread or meat again, I am not Napoleon. 
ITiis I am determined on ; I know that I shall be 
killed afterwards, as what can one do against a 
camp ? I have faced death too many times to feai 
it. Besides, I am convinced that this governor has 

been sent out by Lord — I told him a few 

days ago, that if he wanted to put an end to me^ 
he would have a very good opportunity by sending 
somebody to force his way into my chamber. That 

A ' ▼OlCfi : FROM ST. ) HBLENA^ 45 

I woiild immediately ipake a corpse of the first 
that entered^ aiul then I should be of course des- 
patched^ and he might write home to his govern - 
ment that ^Bonaparte' was killed in a brawl. I 
also tpld him to leave me alone, and not to torment 
me with his hateful presence* I have seen Prussians, 
Tartars, Cossacs, Calihucks, &c. but never before in 
my life have I beheld so ill favoured, and so for- 
bidding a countenance. He carries the im- 
pressed upon his face. (II porte le empreint 

sur son visage.^) 

I endeavoured to convince him that the English 
ministry would never be capable of what he sup- 
posedj and that such was not the character of the 
nation. ^ I had reason to complain of the admiral," 
said he : '^ but, though he treated me roughly, he 
never behaved in such a manner as this Prussian. 
A few days ago, he in a manner insisted upon see- 
ing me, when I was undressed in my chamber, and 
a prey to melancholy. The admiral never asked 
to see me a second time, when it was intimated to 
him that I was unwell or undressed ; as he well 
knew, that although I did not go out, I was still 
to be found." 

After this, he mentioned his apprehensions of 
being afflicted with an attack of gout. I recom- 
mended him to take much more exercise. *^ What 
can I do,** replied he, *^ in this execrable isle, 
where you cannot ride a mile without being wet 



through: an island that even the English them- 
selves complain of^ though used to humidity IT 
He concluded by making some severe remarks 
upon the governor's conduct, in having sent his 
aid-de-camp and secretary round the shops, for- 
bidding the shopkeepers to give the French cre- 
dit, under pain of severe punishment. 

Qth. — Had some conversation with Napoleon 
upon the i^ame subject as yesterday, which com- 
menced by my submitting to him, that according 
to the strict letter of the conversation of yesterday, 
it would be impossible for me to reply to any ques- 
tion addressed to me relative to him or to his af- 
fairs, whether made by the governor or any one 
else, which he must be aware, was, in my situation, 
impossible. Moreover, that I had been, from the 
time of my arrival, and was then, frequently em- 
ployed as a medium of communication to the au- 
thorities of the island, which I hoped I had executed 
to his satisfaction. He replied, "Are you to be my 
surgeon, or surgeon of a galley {d^une galSre) ; and 
are you expected to report what you observe or 
hear ?" I answered, " I am your surgeon, and 
not a spy, and one in whom I hope you may place 
confidence ; I am not surgeon of a galley, {(Tune 
galere) nor do I consider it imperative on me to 
report any thing which is not contrary to my alle- 
giance as a British officer, &c.** I also endeavoured 
to explain, that I would regulate my conduct with 


reelect to his conversations by the rules which 
existed to ttiat effect amongst gentlemen^ (galantuo^ 
mini) and as I would do^ were I attached in a similar 
capacity to an English nobleman ; but that total si- 
lence was out of my power, if he wished me to pre- 
serve any commimication with the governor or with 
any other English persons on the island. He replied^ 
that all he wanted of me was to act as a gentleman^ 
{gakmtuomo) and ^' as you would do were you sur- 
geon to Lord St. Vincent. I do not mean to bind you 
to sUence^ or to prevent you from repeating any idle 
chat {bavardage) you may hear me say; but I want 
to prevent you from allowing yourself to be cajoled 
and made a spy of^ unintentionally on your part, 
by this governor. After that to your God, your 
duty is to be paid to your own country andt sove- 
reign, and your next, to your patients.* 

" During the short interview that this governor 
had with me in my bed-chamber,** continued he, 
**one of the first things which he proposed was 
to send you away, and to take his own surgeon in 
your place. This he repeated twice ; and so ear- 
nest was he to gain his object, that although I 
gave him a most decided refusal, when he was 
going out he turned about and again proposed it- 
I never saw such a horrid countenance. He sat 
on a chair opposite to my sofa, and on the little 
table between us there was a cup of coffee. His 
physiognomy made such an unfavourable impres- 


sion upon me, that I thought his looks ^ had poi* 
soned it, and I ordered Marchand to throw it out 
of the window ; I could not have swallowed it for 
the world.** 

Count Las Cases, who entered Napoleon's room 
a few minutes after the departure of the governor, 
told me, that the emperor had said to him,— 
*' Mon Dieu ! cest une figure hien sinistrey fose i 
peine le dire, mats c'est a ne pas prendre une tasse 
de cafiySil Had dimeuri un instant seul aupfdsr* 

I2th. — A proclamation was issued yesterday by 
Sir Hudson Lowe, prohibiting ^* any person from 
receiving or being the bearer of any letters or com- 
nmnications from General Bonaparte, the officers of 
his suite, his followers or servants, of any descrip- 
tion, dr to deliver any to them, under pain of being 
arrested immediately and dealt with accordingly.** 

I4th. — Saw Napoleon in his di-essing-room ; 
he complained of being affected with catarrhal 
symptoms, the cause of which I attributed to his 
having walked out in the wet with very thin shoes, 
and recommended him to wear galoches, which he 
ordered Marchand to provide. " I have promised,** 
added he, " to see a number of people to-day ; 
and, though I am indisposed, I shall do so.** Just 
at this moment some of the visitors came close to 
the window of his dressing-room, which was open^ 

* My God ! what a rascally countenance^ I regret to say 80> but it 
would prevent me from taking a cup of coffee^ if lie had been near it 
but for an instant. 


tried to put aside the curtain and peep in. Na- 
poleon drat the Mrindow, asked some questions 
abont Lady Moira, and observed, * The governor 
sent an invitation to Bertrand for General Bona- 
parte to come to Plantation House to meet Liady 
Moira. I told Bertrand to return no answer to it. 
If he really wanted me to see her, he would have 
pot Plantation House in the limits ; but to send 
sach an invitation knowing that I must go in 
charge of a guard if I wished to avail myself of 
it, was an insult. Had he sent word that Lady 
Moira was sick, fatigued, or pregnant, I would 
have gone to see her ; although I think, that under 
an the circumstances, she might have come to see 
mCy or Madame Bertrand, or Montholon, as she was 
free and unshackled. TTie first sovereigns in the 
world have not been ashamed to pay me a visit.** 

**It appears,** added he, " that this governor 
was with Blucher, and is the writer of some offi- 
cial letters to your government, descriptive of part 
of the operations of 1814. I pointed them out to 
him the last time I saw him, and asked him. Is it 
you. Sir {Est-ce vous Monsieur) ? He replied, 
* Yes.* I told him that they were full of lies, and 
of nonsense (pleines de/atisset^s et de sottises). He 
shrugged up his shoulders, appeared confused, and 
replied, I anticipated seeing that {J'ai cru voir cela). 
If,* continued he, " those letters were the only ao- 
counts he sent, he betrayed his country.** 

VOL. I. H 


Count Bertrand came in^ and announced that 
several persons had arrived to see him, besides 
those who had received appointments for the day. 
Amongst other names, that of Arbuthnot was 
mentioned. Napoleon asked me who he was. I 
answered, that I believed him to be brother to the 
person who had been ambassador at Constanti- 
nople. " Ah, yes, yes,** said Napoleon with a sly 
smile. " when Sebastian! was there. You may say 
that I shall receive them.** 

^ Have you conversed much with the governor's 
physician ?" said Napoleon. I replied in the aflSr- 
mative, adding, that he was the chief of the medi- 
cal staff, but • not attached to the governor as his 
body physician. " What sort of a man is he — does 
he look like an honest man, or a man of talent ?** I 
replied, that his appeai'ance was very much in his 
favour, and that he was considered to be a man of 
talent and of science. 

16th. — Sir Hudson Lowe had an inter^aew of 
about half an hour with Napoleon, which did not 
appear to be satisfactory. Saw Napoleon walking 
in the garden, in a very thoughtful manner a few 
minutes subsequent to the governor's departure, 
and gave to him the Dictionary of the Weather- 
cocks {Dictionnaire des Crirouettes), and a few news- 
papers. After he had asked me from whom I had 
procured them, he said, ^^ Here has been this jack- 
anapes to torment me (viso di hoja a tormentarmi). 


Tell him that I never want to see him, and that I 
wish he may not come again to annoy me with his 
hateful presence. I^et him never again come near 
me, unless it is with orders to despatch me ; he will 
then find my breast ready for the blow ; but until 
then, let me be free of his odious countenance ; I 
cannot accustom myself to it."* 

17th. — Napoleon in very good spirits. De- 
manded what the news was. I informed him that 
the ladies he had received a few days before were 
highly delighted with his manners, especially as 
from what they had read and heard, they had been 
prepossessed with opinions of a very different na- 
ture. ^^AlC said he, laughing, ^^I suppose that 
they imagined I was some ferocious homed ani- 

Some conversation occurred touching what Sir 
Robert Wilson had written respecting him about 
Jaffa, Captain Wright &c. I observed, that as 
those assertions had never been fully contradicted, 
they were believed by numbers of English. " Bah," 
replied Napoleon, " those calumnies will fall of 
themselves, especially now that there are so many 
English in France, who will soon find out that 
they are all falsehoods. Were Wilson himself not 
convinced of the untruth of the statements which 
he had once believed, do you think that he would 
have assisted Lavalette to escape out of prison ?** 

19th. — ^Napoleon in very good humour. Told 


him that the late governor of Java, Mr. Raffled^ 
and his staffs had arrived on their way to England, 
and were very desirous of having the honour of 
paying their respects to him. ^^ What kind oi a 
man is the govemerT I replied^ Mr. Uimston 
informed me^ that he is a very worthy man {un bra^ 
vissimo uomo) ; and possessed of great leai'ning and 
talents. ** Well then," said he, " I shall see them 
in two or three hours when I am dressed."" 

•*Thi8 governor,** said he, *Ms a fool {e un emhe^ 
cille). He asked Bertrand the other day, if he 
(Bertrand) ever had asked any of the passengers 
bound to England, whether they intended to go to 
France, as, if he had done so, he must not continue 
such a pi'actice. Bertrand replied, that he certain- 
ly had, and moreover had begged of some to tell 
his relations that they were in good health. ^But/ 
says this imbecile, ' you must not do so.' * Why,"* 
says Bertrand, * has not your government permit* 
ted me to write as many lettere as I like, and can 
any government deny me the liber%; of speaking ? 
Bertrand,**. continued he •* ought to have replied, 
that galley-slaves and prisoners under sentence 
of death were permitted to inquire after their 
relations.** He then observed how unnecessary 
and vexatious it was to require that an officer 
should accompany him, should he be desirous 
of visiting the interior of the island. '* It is all 
right,* continued he, '^ to keep me away from the 


town and the searfiide. I would never desire to 
approach either the one or the other. All that is 
necessary for my security, is to guanl well the 
searhorders of this rock. Let him pUiee his 
picquets round the island close by the sea and 
in communication with each other, which he 
might easily do, with the number of men he has, 
and it would be impossible for me to escape. 
Cannot he moreover put a few horsemen in mo- 
tion when he knows I am going out ? Cannot he 
place them on the hills, or where he likes, with- 
out letting me know any thing about it, / will 
never appear to ^ee them. Cannot he do this, 
^thout obliging me to tell Poppleton that I want 
to ride out — ^not that I have any objection to Pop- 
pleton — ^I k>ve a good scddier of any nation ; but 
I will not do any thing which may lead people to 
imagine that I am a prisoner — I have been forced 
here contrary., to the law of nations and I will 
never recognise their right in detaining me« My 
asking an officer to accompany me would be a 
tacit acknowledgement of it. I have no intention 
to attempt an escape, although I have not given 
my word of honour not to try. Neither will I ever 
give it, as that would be acknowledging myself a 
prisoner which I will never do. Cannot they im- 
pose additional restrictions when ships arrive ; 
and above all, not allow any ship to sail until my 
Bctaal presence is ascertained^ without inflicting 


fiuch useless, and because useless^ vexatious re- 
strictions. It is necessary for my health that I 
should ride seven or eight leagues daily, but I 
will not do so with an officer, or a guard over me. 
It has always been my maxim, that a man shews 
more real courage in supporting and resisting 
the calamities and misfortunes which befal him^ 
than by making away with himself. That is the 
action of a losing gamester, or a ruined spend- 
thrift, and is a want of courage, instead of a proof 
of it. Your government will be mistaken, if they 
imagine, that, by seeking every means to annoy 
me, such as sending me here depriving n>e of aU 
communication with my nearest and dearest rela- 
tives, so that I am ignorant if one of my blood 
exists, isolating me from the world, imposing 
useless and vexatious restrictions which are daily 
getting worse, sending the dregs of society {les 
f4ces des homines) as keepers, they will weary out 
my patience, and induce me to commit suicide. 
They are mistaken. Even if I ever bad entertain- 
ed a thought of the kind, the idea of the gratifi- 
cation it would afford to them, would prevent me 
from completing it." 

^* That palace,' said he, laughing, " which they 
say they have sent out for me, is so much money 
thrown into the sea. I would rather that they had 
sent me four hundred volumes of books, than all 
their furniture and houses. In the first place it 



will require some years to build it^ and before 
that time I shall be no more. ' All must be done 
by the labour of those poor soldiers and sailors. 
I do not wish it, I do not wish to incur the hatred 
of those poor fellows, who are already sufficiently 
miserable by having been sent to this detestable 
place, and harrassed in the manner they are. 
They will load me Math execrations, supposing 
me to be the author of all their hardships, and 
perhaps may wish to put an end f o me/* I ob- 
served, that no English soldier would become 
an assassin. He interrupted me, by saying, ^^ I 
have no reason to complain of the English sol- 
diers or sailors ; on the contrary, they treat me 
with every respect, and even appear to feel for 

He then spoke of some English officers. 
"Moore,** said he, "was a brave soldier, an ex- 
cellent officer, and a man of talent. He made a 
few mistakes, which were probably inseparable 
from the difficulties with which he was surround- 
ed, and caused perhaps by his information having 
misled him,** This eulogiura he repeated more 
than once ; and observed, that be had commanded 
the reserve in Egypt, where he had behaved 
very well, and displayed talent. I remarked, 
that Moore was always in front of the battle, and 
was generally unfortunate enough to be wounded. 
^ Ah !** said he, " It is necessary sometimes. He 


died gkHionsly — he died like a soldier. Menou 
was a maa of courage, but no soldier. You ought 
not to have taken Egypt. If Kleber had lived, 
you would never have conquered it. An army 
without artillery or cavalry. The Turks signified 
nothing. Kleber was an irreparable loss to France 
and to me. He was a man of the brightest talents 
and the greatest bravery. I have composed the 
history of my own campaigns in Egypt, and of 
yours, while I was at the Briars. But I want the 
Moniteurs for the dates." 

The conversation then turned upon French 
naval officers. " Villeneuve,'* said he, " when 
taken prisoner and brought to England, was so 
much grieved at his defeat, that he studied ana- 
tomy that he might destroy himself. For this 
purpose he bought some anatomical plates of 
the heart, and compared them with his own 
body, in order to ascertain the exact situation of 
that organ. On his arrival in France, I ordered 
that he should remain at Rennes, and not pro- 
ceed to Paris. Villeneuve afraid of being tried 
by a court martial for disobedience of orders and 
consequently losing the fleet, for I had ordered 
him not to sml, or to engage the English, deter- 
mined to destroy himself, and accordingly took 
his plates of the heart, and compared them with 
his breast. Exactly in the centre of the plate, 
be made a mark with a large pin, then fixed 


the pin as near as lie conld judge inihe same spot 
in bis own breast, shoved it in to the head^ pe- 
netrated his heart, and expired. When the room 
was opened, he was foiind dead ; the pin in his 
breast,. and a mark in the plate corresponding with 
the wound in his breast. He need not have done 
it,** continued he, ^^as he was a brave man, though 
possessed of no talent.** 

^ fiarr^,** said be, ^^ whom you took in the Rivoli, 
was a very brave and good officer. When I went 
to Egypt I gave directions, after I had disembarked 
and had taken Alexandria in a few hours, to sound 
for a passage for the fleet. A Venetian sixty-four 
(and a fifty-igun ship I think he said) got in^ which I 
suppose you have seen there, but it was reported 
that the large ships of the line could not. I ordered 
Barr6 to sound. He reported to me that there was 
a sufficiency of water in one part of the channel. 
Bnieys, on the contrary, said there was not enough 
of water for the eighty-gun ships. Barr6 insisted 
that there was. In the mean time I had advanced 
into the country after the Mamelukes. All com* 
munication with the army from the town by mes- 
sengers, was cut off by the Bedouins, who took, 
or killed them all. My orders did not arrive^ or 
I would have obliged Brueys to enter; for you 
must know that I had the command of the fleet 
as well as of the army. In the mean time, Nelson 
came and destroyed Brueys and his fleet. By 

VOL. T. I 


what I have learned from you^ I see that Barr^ was 
right, as you saw the Tigre and Canopus enter.** 

After this, he made some observations upon the 
island. " Such," said he, *^ is the deplorable state 
of this rock, that the absence of actual want or 
starvation is considered as a great blessing. Point- 
kowski went down to Robinson's, the other" day, 
where they said to him, * Oh, how happy you must 
be to have fresh meat every day to dinner. Oh, if 
we could enjoy that, how happy should we be." 
Is this a place," continued he, " fit for any person 
who has been accustomed to live amongst human 
beings ?" 

28th. — ^Napoleon asked me if I had not had a 
very large party to dinner yesterday. I replied, 
*^ a few." ** How many of you were drunk ?" I said, 
• none." ** Bah, bah ; what, none ? Why they 
could not have done any honour to your enter 
tainment. Was not Captain Ross a little gay?* 
I replied, " Captain Ross is always gay." He 
laughed at this, and said, " Ross is a very fine fel- 
low (un bravissimo turnioj, and the ship's company 
are very happy in having such a captain. I saw," 
said he, " that poor clergyman, Jones.* They 
have used that poor man most cruelly in depriving 
him of his employment. For the sake of his fa- 
mily, if not for himself, they ought not to have 

* Mr. Jonei had been a tutor to Mr. Balcombe's childrtn doriog 
Napoieon'a reddenoe at the Briars. 


superseded him. He is a good man^ is he not r 
I replied, that he was a man of good heart, but 
that he was accused of being too fond of meddling 
with what did not concern him. 

I told him, that news had arrived that the Queen 
of Portugal was dead, and also, that a French fri- 
gate had arrived at Rio Janeiro to demand one of 
the king's daughters in marriage for the Due de 
Berri. " The queen," said he, ** has been mad for 
a long time, and the daughters are all ugly." 

29th. — ^A ship arrived from England ; went to 
town ; saw the governor, and on my return went 
to Napoleon, who was playing at nine pins with 
his generals in his garden. I told him (by desire 
of the governor) that a bill concerning him had 
been brought into parliament, to enable ministers 
to detain him in St. Helena, and to provide the ne- 
cessary sums of money for his maintenance. He 
asked if it had met with opposition ? I replied, 
" scarcely any." ** Brougham or Burdett," said 
he, " did they make any ?" I replied, '* I have not 
seen the papers, but I believe that Mr. Brougham 
said something.** Gave him some French news- 
papers, which the admiral had given me before he 
had read them himself. "Who gave you those 
papers ?" " The admiral." " What, for me ?" 
(with some surprise). " He told me to give them 
to Bertrand, but in reality they were intended for 
you.** After some conversation, he desired me to 


endeavonr to procure the Morning Chi*onicle, tlie 
Globe, or any of the oppo^tion or neutml pa^ 

June 1th. — ^Breakfasted with Napoleon in the 
garden. Had a long medical argument with him, 
in which he maintained, that his pi*actice in case 
of malady, viz. to eat nothing, drink plenty of 
barley-water and no wine, and ride for seven or 
eight leagues to promote perspiration, was much 
better than mine. 

Some conversation took place about the mode 
of solemnizing marriage, in which I said, that in 
England, when a protestant and catholic were 
married, it was necessary that the ceremony 
should be performed, first by a protestant cler- 
gyman, and afterwards by a Roman Catholic 
priest. '* That is wrong,** said he ^ marriage 
ought to be a civil contract ; and on the parties 
going before a magistrate in the presence of wit- 
nesses, and entering into an engagement, they 
should be considered as man and wife. This is 
what I caused to be done in France. If they 
wished it, they might go to the church after- 
wards and get a priest to repeat the ceremony ; 
but this ought not to be considered as indispens- 
able. It was always my maxim that those reli- 
gious ceremonies should never be above the laws, 
take the lead or upper band {prendre lessor). I also 
tordained, that Marriages, contracted by French aub* 


)ect8 in foreign countries when performed accord- 
ing to the laws of those countries^ should be valid 
OQihe return of the parties to France." 
' 15/A.— ^Napoleon at breakfast in bis bath> a little 
sliding table was put over the bath^ up<m which tlie 
dishes were placed. I told him that Warden had 
found! a book beloxi^g to him^ which was sup* 
posed: to have been lost on board of the Northum- 
berland. '* Ah I Warden, that worthy fellow (ce 
Ifrave /tomme), how is he ? Why does he not come 
wdsQe me-r-I shall be glad to see him ? How is 
the chief of the medical staflf {mddecin en chef?^ I 
saidihat he would fee) highly honoured by being- 
presented to him, if he would consent to see him 
as ft private person, and not as a physician. ^^ As 
you say that he is a worthy man (tm galantuomo)^ I 
shall see him ; you may introduce him to me in the 
garden any day you like. Have you seen Miledi 
Lowe ; I have been told that she is a gi*acefiil and 
a fine woman."* I replied, that I had heard so, and 
also that she was very lively. *^ It is a pity," said 
he, " that she cannot bestow a portion of her wit 
and grace upon her husband : as, for a public cha- 
racter, I never saw a man so deficient in both.** He 
asked me a number of questions about London, of 
which I had lent him a history, which had been 
made a present to me by Captain Ross. He ap- 
peared to be well acquainted with the contents of 
the bo<^ though he had not had it in his posses- 


sion many days ; described the plates, and tried to 
repeat several of the cries, — said that if he had been 
king of England he would have made a grand 
street on each side of the Thames, and another 
from St. Paul's to the river. The conversation af- 
terwurds turned upon the manner of living in 
France and England. ** Which eats the most," 
said he, " the Frenchman or the Englishman ?" I 
said, " I think the Frenchman.** *^ I don't believe 
it,** said Napoleon. I replied, that the French, 
though they nominally make but two meals a day, 
really have four. " Only two," said he. I replied, 
*' they take something at nine in the morning, at 
eleven, at four, and at seven or eight in the even- 
ing.'* " I,** said he, *' never eat more than twice 
daily. You English always eat four or five times 
a day. Your cookery is more healthy than ours. 
Your soup is, however, very bad : nothing but 
bread, pepper, and water. You drink an enormous 
quantity of Mdne.** I said, not so much as is sup- 
posed by the French. " Why,** replied he, '* Point- 
kowski, who dines sometimes in camp with the 
officers of the 53rd, says that they drink by the 
hour ; that after the cloth is removed, they pay so 
much an hour and drink as much as they Uke, 
which sometimes lasts until four o'clock in the 
morning.** I said, "So far from the truth, is it, 
that some of the officers do not drink wine more 
than twice a week, and that on days in which 


strangers are permitted to be invited. There is a 
third of a bottle put on for each member who drinks 
wine^ and when that is exhausted, another third is 
put on^ and so on. Members only pay in propor- 
tion to what they drink.** He appeared surprised 
with this explanation, and observed how easily 
a stranger, having only an imperfect knowledge 
of the language, was led to give a wrong inter- 
pretation to the customs and actions of other nsr 

17 th. — Told Napoleon that the Newcastle fri- 
gate was in sight, with the new admiral. He de* 
sired me to fetch my glass, and point her out to 
him. Found him on my return on his way to the 
stables. Pointed out the vessel beating up to 
windward. Shortly afterwards. Warden came up, 
and Napoleon invited me to breakfast with him, 
and to bring Warden and Lieutenant Blood with 
me. At breakfast, some conversation took place 
about the Abb^ de Pradt, &c. ; and about some of 
the absurd falsehoods detailed in the Quarterly 
Review, respecting his conduct while at the Briars, 
were repeated to him. — ^** That will amuse the pub- 
lic, — (Cela amusera le public^'' replied Napoleon. 
Warden observed that all Europe was very anxious 
to know his opinion of Lord Wellington as a gene- 
ral. To this he made no reply, and the question 
was not repeated. 

Three commissioners arrived in the Newcastle : 


Count Balmaine for Russia; Baron Sturmer for 
Austria, accompanied by the Baroness^ his wif^; 
: Marquis Montchenu for France ; with Captain 
Gor^ his aid-de-camp. An Austrian botanist also 
accompanied Baron Sturmer. 

I8th. — ^Told Napoleon that I had been to town, 
and that the commissioners for Russia, France, 
and Austria had arrived. "Have you seen any 
of them ?" " Yes, I saw the French commis- 
sioner." ** What sort of a man is he Y" *^ He is 
an old emigrant, named the Marquis of Mont- 
chenu, extremely fond of talking; but his looks 
are not against him. ^Vhile I was standing in a 
group of officers on the terrace opposite the ad- 
miral*s house, he came out, and addressing him- 
, self to me, said in French, * if you or any of you 
speak French, for the love of God make it known 
to me, for I do not speak a word of English. I 
.have arrived here to finish my days amongst those 
rocks (pointing to Ladder Hill), and I cannot 
speak a word of the language.* " Napoleon laugh* 
ed very heartily at this, and repeated, '^chatter- 
box, fool, {bavard^ imbecille^y several times. 
/VWhat folly it is," said he, "to send those commis- 
sioners out here. Without charge or respond- 
bUity, they will have nothing to do but to 
walk about the streets and creep up the 
rocks. The Prussian government has display- 
ed more judgment and saved its money,** I 


fold him that Drouot had been acquitted^ which 
pleased him much. Of Drouots talents and vir- 
tues he spoke in the highest terms^ and obseryed^ 
that by the laws of France he could not be pu- 
nished for his conduct. 

20M. — Rear-admiral Sir Pulteney Malcolm^ 
Captain Meynel (the flag->captain), and some other 
naval officers^ were presented to Napoleon. 

21 St. — Saw Napoleon walking in the garden, 
and went down towards him with a book that I 
had procured for him. After he had made some 
inquiries about the health of Mrs. Kerie, a re- 
spectable old lady whom I visited, he smd that 
he had seen the new admiral. '^Ah, there is a 
man with a countenance really pleasing, open, in- 
telligent, frank, and sincere. There is the face of 
an Englishman. His countenance bespeaks his 
heart, and I am sure he is a good man : I never 
yet beheld a man of whom I so immediately formed 
a good opinion as of that j5ne soldier-like old man. 
He carries his head erect, and speaks out openly 
and boldly what he thinks, without being afraid 
to look you in the face at the time. His phy- 
siognomy would make every person desirous of a 
further acquaintance, and render the most suspi- 
cious confident in him." 

Some conversation now passed relative to the 
protest which had been made by Lord Holland 

VOL. I. K 


against the bill for his detention.* Napoleon ex* 
pressed that opinion of Lord Holland, to which 
his talents and virtues so fully entitle him. He 
was highly pleased to find that the Duke of Sussex 
had joined his lordship in the protest, and ob- 
served, that when passions were calmed the con- 
duct of those two peers would be handed down 
to posterity with as much honour, as that of the 
proposers of the measure would be loaded with 
ignominy. He asked several questions concern- 
ing the reduction of the English army, and ob- 
served, that it was absurd in the English govern- 
ment to endeavour to establish the nation as a 
great military power, without having a population 

To th€ second Reading of Bonapart§*i DtUntion BUi 

Because, without reference to the character or previous conduct 
of the person who is the object of the present bill, I disapprove of 
the measure it sanctions and continues. 

To consign to distant exile and imprisonment a foreign and captive 
chief, who, after the abdication of his authority, relying on British 
generosity, had surrendered himself to us in preference to his other 
enemies, is unworthy of the magnanimity of a great country; and 
the treaties by which, after his captivity, we have bound ourselves to 
detain him in custody, at the will of sovereigns, to whom he had 
never surrendered himself, appear to me repugnant to the prindplet 
of equity, and utterly uncalled for, by expedience or necessity. 


And on the third reading. His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex 
entered his protest for the same reasons. 


sufficiently numerous to afford the requisite num« 
ber of soldiers to enable them to vie with the great, 
or even the second-rate continental powers, while 
they neglected and seemed to undervalue the navy, 
which was the real force and bulwark of England. 
^ They will yet," said he, " discover their error." 

23rd. — Several cases of books which had been 
ordered by Bertrand at Madeira, and were brought 
out in the Newcastle by Sir Pulteney Malcolm, 
were sent up to him the day before. Found him 
in his bed-chamber, surrounded Math heaps of 
books : his countenance was smiling, and he was 
in perfect good humour. He had been occupied 
in reading nearly all the night. ^^ Ah," said he, 
pointing to some books that he had thrown on the 
floor, according to his custom, after having read 
them, ^'what a pleasure I have enjoyed. What a 
difference. I can read forty pages of French in 
the time that it would require me to comprehend 
two of English." I found afterwards that his anx- 
iety to see them was so great, that he had labour- 
ed hard himself, with a hammer and chisel, in 
opening the cases which contained them. 

24th. — Saw Napoleon in the garden. Told him 
that Sir Thomas Reade had sent up seven cases 
of books to me for him, and that the governor had 
sent me two guns on the percussion principle for 
his use, and had desired me to explain the manner 
in which they were constructed. ** It is useless," 


replied he, to send me guns, when I am confined 
to a place where there is no game.* I told him 
that Mr. Baxter had come np to have the honour 
of being introduced to him. He desired me to 
call him. On being presented, he said, smiling, 
^* Well, Mr. Physician {signor medico), how many 
patients have you kilted in your time ?" Afterwards 
he conversed with him for nearly an hour, on va- 
rious subjects. 

Sir Hudson Lowe told me that *' he was so far 
from wishing to prevent any letters or complaints 
being sent to Europe, that he had offered to Bo 
naparte to forward any letters or statements he 
wished to England, and not only would he do so, 
but he would have them printed in the newspa- 
pers, in French and English." 

28M. — ^A proclamation issued by Sir Hudson 
Lowe, declaring that any person holding any 
correspondence or communication with Napoleon 
Bonaparte, his followers or attendants, receiving 
from or delivering to hira or them letters or com- 
munications, without express authorization from 
the governor, under his hand, was guilty of an 
infraction of the acts of parliament for his safe 
custody, and would be prosecuted with all the 
rigour of the law. Also, that any person or per- 
sons who received any letters or communications 
from him, his followers, or attendants, and did 
not immediately deliver or make known the same 


to the governor, or, who should famish the 
Napoleon Bonaparte, his followers or attendants, 
with money, or any other means whatever, wherdby 
his escape might be furthered, would be consider-- 
ed to be aiding and assisting in the same, and would 
be proceeded against accordingly. 

July \st. — ^A letter sent by Sir Hudson Lowe 
to Count Bertrand, prohibiting all sort of commu- 
nications, either written or verbal, with the inha- 
bitants, except such as shall have been previously 
made known to him (the governor) through the 
orderly oflScer. 

Since the arrival of the books, the emperor has 
been daily occupied for several hours in reading 
and collecting dates and other materials for the 
history of his life, which is written up to his land- 
ing in France from Egypt. The state of the wea- 
ther also, the almost constant rain or fog, with the 
strong wind continually blowing over the bleak 
and exposed situation of Longwood, has contri- 
buted much to keep him within doors, and disgust 
him with his present residence. He expressed 
a wish to be removed to the leeward side of the 
island, which is warmer, and protected from the 
eternal sharp south-east wind. 

Ath. — Sir Pulteney and Lady Malcolm had an 
interview of nearly two hours with Napoleon, who 
was much pleased with both. During the con- 
v^n^ition he entered deeply into a description of 


the battle of Waterloo, naval tactics, &c. The of- 
ficers of the Newcastle were also presented to him. 
The n>eat, which has generally been of a bad 
quality, is to-day so detestable, that Captain Pop- 
pleton felt himself obliged to send it back, and 
write a complaint to the governor. 

6th. — ^Madame Bertrand informed Captain Pop- 
pleton and myself, that she had written a letter to 
Montchenu, in which she requested of him to call 
and see her at Hut's Gate, as she had heard that 
he had seen her mother, who was in an indifferent 
state of health, and was very desirous to inquire 
about her. That Las Cases would also come and 
meet him on his arrival at her house, as he was in- 
formed that Montchenu had seen his wife a short 
time before his departure from Paris. 

8th. — ^The servants from Longwood, bringing 
the provisions to Bertrand's stopped by the sen- 
tinels, and not allowed to enter the court. The 
viands were, at last, handed over the wall, in pre- 
sence of a sentinel, who said, he could not permit 
any conversation to take place. A similar scene 
took place, when my servant brought some medi- 
cines for Bertrand*s servant, Bernard, who was 
dangerously ill. Round one of the bottles there 
was a label in my hand-writing, containing direct 
tions how to take the medicine. This was written 
in French, and the sentinel not being able to un- 
derstand it) thought it his duty not to suffer it to 


enter, and it was accordingly torn off. A sentinel 
was relieved the day before and sent to camp to 
be tried by a court-martial, for having allowed a 
black to go into Bertrand's court to get a drink of 
water, which probably has given rise to this iur- 
creased rigour on the part of the soldiers. 

9th. — ^A letter of expostulation sent this morn- 
ing to Sir Hudson Lowe. Some conversation at 
Longwood relative to a machine for making ice, 
said by some of the officers of the Newcastle to 
have been sent by Lady Holland for Napoleon*8 
use, but which has not yet made its appearance. 

KXA/— A great deficiency has existed for seve- 
ral days in the quantity of mne, fowls, and other 
necessary articles. Wrote to Sir Thomas Reade 
about it. Captain Poppleton also went to town 
himself to lay the matter before Sir Hudson Lowe. 

11 th. — ^While at Hut's Gate, a Serjeant came in 
with a message from Sir Hudson Lowe, desiring 
me to follow him. His excellency inquired of 
me in what part of the island General Bonaparte 
would wish to have his new house built ? I re- 
plied, " He would like the Briars." Sir Hudson 
said, that would never do, that it was too near 
the town, and in fact out of the question. He 
then asked me if I thought he would prefer any 
part of the island to Longwood ? I said, ^ most 
certainly he would prefer a habitation on the 
other side of the island." His excellency then 


desired me to find out from himself what part of 
the island he would prefer. He also said, that 
Napoleon had refused to see the commissioners, 
and desired me to ascertain whether he was still 
of that opinion. His excellency asked me whe- 
ther I knew what they wanted with the Marquis 
Montchenu. I replied, that Madame Bertrand 
wished to inquire after her mother's health, and 
that Las Cases was to have met him at Hut*s 
Gate ; and that I was informed he was very anx- 
ious to enquire ahout his wife, as he had been told 
that Montchenu had seen her shortly before his 
departure from Paris. Sir Hudson observed that 
he would report Las Cases to the British govern- 
ment, for having contemptuously refused to receife 
or accept some articles sent for the supply of the 
generals and others with Bonaparte, while at the 
same time he wrote a letter to Lady Clavering, 
desiring that some articles of a similar nature to 
those so offered might be purchased and sent out 
to him. He then again assured me of his readi- 
ness, not only to transmit their complaints to his 
majesty's government, but that he would also 
cause them to be published ; and told me that he 
much wished me to let him know General Bona- 
parte's wants and wishes, in order that he might 
communicate them to his government, which 
would thus know how to anticipate and provide 
for any demands. Desired me also to tell Ma* 


dame Bertrand that he was very sorry any restric- 
tions which he had imposed were disagreeable to 
her or hnrtfnl to her feelings, though it appeared 
to him that she had been made a tool of, which he 
advised her not to try again. After this, he went 
to Longwood, where he had a long conversation 
with General Montholon, chiefly about altering, 
enlar^g, and improving Longwood House. 

12th. — Napoleon rather melancholy. I in- 
formed him that the governor had been at Long- 
'wood yesterday, in order to see if he could afford 
greater comfort and accommodation to him, either 
by building some additional rooms to the house 
already existing at Longwood, or erecting a new 
house in some other pait of the island ; and that 
the governor had charged me to inquire from him. 
which he would prefer. He replied, " At this 
house, or in this wretched place, I wish for nothing 
from him {A questa casa, o in questo luogo tristo 
rum voglio niente di lui)^ I hate this Longwood. 
The sight of it makes me melancholy. Let him 
put me in some place where there is shade, verdure, 
and water. Here it either blows a furious wind, 
loaded with rain and fog, which afflicts my soul, 
or, which oppresses me {che mi taglia Vanima) ; o\\ 
if that is wanting, the sun broils my brain {il sole 
mi hrucia il cervello), through the want of shade« 
when I go out. Let him put me on the Plantation 
House side of the island, if he really wishes to Ua 

VOL. I. L 


any thing for me. Bat what is the nse of hisr 
coming up here proposing things, and doing no- 
thing. There is Bertrand*s house not the least ad* 
vanced since his arrival. The admiral at least sent 
his carpenter here, who made the work go on.** I 
replied, that the governor had desired me to say, 
that he did not like to undertake any thing with- 
out first knowing that it would meet with his ap- 
pvoval ; but, that if he (Napoleon) would fix, or 
propose a plan for the house, he would order every 
workman on the island, with a proportionate num- 
ber of engineer officers, &c. to proceed to Long- 
wood, and set about it. That the governor feared, 
that making additions to the present building 
would annoy him by the noise of the workmen. 
He replied, " Certainly it would. I do not wish 
him to do any thing to this house, or on this dis- 
mal place. Let him build a house on the other 
side of the island, where there is shade, verdure, 
and water, and where I may be sheltered from this 
furious wind (vento agro). If it is determined to 
build a new house for my use, I would wish to 
have it erected on the Elstate of Colonel Smith, 
which Bertrand has been to look at, or at Rose- 
mary Hall. But his proposals are all a delusion. 
Nothing advances since he came. Look there,** 
pointing to the window. " I was obliged to or* 
der a pair of sheets to be put up as curtains, as 
the others were so dirty I could not approach 
thenii and none could be obtained to replace them. 


H6 If It sad fellow, and worse than the island 
f Stut trist voma^ d peggio delF isolaj. Remark 
his <*ondact to that poor lady (quella povera dama), 
Madame Bertrand. He has deprived her of the 
Kttle liberty she had, and has prevented people 
firom coming to visit and to chat (bavarder) for an 
hour with her, which was some little solace to a 
lady who had always been accustomed to see com* 
pany.** I observed that the governor had said, it 
was in consequence of Madame Bertrand's having 
sent a note to the Marquis Montchenu, without 
ha?ving first caused it to pass through the govemor*s 
hands. ^ Trash,** replied he ; ** By the regulations 
in existaice when he arrived, it was permitted to 
send notes to residents, and no communication of 
aof; alteration having taken place was made to 
them. Besides, could not she and her husband 
have gone to town to see Montchenu ? Weak men 
are always timorous and suspicious. This man is 
fit to be, the head of a police-gang {un capo di sbir^ 
ri), but not a governor.'* 

13th. — ^Went to town and communicated Na- 
poleon's reply to Sir Hudson Lowe, who did not 
seem to like it ; and said that he could not so 
easily be watched. I observed that I thought, 
easier, as he would then be in the midst of his 
(Sir Hudson's) staff ; and moreover, as the spots 
: in question we4^ nearly surrounded with high and 
ttoequal rocks, it would be extremely easy to 
-place picquets in such a manner as to preclude 


the possibility of escape, and at the same time^ be 
unseen by the captive. His excellency at first 
assented to this ; but a moment afterwards ob- 
served, that he should not know where to place 
the Austrian commissioner, who had taken Rose^ 
mary Hall. I ventured to suggest to him, that, 
however desirable an object the accommodation 
of the Baron Sturmer might be, still it was one of 
much minor importance to that of the principal 
person detained {ddtenu). Sir Hudson Lowe, after 
a moment's silence, asked me if I had communicated 
his message to Madame Bertrand, to which I re* 
plied in the alSirmative. He observed, that he had 
not sufficiently explained his motives in imposing 
some additional restrictions, as the fact was, that 
Sir George Cockburn, prior to his departure, had 
pointed out to him the great inconveniency of the 
existing order of things, and the necessity there was 
of preventing such free access to Bertrand*s House. 
That he had strongly recommended the adoption of 
the restrictions which he (Sir Hudson) had since 
thought it his duty to impose, which the admiral 
declared it was his own intention to have order- 
ed, had he not been in daily expectation of the 
new governor s arrival. That the liberal access 
to Bertrand had been originally permitted in con- 
sequence of a supposition, that the new house for 
his use at Longwood would soon be finished ; 
after which he would be placed on a similar foot- 
ing with the other attendants of General Bonfb- 


]>arte. This he desired me to communicate to the 
countess ; and said that he would consider about 
buOding the new house upon the spot which I had 
pointed out; adding, that ^^ Colonel Smith's and 
Rosemary Hall must go together.** 

\5th. — Napoleon out very early in the carriage. 

16M. — ^Napoleon, who had gone down to the 
stables at an early hour, and ordered the horses to 
be put to, himself, overtook me in the park, and 
made me get into the carriage. Complained of his 
teeth. Breakfasted with him. During the meal, the 
subject of the commissioners was introduced. He 
asked, if Madame Sturmer had ever seen him at 
P^ris. I replied, that she had, and was very 
desirous to see him again. ** And who prevents 
her?** said he. I replied, that herself and her 
husband, as well as the rest of the commissioners, 
believe that you will not receive them. "Who 
told them so?** said he, "I am willing to receive 
them, whenever they please to ask through Ber- 
trand. I shall receive them as private characters. 
I never refuse to see any person, when asked in a 
proper way, and especially, I should be always 
glad to see a lady.** 

^ It appears,** said he, " that your ministers 
have sent out a great many articles of dress for 
us, and other things, which it was supposed might 
be wanted. Now, if this governor was possessed 
of the feelings of a gentleman, he would have sent 
a list of them to Bertrand, stating that the £ng* 


lish government had sent a supply of certidn arti-? 
cles which it was thought we might want, and 
that if we stood in need of them, we might order 
such as we pleased. But, instead of acting in a 
manner pointed out by the rules of politeness, this 
gaoler (geolier) converts into an insult, what, pro- 
bably your government intended as a civility, by 
selecting what things he himself pleases, and send- 
ing them up in a contemptuous manner, without 
consulting us ; as if he were sending alms to a set 
of beggars, or clothing to convicts. Truly he has 
the heart of an executioner {Feramente ha il cuore 
di boja), for nobody but an executioner (boja) would 
unnecessarily increase the miseries of people situated 
like us, already too unhappy. His hands soil every 
thing that passes through them. See how he tor^ 
ments that poor lady, Madame Bertrand, by depri* 
ving her of the little society she was accustomed to, 
and which is necessary to her existence. It is not 
punishing her husband, who, if he has a book i^ 
contented. I am astonished that he allows you or 
Poppleton to remain near me. He would willingly 
watch me himself always, were it in his power. Have 
you any galley-slaves in England ?" I replied. No ; 
but that we had some convicts who were condemned 
to work at Portsmouth and elsewhere. *^ Then,** 
said he, ^' he ought to have been made keeper of 
them. It would be exactly the office suited to him.* 
Sir Hudson Lowe came up to Longwood, and 
had an interview with him for a short time. 

17M.-T-Napoleon called me into the garden to 
iimi« informed me that he had told the governor 
that he had nnnecessarily increased their restric- 
tions ; that he had^ without any reason, punished 
-Madame fiertrand ; that he had insulted them by 
Mb manner of sending up the articles isent for their 
use ; that he had insulted X^as Cases, by telling 
him that he had read his letters, and by informing 
•him, that if he wanted a pair of shoes or stock- 
ings, he must first send to him. ^^I told him," 
added he, ^ that if Bertrand or Las Cases wanted 
to form a plot with the commissioners, (which he 
appeared to be afraid of,) that he had nothing 
more to do^ than to go to the town and make an 
appointment with any of them to come up inside 
of the alarm-house, and meet him. I told him 
that it was a disgrace to him who was vested 
with authority, to insult a man like fiertrand, who 
was esteemed by all Europe." 

He then spoke about the new house, said, 
that if he expected to remain long in St. Helena, 
he should wish to have it erected at the Planta- 
tion House side ; ** but," continued he, ^^ I am of 
opinion that as soon as the affairs of France are 
settled, and things quiet, the English government 
will allow me to return to Europe, and finish 
my days in England. I do not believe that they 
are foolish enough to be at the expense of eight 
millions annually, to keep me here, when I am no 
longer to be feared ; I therefore am not very anx- 


ions about the house.** He then spoke about es- 
cape^ and said, that even if he were inclined to try 
it, there were ninety-eight chances out of a hundred 
against his succeeding ; " notwithstanding which," 
continued he, " this gaoler imposes as many re- 
strictions, as if I had nothing more to do than 
to step into a boat and be off. It is true, that 
while one lives there is always a chance, although 
chained, enclosed in a cell, and every human pre- 
caution taken, there is still a chance of escape 
and the only effectual way to prevent it is to put 
me to death. It is only the dead, who never come 
back (// riy a que les morts qui ne reviennent pas). 
Then all uneasiness on the part of the European 
powers, and Lord Castlereagh, will cease : no more 
expense, no more squadrons to watch me, or poor 
soldiers fatigued to death with picquets and guards^ 
or harassed carrying loads up those rocks.** 

I8th. — Sir Hudson came to Longwood, and 
arranged some matters with General Montholon 
relative to the house. Every thing connected with 
the alterations in the building put under the direc- 
tion of Lieutenant-colonel Wynyard, assisted by 
Lieutenant Jackson of the staff corps. A billiard- 
table brought up to Longwood. 

1 9th. — ^The drawing-room of Longwood House 
discovered to be on fire at about five o'clock in the 
morning. It was extinguished in about half an 
hour, by great exertions on the part of Captain 



Poppleton^ and the guard, aided by the household. 
It had reached within a few inches of the upper 
flooring, which was formed of a double boarding. 
Had this caught fire, it would have been nearly 
impossible to have saved the building, as there is 
no water at Liongwood. 

20tlu — Some curtains for the emperor's bed, sent 
up to me by Sir Thomas Reade. 

22nd, — ^Dined in camp on occasion of the anni- 
versary of the battle of Salamanca. Present, his 
excellency and staff, heads of departments, &c. 

24th. — The admiral sent up a lieutenant and 
party of seamen to pitch a tent, formed of a lower 
studding-sail, as no shade was afforded by the 
trees at Liongwood. Colonel Maunsell, of the 53rd, 
asked me to exert myself in order to procure, 
through Count Bertrand, for Dr. Ward (who had 
been eighteen years in India) an interview with 
Napoleon. Count Bertrand accordingly made the 
application to the emperor, who replied, that *^ Dr. 
Ward must apply in person to Count Bertrand.** 

25th. — ^Told Napoleon that the Griffon had ar- 
rived from England the night before, and had 
brought the news of the condemnation of General 
Bertrand to death, though absent. He appeared 
for a moment lost in astonishment, and much con- 
cerned; but recollecting himself, observed, that 
by the laws of France, a man accused of a capital 
offence might be tried, and condemned to deaths 

VOL. I. M 


by outlawry (par contumacej, but that they could 
not act upon such a sentence ; that the mdividual 
must be tried again, and be actually present ; that 
if Bertrand were now in France, he would be ac- 
quitted, as Drouot had been. He expressed, how- 
ever, much sorrow at it, on account of the effect 
which it might probably produce upon Madame 
Bertrand. " In revolutions,** continued he, *^ every 
thing is forgotten. The benefits you confer to day, 
are forgotten to-morrow. The side once changed, 
gratitude, friendship, parentage, every tie vanishes, 
and all sought for is self-interest.'* 

26th. — Saw Napoleon at his toilette. While 
dressing, he is attended by Marchand, St. Denis, 
and Novarre. One of the latter holds a looking- 
glass before him, and the other the necessary im- 
plements for shaving, while Marchand is in waiting 
to hand his clothes, Cologne water (eau de Co- 
lognej, &c. When he has gone over one side of 
his face with the razor he asks St. Denis or No- 
varre, " Is it done ?" and after receiving an answer, 
commences on the other. After he has finished, 
the glass is held before him to the light, and he 
examines whether he has removed every portion of 
his beard. If he perceives or feels that any re- 
main^, he sometimes lays hold of one of them by 
the ear, or gives him a gentle slap on the cheek, 
in a good-humoured manner, crjring, " Ah, rogue 
(coqmn)y why did you tell me it was done ?" This, 


probably has given rise to the report of his having 
been in the habit of beating and otherwise ill- 
treating his domestics. He then washes with wa- 
ter, in which some Cologne water {eau de Cologne) 
has been mingled, a little of which he also sprin- 
kles over his person, very carefully picks and cleans 
his teeth, frequently has himself rubbed with a 
flesh-brush, changes his linen and flannel waistcoat, 
and dresses m white kerseymere (or brown nan- 
keen) breeches, white waistcoat, silk stockings, 
shoes and gold buckles, and a green single-breast- 
ed coat with white buttons, black stock, with none 
of the white-shirt collar appearing above it, and a 
three-cornered small-cocked hat, with a little tri- 
coloured cockade. When dressed, he always wears 
the cordon and grand cross of the legion of honour. 
When he has put on his coat, a little sprucely 
(bonhonniire) , his snuff-box, and handkerchief 
scented with Cologne water (eau de Cologne)^ are 
handed to him by Marchand, and he leaves the 

Napoleon complained of a slight pain in his 
right side. I advised him to get it well rubbed 
with Cologne water /eaw de Cologne) and flannel, 
and also suggested a dose of physic. At this last 
he laughed, and gave me a friendly slap on the 
cheek. He asked the causes of the liver complaint, 
now very prevalent in the island. I enumerates I 
several, and amongst others, drunkenness and hot 


climates. '^ If,"* said he^ '^ drunkenness be a caos^ 
I ought never to have it.** 

27th4 — Colonel Keating, late governor of the 
isle of Bourbon had an interview with Napoleon, 
which lasted for nearly an hour. 

28M. — ^Informed by Cipriani, that in the begin* 
ning of 1815, he had been sent from Elba to Leg- 
horn, to purchase 100,000 fmncs worth of furni- 
ture for Napoleon's palace. During his stay, he 
became very intimate with a person named * * *, 
who had a * * * at Vienna, from whom a private 
intimation was sent to him, that it was the deter- 
mination of the congress of Vienna to send the 
emperor to St. Helena, and even had sent him a 
paper containing the substance of the agreement, 
a copy of which he gave to Cipriani, who departed 
instantly for Elba, to communicate the information 
he had received to the emperor. This, with the 
confirmation which he afterwards received from 
M * * * A ♦ ♦ and M ♦ • ♦ at Vienna contributed 
to determine Napoleon to attempt the recovery of 
his throne. 

Accompanied Napoleon in his evening-drive. 
Informed him that Sir Thomas Reade had begged 
me to acquaint him that the Russian commis- 
sioner had taken no part in the oflSicial note ad- 
dressed to the governor, and containing a request 
to see him (Napoleon). He observed, that if they 
wished to see him« they had taken very bad mea* 


rares, as all the powers of Europe should not ior- 
duce him to receive them as official characters. 
They might break open the door, or level the house 
down and find him. He then observed^ that a 
book* relative to his last rei^ in France had been 
lately sent out by the author; (an Englishman,) to 
Sir Hudson Lowe, with a request that it should 
be delivered to him. On the back was inscribed, in 
letters of Gold, — to the Emperor Napoleon^ or, to 
the Great Napoleon. ^' Now,** continued he, ^ this 
galley-^lave (galeriano) would not allow the book 
to be sent to me, because it had the ^ Emperor Na- 
poleon* written upon it ; because he thought that 
it would give me some pleasure to see that all men 
were not like him, and that I was esteemed by some 
of his nation. I could not have believed that a 
man could be so base and so vile (Non credevo che 
un uotno poteva essere basso e vile a tal segno) r 

Since the arrival of Sir Hudson Lowe, there has 
been a great alteration in the number of news- 
papers sent to Longwood. Instead of receiving, 
as heretofore, a regular series of some papers, as 
well as many detached ones, only a few irregular 
numbers of the times have arrived, and occasion^ 
ally a Courier. This has caused great anxiety at 
Longwood to those who have relations in France, 
and given much displeasure to Napoleon, to whom 

* " Thfi laift rdgn of the Emperor Napoleon* bj Mr. Hob- 


Sir George Cockbum frequently sent up papers, 
before perusing them himself. 

August 2nd. — ^Made a complaint to the purveyors 
that no vegetables^ except potatoes^ had been sent 
up for three days ; and requested, that if they were 
not permitted to furnish any more, my letter might 
be transmitted to Major Gorrequer. 

3rd. — Received an answer from Mr. Fowler, 
clerk to the purveyors, informing me that they had 
been ordered to send no more vegetables, which, 
they had been informed by Major G., were in fu- 
ture to be furnished from the honorable company*8 

Colonel Maunsell presented this day by Sir 
George Bingham. Napoleon conversed for a short 
time with the latter. 

5th. — Sir Hudson Lowe came to Longwood, 
and ciJling me aside in a mysterious manner, 
asked if I thought that " General Bonaparte** 
would take it well if he invited him to come to a 
ball at Plantation house, on the Prince Regent^s 
birth-day ? I replied, that under all circumstances, 
I thought it most probable that he would look 
upon it as an insult, especially if made to " General 
Bonaparte.^ His excellency remarked, that he 
would avoid that, by asking him in person. I 
said, that I would recommend him to consult 
Count Bertrand on the subject, which he said he 
would do. He then referred to a prior convert 


sation and informed me that he was of opinion 
my salary ought to be augmented to 500/. per 
annum, and that he would certainly write to Lord 
Bathurst and recommend it. After this, he spoke 
about Mr. Hobhouse^s book, observed, that he 
could not send it to Longwood as it had not been 
forwarded through the channel of the secretary of 
state ; moreover that Lord Castlereagh was ex- 
tremely ill spoken of, and that he had no idea of 
allowing General Bonaparte to read a book in which 
a British minister was treated in such a manner, or 
even to know that a work containing such reflec- 
tions could be published in England. I ventured 
to observe to his excellency, that Napoleon was 
very desirous to see the book, and that he could 
not confer a much greater favour than to send it 
up. Sir Hudson replied, that Mr. Hobhouse, in the 
letter which accompanied it, had permitted him to 
place it in his own library, if he did not think him- 
self authorized to send it to its original destination. 

6th. — ^Napoleon again entered on the subject of 
the book, the detention of which by the governor he 
declared to be illegal ; and that even if he were a 
prisoner under sentence of death, the governors 
conduct would not be justifiable in detaining a 
printed and published book, in which there was 
no secret correspondence or treason, because there 
were some fooleries {betises) in it. By " fooleries 
{bitisesy* he meant the inscription addressed to him. 

A lieutenant, two midshipmen, and a party of 


geamen employed in repairing the tent, which had 
soflered materially in the late bad weather. Na- 
poleon went up and conversed for a short time 
with the midshipmen, one of whom by a strange 
coincidence, happened to be the son of Mr. Drake, 
notorious for his conduct at Munich. 

10/A. — Sir Hudson Lowe came up, while Napo- 
leon was at breakfast in the tent, in order to see 
him, but did not succeed. 

12th. — Grand field-day at camp, in honour of 
the Prince Regent. Explained to him that in all 
our colonies his royal highnesses birth-day was ce- 
lebrated. " Ay, ay, (Gia, g^^^r said he, ^ natural- 
ly (naturalmente) r Asked me if I were asked 
to dine with the governor? I replied, no; but 
that I was asked to the ball in the evening. 

14M. — ^Napoleon went out to ride this morning 
for the first time for eight weeks. Informed me 
that he had so severe a headach, that he had de- 
termined to try the eflFect of a little exercise. "But,** 
continued he, " the limits are so circumscribed 
that I cannot ride for more than an hour ; and in 
order to do me any good, I should ride very hard 
for three or four. Here has been," continued he, 
^ that Sicilian thief-catcher (shirro Siciliano) . I 
would have remained in the tent an hour longer if 
I had not been informed of his arrival. My mind 
recoils to see him (Mi ripugna tanima il vederlo). 
He is perpetually unquiet, and appears always in 
a passion with somebody, or uneasy as if some- 


thing tormented, his conscieoce^ and that he was 
anxious to run away from himself " 

^'A man to be well fitted for the situation of 
governor of St, . Helena^** he observed, ^^ ought to 
be a person of great politeness^ and at the same 
time of great firmness— <me who could gloss over 
a refusal^ and lessen the miseries of the persons de- 
tained (detenus), instead of eternally putting them 
in mind that they were considered as prisoners. 
Instead of such a man, they had sent out tin ttomo 
non canosciuto^ che nan a nun camandato, che non 
ha nessun ardme, ni nstema^ che non sa farsi uhhU 
dire^che lum ha ni maniera nd creanza — e che pare 
che abhia sempre wsuto con del ladrir* 

15<A.— ^Anniversary of Napoleon*s birth-day. 
Breakfasted in the tent with the ladies and all bis 
suite including Fiontkowski, and the children. 
There was, however, no change of uniform or addi- 
tional decorations. In the evening, the second 
class of domestics, including the English, had a 
grand supper, and a dance afterwards. To the as- 
tonishment of the French, not an Englishman got 

16M. — Sir Hudson Lowe came up, and had a 
long conversation with Gen. Montholon and my- 
self, principally about the necessity of reducing the 

* A man not known^ who has never bad command^ who has neither 
regularity nor tjttem, who cannot make himself obeyed^ who has no 
breeding nor civility-- and who seems to have always associated with 

VOL. I. N 

• *^ 


• I, 


expenses of the establishment^ which, he observed, 
was not conducted with a due regard to economy. 
Amongst other examples of what he considered 
wasteful expenditure, he stated to General Mon* 
tholon, that he had observed on looking over the 
accounts of Plantation House and Longwood, 
that there was a much greater quantity of basket- 
salt consumed at the latter than at the former ; he 
desired, therefore, that in future, common salt (sel^ 
gris) should be used as much as possible in the 
kitchen and at the table of the servants. 

One of Leslie*s pneumatic machines for making 
ice sent up to Longwood this day. As soon as it 
was put up, I went and informed Napoleon, and 
told him that the admiral was at Longwood. He 
asked several questions about the process, and it 
was evident that he was perfectly acquainted with 
the principles upon which air-pumps are formed. 
He expressed great admiration of the science of 
chemistry, spoke of the great improvements which 
had of late years been made in it, and observed, 
that he had always promoted and encouraged it 
to the best of his power. I then left him, and pro- 
ceeded to the room where the machine was, in 
order to commence the experiment in the presence 
of the admiral. In a few minutes Napoleon, ac- 
companied by Count Montholon, came in and ac- 
costed the admiral in a very pleasant manner, 
seemingly gratified to see him. A cup full of 
water was then frozen in his presence in about 



fiftem minutes, and he waited for upwards of half 
an hour to see if the same quantity of lemonade 
would freeze, which did not succeed. Milk was 
then tried, but it would not answer. Napoleon 
took into his hand the piece of ice produced from 
the water, and observed to me, what a gratifica- 
ticm that would have been in Egypt. The first 
ice ever seen in St. Helena, was made by this ma- 
chine^ and was viewed with no small degree of 
surprise by the yam stochsy* some of whom could 
with difficulty be persuaded that the solid lump 
in thdr hands was really composed of water, and 
were not fully convinced until they had witnessed 
its liqueSsu^ion. 

nth. — Went to Hufs Gate to visit Bertrand*s 
servant Bernard, who was very ill. The Serjeant 
of the guard ordered the sentry to be confin^ for 
letting me in. Went out to inquire, and was in- 
formed by the seijeant that he had orders to pre* 
vent every one from going in, except the general 
staff. Sir Hudson Lowe had, it appeared, given 
some directions yesterday himself, on going out of 
Bertrand*s, to whom he showed a letter from Lord 
Bathurst, stating that the expences of the esta- 
blishment must be reduced to 8,000/. per annum 
for every thing. The men who brought the pro- 
visions were not allowed to enter but were ob- 
liged to hand them over the wall. The servants 
from Longwood were also refused admittance, 

* A cant name for the natives of the island. 


Mr. Brookes, the colonial secretary, was also dcK 
nied entrance, A letter sent by Sir Hudson Lowe 
to Count Montholon, making a demand of 12,000i; 
a year for the maintenance of Napoleon and suite.* 
I8th. — The governor and admiral, accompanied 
by Sir Thomas Reade and Major Gorrequer, ar- 
rived at Longwood, while Napoleon was walking 
in the garden with Counts Bertrand, Montholon^ 
Las Cases, and son. His excellency sent to ask 
an interview, which was granted. It took place 
in the garden. The three principal pe'^onages^ 
Napoleon, Sir Hudson, and Sir Pulteney, were a 
little in front of the others. Captain Poppleton 
and myself stood at some distance from them, 
but sufficiently near to observe their gestures. 
We remarked, that the conversation was princi* 
pally on the part of Napoleon, who appeared at 
times considerably animated, frequently stopping 
and again hurried in his walk, and accompanying 
his words with a good deal of action. Sir Hud« 
6on*s manner also appeared hurried and greatly 
agitated. The admiral was the only one who 
seemed to discourse with calmness. In about half 
an hour we saw Sir Hudson Lowe abruptly turn 
about, and withdraw without saluting Napoleon. 
The admiral took oflf his hat, made his bow, and 
departed. Sir Hudson Lowe came up to where 
Poppleton and myself were standing, paced up 

* See AppflndlZf No. III. 


and down in an agitated manner, while his horses 
were'coming, and said to me, " General Bonaparte 
has been very abnsive to me. I parted with him 
rather abraptly, and told him, You are uncivil. 
Sir (f^ous ites malhonnStey Monsieur)/* He then 
mounted his horse, and galloped away. The ad- 
miral appeared troubled and pensive. It was evi- 
dent that the interview hud been very unpleasant. 

19/A. — Saw Napoleon in his dressing-room. 
He was in very good humours-asked how Gour- 
gaud was, and on being informed that I had ^ven 
him some medicine he laughed and said, '^ He 
would have done better to have dieted himself for 
some days; let him drink plenty of water, and 
eat nothing. Medicines," he said, ** were only fit 
for old people." 

He then said, " that governor came here yes- 
terday to annoy me. He saw me walking in the 
garden, and in consequence I could not refuse to 
see him. He wanted to enter into some details 
vnth me about reducing the expenses of the esta- 
blishment. He had the audacity to tell me that 
things were as he found them, and that he came 
up to justify himself : that he had come up two 
or three times before to do so, but that I was in a 
bath. I replied, * No, Sir, I was not in a bath, 
but I ordered one on purpose not to see you. In 
endeavouring to justify yourself you make matters 
worse/ He said that I did not know him ; that if 


I knew him, I should change my opinion. ^ Know 
you, Sir,' I answered, ' How could I know you t 
People make themselves known by their actions ; 
by commanding in battles. You have never com- 
manded in battle. You have never commanded 
any but vagabond Corsican deserters, Piedmon- 
tese and Neapolitan brigands. I know the name 
of every English general who has distinguished 
himself, but I never heard of you except as a 
scrivano* to Blucher, or as a commandant of bri- 
gands. You have never commanded or been 
accustomed to men of honour.* He said, that he 
had not sought for the employment. I told him 
that such employments were not asked for ; that 
they were given by governments to people who 
had dishonoured themselves. He said that he 
only did his duty, and that I ought not to blame 
him, as he only acted according to his orders. I 
replied, * So does the hangman. He acts accord- 
ing to his orders. But when he puts a rope round 
my neck to finish me, is that a reason that I 
should like that hangman, because he acts ac- 
cording to his orders ? Besides, I do not believe 
that any government could be so mean as to ^ve 
such orders as you cause to be executed.* I told 
him, that if he pleased, he need not send up any 
thing to eat. That I would go over and dine at the 
table of the brave officers of the dSrd ; that I was 

• Clerk. 


sure there was not one of them who woiild not 
be happy to give a plate at the table to an old sol« 
dier. TTiat there was not a soldier in the regi- 
ment who had not more heart than he had. That 
in the iniquitous bill of parliament, they had de- 
creed that I was to be treated as a prisoner, but 
that he treated me worse than a condemned cri- 
minal, or a galley-slave, as they were permitted 
to receive newspapers and printed books, which 
he deprived me of. I said, ' you have power over 
my body, but none over my soul. That soul is as 
proud, fierce, and determined at the present mo- 
ment, as when it commanded Europe.* I told him 
that he was a Sicilian thief-catcher (shirro Sicilian 
no), and not an Englishman ; and desired him not 
to let me see him again until he came with orders 
to despatch me, when he would find all the doors 
thrown open to admit him." 

^* It is not my custom," continued he, " to abuse 
any person, but that mans effrontery produced 
bad blood in me, and I could not help expressing 
my sentiments. When he had the impudence to 
tell me before the admiral that he had changed 
nothing ; that all was the same as when he had 
arrived, I replied, call the captain of ordinance (or^ 
donnance) here, and ask him. I will leave it to his 
decision.' This struck him dumb, he was mute." 

" He told me, that he had found his situation 
so difiicult that he bad resigned. I replied, that 


a worse man than himself could not be sent .oiit» 
-ihough the employment was not one which a man 
of spirit (galantuomo) would wish to accept. If 
you have an opportunity," added he, *^ or if any 
one asks you, you are at liberty to repeat what I 
have told you.** 

Gave him Sarrazin's ^^ Account of the Campaign 
in Spain.** *^ Sarrazin,** said he, **was a traitor, 
and a man without honour, truth, or probity. 
When I returned from Elba to Paris, he wrote 
an oflfer of his services to me, in which he pro- 
posed, if I would forgive and employ him, to be- 
tray to me all the secrets and plans of the English. 
It was my intention to have had him tried as a 
traitor, as he deserved, instead of accepting his 
offer, but I was so much hurried that it escaped 
my memory.** 

21^^. — ^A ship arrived from England. Went to 
town, where I saw Captain Stanfell, to whom I 
mentioned in the course of conversation, that a 
very unpleasant conversation had taken place be- 
tween the governor and Napoleon, and that Sir 
Hudson Lowe had told the latter that he had given 
in his resignation. On my return, called at Hut*s 
Gate, along with Captiun Maunsell of the 53rd, 
and Captain Poppleton. Madame Bertrand asked 
if there were any letters. Captain Maunsell said 
that he had seen some for them at the post office. 
On my arrival at Longwood, Napoleon asked me 


the same question, to which I replied, that Captain 
Maonsell had informed Madame B^rand there 
were some at the ppst^ffice. It was not my in- 
toition to have mentioned tiiem until I had ascer* 
tained whether they would be sent to Liongwood, 
as I did not wish to embroil him further with the 
governor ; but as I was assured that he would 
hear it from Hut*s Gate, I could not conceal my 
knowledge of the fact. 

22nd. — Sir Hudson Liowe sent for me to Plan- 
tation House. Found him walking in the path to 
the left of the house. He said that he had some 
communication to make to government, wished to 
know the state of General Bonaparte*s health, and 
whether I had any thing to say. ^^ I understand,"* 
continued he, ^^ that Bonaparte told you I had 
said that I had given in my resignation as gover« 
nor of this island, is it true ?" I replied, " he told 
roe that you had said so to him.** Sir Hudson 
added, " I never said any such thing, nor ever 
had an idea of it. He has either invented it, or 
perhaps mistaken my expressions. I merely said, 
that if the government did not approve of my con- 
duct, I woidd resign. I wish you therefore to ex- 
plain to him that I never either said so, or had any 
intention of doing it.** He then asked me if I 
had heard the subject of their conversation. I 
replied, ^* some part of it," He wished to know 

VOL. I. o 


what it was. I replied^ ^^ that I supposed he re* 
membered it^ and that I did not wish to repeat 
what must be disagreeable to him.** He observed 
that I had mentioned it elsewhere^ and that he had 
a right to hear it from my own lips. Although I 
had permission to communicate it^ I was not pleas- 
ed to be obliged to repeat to a man's face opinions 
such as those which had been expressed of him ; 
but under the circumstances of the case, I did 
not think proper to refuse ; I therefore repeated 
some parts. Sir Hudson said, that though he had 
not commanded an army against him, yet that he 
had probably done him more mischief, by the ad- 
vice and information which he had given, prior to 
and during the conferences at Chatillon, some of 
which had not been published, as the conferences 
were going on at the time — than if he had com- 
manded against him. That what he had pointed 
out, had been acted upon afterwards, and was the 
cause of his downfal from the throne. *^ I should 
like," added he, " to let him know this, in order 
to give him some cause for his hatred. I shall pro- 
bably publish an account of the matter.** 

Sir Hudson Lowe then walked about for a 
short time, biting his nails, and asked me if Ma- 
dame Bertrand had repeated to strangers any of 
the conversation which had passed between Ge- 
neral Bonaparte and himself? I replied that I 


was not aware that Madame Bertrand was yet ac-' 
quainted with it. " She had better not," said he, 
*^ lest it may render her and her husband*s situa- 
tion much more unpleasant than at present," He 
then repeated some of Napoleon*s expressions in a 
very angry manner, and said, *^ did General Bona- 
parte tell you, sir, that I told him his language was 
impolite and indecent, and that I would not 
listen any longer to it ?" I said, ^^ no,** " Then 
it shewed," observed the governor, "great little- 
ness on the part of General Bonaparte not to tell 
you the whole. He had better reflect on his si- 
tuation, for it is in my power to render him much 
more uncomfortable than he is. If he continues 
his abuse, I shall make him feel his situation. 
He is a prisoner of war, and I have a right to 
treat him according to his conduct. I'll build 
him up." He walked about for a few minutes re- 
peating ag^n some of the observations, which he 
characterised as ungentleman-like, &c, until he 
had worked himself into a passion, and said, " tell 
General Bonaparte that he had better take care 
whfit he does, as, if he continues his present 
conduct, I shall be obliged to take measures to 
increase the restrictions already in force." After 
observing that he had been the cause of the loss of 
the lives of millions of men, and might be again, 
if he got loose, he concluded by saying, '• I consi- 


da* Ali Pacha to be a much more respectable scouu" 
drel than Bonaparte^* 

23rd. — ^Told Napoleon, in the course of conver- 
sation, that the governor had smd that he had 
mistaken his expressions^ as he had never said^ or 
intended to say^ that he had given in his resig- 
nation ; that he had certainly expressed, that if the 
government did not approve of his conduct, he 
would resign, &c. " That is very extraordinary," 
said Napoleon, ** as he told me himself that he 
had resigned, at least I understood him so. Tanto 
peggior I then observed, that in consequence of 
what had occurred at the last interview, it was 
probable that he would not seek another. ^^ Tanto 
meglio^ said the emperor, " as then I shall be freed 
from the embarrassment del silo hrutto visoj fee." 

2Qth. — ^Napoleon asked me " if I had seen the 
letter written by Count Montholon to Sir Hudson 
Lowe, containing a list of their grievances.'' I 
replied that I had. *^Do you think,'* said he, 
*' that this governor will send it to England?" I 
assured him that there was not a doubt of it. 
That moreover, the governor told me, that he had 
offered to him not only to send their letters home, 
but even to get them published in the news- 
papers. ^' It is a fedsehood," replied the emperor. 

* Mr. Baxter oame up and joined us about the moment that this 
ezprewion waa uaed. 


^ He said, that he would send letters to Europe, 
and have them published, with this proviso how- 
ever, that he approved of their contents. Besides, 
if even he wished to do so, his government would 
not permit it. Suppose for example, that I sent 
him an address to the French nation ? — I do 
not think,** continued he, ^^that they will allow 
a letter, which covers them with so much dis- 
grace, to be published. The people of England 
want to know why I call myself emperor, after 
having ab<Ucated — I have explained it in that let- 
ter. It was my intention to have lived in Eng- 
land as a private person incognito, but as they 
have sent me here, and want to make it appear 
that i was never chief magistrate or emperor of 
France, I still retain the title ; * * ♦ told me, that 
he heard Lords Liverpool and Castlereagh say, 
that one of the principal reasons why they sent me 
here, was a dread of my caballing with the oppo- 
sition. It is likely enough that they were afraid of 
my telling the truth of them, and of my explaining 
some things which they would not like, as they 
knew, that if I remained in England, they must 
permit people of rank to see me.** 

He afterwards complained of the unnecessary 
severity exercised in depriving him of a series of 
newspapers, and restricting him to some uncon- 
nected numbers of the Bourbon paper, ^^The Times." 

Within a few days, some more picquets have 


been established, and several additional sentinelo 
placed, some in sight of Napoleon, if he chose to 
walk after sun-set. Ditches of eight or ten feet 
deep, nearly completed round the garden. 

27th. — ^Napoleon asked me if the French com- 
missioner and Madame Sturmer had not had a 
quarrel ? I replied, that Montchenu had said that 
Madame Sturmer did not know how to come 
into a drawing-room. He laughed at this, and 
said, " I will venture to say, that the old booby 
says so because she is not sprung from some oi 
those imbeciles, the old noblesse. Because her 
father is a plebeian. These old emigrants hate^ 
and are jealous of all who are not hereditary asses 
like themselves." I asked him if the king of 
Prussia was a man of talent, " Who,** said he, 
^' the king of Prussia ?" He burst into a fit of 
laughter. '^ He a man of talent ! The greatest 
blockhead on earth. Un ignorantaccio che rum 
ha nd talento, ni informazione. A Don Qubcote in 
appearance. I know him well. He cannot hold 
a conversation for five minutes. Not so his wife. 
She was a very clever, fine woman, but very un- 
fortunate. Era bellay graziosa, e plena tCintelll' 
genzar He then conversed for a considerable 
time about the Bourbons. *' They want," said 
he, '^ to introduce the old system of nobility into 
the army. Instead of allowing the sons of pea- 
sants and labourers to be eligible to be made ge« 


nerak, as they were in my time ; they want to 
confine it entirely to the old nobility^ to emigre 
like that old blockhead Montchenu. When you 
have seen Montchenn^ yon have seen all the old 
nobility of France before the revolution. Such 
were all the race, and such they have returned, 
ignorant, vain, and arrogant as they left it. lis 
fCaat rien appris, ils rCont rien oubli^. They were 
the cause of the revolution, and of so much 
bloodshed ; and now, after twenty-five years of 
exile and disgrace, they return loaded with the 
same vices and crimes for which they were expar 
triated, to produce another revolution. I know the 
French. Believe me, that after six or ten years, 
the whole race will be massacred and thrown 
into the Seine. They are a curse to the nation. 
It is of such as them that the Bourbons want to 
make generals. I made most of mine, de la houe. 
Wherever I found talent and courage, I rewarded 
it. My principle was, la carridre ouverte aux 
talens, without asking whether there were any 
quarters of nobility to shew. It is true, that I 
sometimes promoted a few of the old nobility, 
from a principle of policy and justice, but I never 
reposed great confidence in them. The mass of 
the people,** continued he, "now see the revival 
of the feodal times : they see that soon it will be 
impossible for their progeny to rise in the army. 
Every true Frenchman reflects with anguish, that 

104 A ^v^tii Pi^iif^. ^e^^iJitsAK 

^ fwuly for 66 meaiy yetiiW odkms to France^ kik 
been fofH^ed upon them' aver a bridge of Jbreigh 
bcn/onets. What I am going to recotint mil gire 
you some idea of the imbecility of the femiiy. 
When the Count d'Artois came to Lyons^ altfaougli 
he threw himself on his knees before the troops^ ilk 
order to induce them to advance against me, he 
never put on the cordon of the le^on of honour, 
although he knew that the sight of it would be 
most likely to excite the minds of the soldiers 
in his favour, as it was the order so many oi 
them bore on their breasts, and required nothing 
but bravery to obtain it. But no, he decked him* 
self out with the order of the Holy Ghost, to be 
eligible for which, you must prove one hundred 
and fifty years of nobility, an order formed pur- 
posely to exclude merit, and one which excited in* 
dignation in the breasts of the old soldiers. ' We 
will not,' said they, * fight for orders like that, 
nor for emigres like those,' he had ten or eleveti 
of these imbecilles as dd-deK>amps. Instead of 
shewing to those troops some of those generals who 
had so often led them to glory, he brought with 
him a set of miserablesy who served no other pur- 
pose than to recall to the minds of the veterans 
their former sufferings under the noblesse and the 

"To give you an instance of the general feeling in 
France towards the Bourbons, I will relate to you 


an amodote. On my return from Italy^ while my 
carnage was ascending the steep hill of Tarare, I 
gut out and walked up without any attendants, 
as was often my custom. My wife and my suite 
were at a little distance behind me. I saw an old 
woman^ lame, and hobbling about with the help of 
a crutch endeavouring to ascend the mountain. I 
had a great coat on, and was not recognised. I 
went up to her and said. Well, ma bonne, where 
are you going with a haste which so little belongs 
to your years ? What is the matter ? ' Ma foil re- 
plied the old dame, ^ they tell me the emperor is 
here, and I want to see him before I die.' Bah, 
bah, said I, what do you want to see him for ? 
What have you gained by him ? He is a tyrant as 
well as the others. You have only changed one 
tyrant for another, Louis for Napoleon. ^ Mais^ 
monsieur, that may be ; but, after all he is the 
king of the people, and the Bourbons were the 
kings of the nobles. We have chosen him, and if 
we are to have a tyrant, let him be one chosen by 
ourselves.' There," said he, you have the sen- 
timents of the French nation expressed by an old 

I asked his opinion about Soult, and mentioned 
that I had heard some persons place him in the 
rank next to himself as a general. He replied, 
^ he is an excellent minister at war, or major-ge- 
neral of an army : one who knows much better the 

VOL. I. p 


arrangement of an army than to command in 

Some officers of the 53rd told Madame Ber- 
trand that Sir Thomas Reade had said, that Bo- 
naparte did not like the sight of them, or of any 
other red coat, as it put him in mind of Water- 
loo. Madame Bertrand assured them, that it was 
directly contrary to every thing that he had ever 
expressed in her hearing. The same was men- 
tioned to me yesterday by Lieutenants Fitzgerald 
and Mackay. 

28tk. — Informed that the famous letter was 
shewn to several officers of the army and the navy, 
and probably some copies sent to England. 

A letter given by Count Montholon this even- 
ing, to Captain Poppleton, for the governor, ex- 
pressing a wish, that, if the governor did not think 
proper to put matters with respect to passes on 
the same footing as they were in Sir George Cock- 
burn's time, which had been approved of by his 
government, he should no longer grant passes to 
any person. 

30 th. — ^Napoleon rose at three, a. m. Conti- 
nued writing until six; when he retired to rest 
again. At five o'clock Count Bertrand came to 
Captain Poppleton, and told him that the emperor 
desired to see him. Poppleton, being in his morn- 
ing walking-dress, wished to retire and change, 
but was desired to come sans cdr^monie. He was 


accordingly ushered into the billiard-room^ in his 
dishabille. Napoleon was standing with his hat 
under his arm. ^ Well^ M. le Capitaine^ said he, 
**I believe you are the senior captain of the 53rd ?* 
^ I am.** ^ I have an esteem for the officers and 
men of the 53rd. They are brave men^ and do 
their duty. I have been informed that it is said 
in camp^ that I do not wish to see the officers. 
Will you be so good as to tell them^ that whoever 
asserted this^ told a falsehood. I never said or 
thought so^ I shall be always happy to see them. 
I have been told also^ that they have been prohi- 
bited by the governor from visiting me.** Captain 
Foppleton replied^ that he believed the informa- 
tion which he had received was groundless^ and 
that the officers of the 53rd were acquainted with 
the good opinion which he had previously ex- 
pressed of them, which was highly flattering to 
their feelings. That they had the greatest respect 
for him. Napoleon smiled, and replied, "»/e ne 
suis pas vieille femme. I love a brave soldier who 
has undergone, le bapteme dufeuy whatever nation 
he may belong to.** 

31*/. — Sir George Bingham and Major Fehrzeu 
of the 53rd, had a long conversation with Napo- 

September \st. — Sir Hudson Lowe came to 
Longwood. Two or three days ago, the " letter^ 
bad been shewn and read by Count Las Cases, 


to Captain Grey of the artillery; and some other 
officers. Sir Hudson was very desirous to kno^ 
whether any of them had taken a oopy of it. I 
informed him^ that any person at Longwood who 
liked, might get one. His excellency appeared 
greatly alarmed at this, and observed, that it was 
an infraction of the act of parliament in any per- 
son, not belonging to Longwood, to receive it. 
He then asked if I had communicated to General 
Bonaparte, what he had directed me to say on 
the 22nd instant. I replied that I had, that Na^ 
poleon had said, '^ That he might act as he 
pleased, that the only thing left undone now^ was 
to put sentinels to the doors and windows to pre- 
vent him from going out ; that as long as he had a 
book, he cared but little about it.** The governor 
remarked, that he had sent his letter of complaints 
to the British government, and that it rested with 
the ministers how to act. That he had put them 
in full possession of every thing, which he desired 
me to tell him. He added, that it was true he 
could not be much worse than he was. 

4th. — ^Told Napoleon that the governor had 
directed me to say that Count Montholon's letter 
had been sent to his majesty's government, and 
that it rested with the ministers how to act. TTiat 
he had put them in full possession of every thing. 
"Perhaps," replied he, ^Mt will be published in 
the English newspapers before his copy arrives.** 


^ * • • - • 

t 5/Ai-^-Major Gorrequer came up to Longwood 
to arrange matters with General Montbolon^ re- 
lative to the proposed reduction of the expendi 
ture, at which he begged me to be present. The 
purport of his communication was, that when 
the British government had fixed 8,000/. as the 
maximum of the whole of the expense attendant 
upon General Bonaparte's establishment, they had 
contemplated that a great reduction would take 
place in the number of persons composing it, by 
some of the general officers and others returning to 
Europe. But as that had not taken place, the go- 
vernor had on his own responsibility directed that 
an additional sum of 4,000/. shoidd be added, mak- 
ing in the whole 12,000/. for all and every expense; 
that General Montholon must therefore be inform- 
ed, that on no account could the expenditure be 
allowed to exceed 1,000/. per month. Should Ge- 
neral Bonaparte be averse to the reductions ne- 
cessary to bring the disbursements within that 
sum, the surplus must be paid by himself, by 
bills drawn upon some banker in Europe, or by 
such of his friends as were willing to pay them. 
Count Montholon replied, that the emperor was 
ready to pay all the expenses of the establish- 
ment, if they would allow him the means of doing 
so ; and that if they permitted a mercantile or 
banking-house in St. Helena, London, or Paris, 
chosen by the British government itself to serve 


as intermediators, through whom they could send 
sealed letters and receive answers, he would esa* 
gage to pay all the expenses. That on the one 
side, his honour should be pledged that the letters 
should relate solely to pecuniary matters ; and on 
the other that the correspondence should be held 
sacred. Major Gorrequer replied, that this could 
not be complied with ; that no sealed letters woidd 
be suffered to leave Longwood, 

Major Gorrequer shortly aftei-wards told Count 
Montholon, that the intended reductions would 
take place on the 15th of the present month, and 
begged of him to arrange matters with Mr. Bal- 
combe, the purveyor, about the disposition of the 
1,000/. monthly, unless he chose to give drafts 
for the surplus. Count Montholon replied, that he 
would not meddle with it; that the governor might 
act as he pleased ; that at the present moment 
there was not any superfluity of provisions sup- 
plied ; that as soon as the reductions took place, 
he, for his part would give up all charge, and 
would not meddle further in the matter. That the 
conduct of the English ministry was infamous, 
in declaring to Europe that the emperor should 
not be suffered to want for any thing, and refusing 
the offers of the allied powers to defray a part of 
the expenses, and now reducing him and his 
suite nearly to rations. Major Gorrequer denied 
that the allied powers had ever made snch an 


offer. Montholon replied that he had read it ia 
some of the papers. Major Gorrequer then ob- 
served, that a great reduction could be made in 
the wine, viz. that it could be reduced to ten bot- 
tles of claret daily^ and one of madeira ; that at 
Plantation House, the consumption was regulated 
on the average of one bottle to each person. Mon- 
tholon replied, that the French drank much less 
than the English ; and that he had already done 
at the emperor's table what he never had done in 
his own private house in France, viz. corked up 
the remnants of the bottles of wine, in order to 
produce them on the table the next day ; that more- 
over, at night there was not a morsel of meat re- 
maining in the pantry. Gorrequer observed, that 
12,000/. a year was a very handsome allowance. 
" About as much as 4,000/. in England," replied 
Montholon. The business was then deferred until 
Saturday. Before leaving Longwood, Major Gor- 
requer himself allowed to me that the establishment 
could not be carried on for 12,000/. annually; 
but that he thought a reduction of about 2,000/. 
yearly might be made. I observed that it might, 
provided a store of every thing necessary was 
established at Long^vood, together with a stock- 
yard, under the direction of a proper person. 

7th. — Major Gorrequer came up, and had a 
long conversation with Count Montholon, in my 
presence. The latter told him that orders had been 


ffvext ta discharge seven servants^ which) with the 
consequent saving of provisions, and a reduction 
of wine^ would diminish the expenses of the esta- 
blishment to about 15,194/. annually ; but that 
sum was the minimum of mlnimum^y and that no 
further reductions could possibly take place. Ma- 
jor Gorrequer observed, that it was nearly what 
he had calculated himself. However, he still per- 
sisted in declaring that on the 15th, not more than 
1,000/. per month would be allowed. Count Mon- 
tholon then, after renewing the offer made on the 
]£^ conversation, said, that as the emperor was not 
permitted by the British government to have ac- 
cess to his property, he had no other means left 
thap to dispose of his property, and that accord- 
ingly a portion of his plate would be sent to the 
town for sale, in order to obtain the sum required 
monthly, in addition to that allowed by Sir Hud- 
son Lowe, to provide them with the necessaries of 
life. Major Gorrequer said, that he would ac- 
quaint the governor with it. 

Sir Hudson Lowe, accompanied by General 
Meade, (who had arrived a day or two before) 
came up and rode round Longwood. He appeared 
to point out to the general the limits, and other 
matters connected with the piisoners. 

At night Napoleon sent for me, and complained 
of severe headach. He was sitting in his bed* 
room, wiih only a wood fire bmning^ the flames 


of wbicli» alternately blazing and sinking, gave at 
inoments a most singular and melancholy expres- 
sion to bis countenance, as be sat opposite to it 
with his hands crossed upon his knees, probably 
reflecting upon his forlorn condition. After a 
moment's pause, ^^ Dottore^ said he; ^^potete dar 
qualcosa a far dormire un uomo che non pud ? 
This is beyond your art. I have been trying iu 
vain to procure a little rest. I cannot,** con- 
tinued he, ^^ well comprehend the conduct of 
your ministers. They go to tbe expense of 60, 
or 70,000/. in sending out furniture, wood, and 
building materials for my use, and at the same 
time send orders to put me neaily on rations, and 
oblige me to discharge my servants, and make 
redactions incompatible with the decency and 
comfort of the house. Then we have aid-de- 
camps, making stipulations about a bottle of wine 
and two or three pounds of meat, with as nmch 
gravity and consequence as if they were treating 
about the distribution of kingdoms. I see contra- 
dictions that I cannot reconcile : on the one hand, 
enoimous and useless expenditure ; on the other, 
unpai*alleled meanness and littleness. Why do not 
they allow me to provide myself with every thing, 
instead of disgi*acing the character of the nation r 
They will not funiish my followei-s vrith what they 
have been accustomed to, nor will they allow me 
to provide for them by sending sealed letters. 
Vol. I. Q 


through a mercantile house even of then* own se* 
lection. For no man in France would answer a 
letter of mine, when he knew that it would be 
read by the Englisli minister, and that he would 
consequently be denounced to the Bourbons, and 
his property and person exposed to certain de- 
struction. Moreover, your own ministers have not 
given a specimen of good faith in seizing upon the 
trifling sum of money that I had in the Bellero- 
phon ; which gives reason to suppose that they 
would do the same again, if they knew where any 
of my property was placed. It must be,** conti* 
nued he, " to gull the English nation. John Bull, 
seeing all this furniture sent out, and so much pa- 
rade and shew in the preparations made in England, 
concludes that I am well treated here. If they 
knew the truth and the dishonour which it reflects 
upon them they would not sufier it.** He then 
asked who was " that strange general officer ?** I 
replied. General Meade, who with Mrs. Meade, 
had arrived a few days back. That I had been 
tinder his command in Egypt, where he had been 
severely wounded. *'What, with Abercrombie r** 
^ No,- I replied, " during the unfortunate attack 
npon Rosetta.** " What sort of a man is he ?** I 
replied, that he bore a very excellent character. 
*'That governor,** said he, "was seen stopping 
him frequently, and pointing in different direc- 
tions. I suppose that he has been filling his head 


with bugie about me, and has told him that I hate 
the sight of every Englishman, as some of his 
canaille have said to the officers of the 53rd. I shall 
order a letter to be written to tell him that I will 
see him.** 

8th. — ^A letter written by Count Montholon to 
General Meade, containing cm invitation to come 
to Longwood, and stating that the emperor would 
be glad to see him. This was g^ven to Captain 
Poppleton, who was also requested to inform 
Mrs. Meade that Napoleon could scarcely re- 
quest a lady to visit him ; but that, if she came, 
he should be happy to see her likewise. Captain 
Poppleton delivered this letter open to Sir Hud- 
son Lowe. His excellency handed the note to 
General Meade. On the road down to James 
Town, General Meade reined back his horse, and 
spoke to Captain Poppleton nearly as follows : 
that he should have been very happy to have 
availed himself of the invitation, but that he un- 
derstood restrictions existed, and that he must 
apply to the governor for permission, and in the 
next place the vessel was under weigh, and he 
could not well detain her. This he begged of 
him to convey to Longwood. A written apology 
was afterwards sent by him to the count, expres- 
sing his thanks for the honour done to him, and 
excusing himself on the ground of the vessel's 
being under weigh. 


9///. — ^Njipoleon complained of head-ach, colic, 
&c, — I wished him to take a dose of physic, which 
he declined, saying, that he would cure himself 
by diet and chicken water. He said, that Geneml 
Meade had written an apology to Count Montho- 
lon, expressing his inability to accept of the invita- 
tion ; •* but I am convinced," continued he, " that 
in reality he was prevented by the governor. Tell 
him the first time yon see him that I said he pre- 
vented Genei-al Meade from coming to see me." 

General Gourgaud and Montholon complained 
of the wine, which they suspected contained lead, 
as it gave them the colic, and desired me to get 
3ome tests in order to analyze it. 

Young Las Cases and Pointkowski went to 
town this day, and had a conversation with the 
Russian and French commissioners. On their 
return, Pointkowski said, that on their arrival 
Sir Tliomas Reade had sent orders to the lieute- 
nant who accompanied them, not to allow them to 
separate ; and that he must follow them every- 
where, and listen to their conversation. While 
they were speaking to the Rose-bud, (a very pret- 
ty young lady, so denominated from the fresh- 
ness and fineness of her complexion), one of Sir 
Thomas Readers orderlies brought out their 
horses by his command, with directions to inform 
them that their servant was drunk, and that 
if they did not leave the town, directly, he, (Sir 


Thomas)^ would confine him as he was a soldier^ 
and punish him for being drunk. That young Las 
Cases, who was cooler^ had desired him to denumd 
an order in writing to that effect ; but that in his 
passion he could not help saying that he would 
horsewhip any person who attempted to lead the 
horses away. 

lOth. — Napoleon after some conversation touch- 
ing the state of his health, said, that '^ while 
young Las Cases was speaking to the Russian 
commissioner, yesterday, the governor was walk- 
ing up and down before the house where they 
were, watching them. I could not have believed 
it possible before, that a lieutenant-general and a 
governor, could have demeaned himself by acting 
as a gendarme. Tell him so the next time you see 

Napoleon then made some observations upon 
the bad quality of the wine furnished to Longwood, 
and remarked^ that when he was a sous lieutenant 
of artillery, he had a better table, and drank better 
wine than at preser.t. 

I saw Sir Hudson Lowe afterwards, who asked 
me if General Bonaparte had made any observa- 
tions relative to General Meade's not having ac- 
cepted the offer made to him ? I replied that he 
had said he was convinced that he, (Sir Hudson), 
had prevented him from accepting of it, and had 
desired me tell him that such was his opinion. 
No sooner had I pronounced this^ than his excel- 


lency^s countenance changed, and he exclcdmed 
in a violent tone of voice, " He is a d d lying 
rascal^ a d— d black-hearted villain. I wished 
General Meade to accept it, and told him to do 
so.** He then walked about for a few minutes in 
an agitated manner, repeating, ^ that none but a 
black-hearted villain would have entertained such 
an idea ;" then mounted his horse, and rode away. 
He had not proceeded more than about a hundred 
paces, when he wheeled round, rode back to where 
I was standing, and said in a very angry manner, 
" Tell General Bonaparte that the assertion that I 
prevented General Meade from going to see him, i 
una bugia infame^ e chee un buglardone chi P ha 
detto* Tell him my exact words.** 

Sir Thomas Reade informed me that Point- 
kowski's account of the transaction in town was 
false ; that the only orders he had given to Lieute- 
nant Sweeny, were not to lose sight of them. That 
seeing their servant was so drunk, that he could 
not sit on horseback, he had sent his own orderly 
to assist in bringing the hoi^es out, merely as an 
act of civility. 

12M. — Napoleon still unwell ; complained of 
slight colic. Recommended him strongly to take 
a dose of Epsom salts. In a good humoured man- 

* The words were delivered in Italian^ and signify in English, *' is 
«n mfamous lit, and the person who said it, is a great liar,** — It is al- 
most unnecessary for me to Bay, that I did not deliver this mona^ 
in the manner 1 was directed to convey it 


ner he gave me a slap in the face, aiid said if he 
was not better to-morrow, he would take his own 
medicine, crystals of tartar. During the conversa- 
tion I informed him that the governor had assured 
me that he had not only not prevented General 
Meade from seeing him, but that he had recom* 
mended him to accept of the invitation. ^ I do 
not believe him,** said Napoleon, ^^ or if he did, 
it was done in such a manner as to let the other 
know that he would rather wish he did not avail 
himself of it.** 

I related afterwards to him the explanation 
given to me by Sir Thomas Reade, of Point- 
kowski*s afimr. ^'What I complain of,** said he, 
*^ is the disingenuous manner in which they act, in 
order to prevent any of the French from going to 
the town. Why do they not say at once manfully, 
* You cannot go to town,* and then nobody will 
ask, instead of converting officers into spies and 
gendarmes, by making them follow the French 
every where, and listen to their conversation. But 
their design is to throw so many impediments in 
the way, and render it so disagreeable to us as to 
amount to a prohibition, without giving any direct 
orders, to enable this governor to say that we have 
the liberty of the town, but that we do not choose 
to avail ourselves of it.** 

I saw Sir Hudson Lowe in town, to whom I 
explained what I had said to Napoleon about 


Pointkowski, his reply, also the complaint made 
by Generals Gourgaud and Montholon of the 
wine, and his request that I might procure some 
tests to analyze it. A few bottles of clai^t have 
been borrowed from Capt. Poppleton for Napo- 
leons own use. 

13///. — ^Napoleon much better. Had a conver- 
sation witli Mr. Balcombe relative to the concerns 
of the establistiment. 

A large quantity of plate weighed for the pur- 
pose of being broken up for sale. Information 
given of this by Captain Poppleton to Sir Hudson 
Lowe. Complaints made by Count Montholon 
and Cipriani of the state of the copper saucepans 
at Longwood. Found them^ on examination^ to 
be in want of immediate tinning. Communicated 
the above to Major Gorrequer, with a request that 
a tradesman might be sent forthwith to repair them. 
A letter came from Mr. Balcombe to Count Mon- 
tholon^ containing the scale of provisions,* &c. 
which had been fixed for their daily use, accord- 
ing to the reduction ordered by the governor. 
Montholon refused to sign any more receipts. 

In the evening, Cipriani went to Capt. Maunsell, 
and requested of him to obtain for him a dozen 
or two of the same claret which for two or three 
days they had borrowed from Captain Poppleton 
for the emperor, and which had been got from the 

* See Appendix, No. IV. 


58rd'8 mess, as that sent up from James Town had 
given faim the colic, adding that they wonld dther 
pay for it, or return an equal quantity. This re- 
quest was interpreted by me to Capt. Maunsell, 
who said that he would endeavour to procure it. 

Received an answer from Major Gorrequer, 
acquainting me that he had ordered a new bMerie 
de cuisine to be sent to Longwood, &c. &c. 

Sir Hudson Lowe and staff in camp ; he was 
very angry at the request which had been made to 
Captain Maunsell to procure the wine. It appeared 
that Capt. Maunsell had mentioned it to his bro- 
ther, and to the wine-committee of the regiment, 
who proposed to send a case of claret to Napo- 
leon. This was told to Sir George Bingham, and 
reported by him to the governor, who sent for me, 
and said, that I had no business to act as inter- 
preter on such an occasion. Major Gorrequer 
observed, that the wine had been sent out for the 
use of General Bonaparte, and that he ought to 
be obliged to drink it, or get nothing else. 

\5th. — ^^Vrote to Major Gorrequer, in answer 
to some points of his last letter, and gave him an 
explanation about the wine affair of yesterday ; in 
which I stated that General Gourgaud had affirmed 
that there was lead in the wine, and had begged of 
me to procure some tests for the purpose of ascer- 
taining the fact ; adding, that I had acquainted Sir 
Hudson Lowe with this request the last time I had 

Vol. I. R 


seen him in town. I hinted also that it was very na- 
tural for Napoleon to believe General GourgancTs 
assertion (who was considered to be a good che- 
mist), until it was proved not to be correct. This 
letter I requested him to lay before the governor. 

17 th. — Gave a minute explanation to Sir Hud- 
son Lowe in person of the wine transaction be- 
tween Captain Maunsell, Cipriani, and myself^ 
with which his excellency was pleased to say he 
was perfectly satisfied. 

This day, Major Gorrequer, in the course of con- 
versation with me relative to the provisioning of 
Longwood, said, that Sir Hudson Lowe had ob- 
served, that any soldiers who would attend at 
Longwood as servants to General Bonaparte, 
were unworthy of rations. Sir Thomas Reade 
begged of me to try and get him some of Napo- 
leon's plate whole, which he observed, would sell 
better in that state than if it were broken up. 

18/A. — Sir Hudson Lowe at Longwood. Sir 
Thomas Reade told me that Bertrand had injured 
himself very much in his conversation with the 
governor, as the latter had found it to be his duty 
to write a strong letter on the subject to Lord 

I9th. — ^A large portion of Napoleon's plate 
broken up, the imperial arms and the eagles cut 
out and put by. Count Montholon applied to 
Captain Poppleton for an officer to accompany 


him to James Town, for the purpose of disposing 
of the plate^ with which the latter acquainted the 
governor forthwith by an orderly. Received back 
an order to acquaint Count Montholon, '' that the 
money produced by the sale of the silver should 
not be paid to him^ but be deposited in the hands 
of Mr. Balcombe the purveyor, for the use of 
General Bonaparte.** 

21^.— nSir Pulteney Malcolm came up to Long- 
wood, in order to take leave of Napoleon, prior 
to his departure for the Cape of Good Hope, 
Miiich was expected to take place in a few days. 
Had a long interview, and was received very gra- 
ciously by Napoleon, the conversation was chiefly 
relative to the Scheldt, Antwerp, battles in Ger- 
many, the Poles, &c. 

Wrote last night to Sir Thomas Reade, by re- 
quest of Madame Bertrand, to know whether per- 
mission would be granted that a phaeton, which 
had been purchased with Napoleon's own money, 
and afterwards g^ven by him to Madame Bertrand, 
might be sent to the Cape for sale by Sir Pulteney 
Malcolm's ship. Concluded by requesting him 
to let me know, before he applied to the governor, 
if there was any impropriety in the request, as in 
that case it should not be made. 

23rd. — ^Received an answer from Sir Thomas 
Reade, announcing that the governor had given 
his consent for the sale of the phaeton^ with a pro* 


viso^ that the money derived from it should not 
be paid to themselves^ but deposited in Mr. Bal^ 
combe's hands. Three of Bertrand's servants very 
seriously ill. 

Heard a curious anecdote of Gen. Vandamme. 
When made prisoner by the Russians, he was 
brought before the emperor Alexander, who re* 
proached him in bitter terms with being a robber, 
a plunderer, and a murderer ; adding, that no fa- 
vour could be granted to such an execrable cha* 
racter. This was followed by an order that he 
should be sent to Siberia, whilst the other pri<^ 
sonei-s were sent to a much less northern destina* 
tion. Vandamme replied with great sang froid^ 
^^ It may be, sire, that I am a robber and a plun* 
derer ; but at least I have not to reproach myself 
vnXh having soiled my hands with the blood of a 
father 1 1" 

Met Sir Hudson Lowe on his way to Long* 
wood, who observed, that General Bonaparte had 
done himself a great deal of mischief by the letters 
which he caused Count Montholon to write, and 
that he wished him to know it. That by ooor 
ducting himself properly for some years, the mi- 
nistei-s might believe him to be sincere, and aUow 
him to return to England. He added, that he 
(Sir Hudson) had written such letters to England 
about Count Las Cases, as would effectually pre- 
vent his ever being permitted to return to France. 


On his arrival at Longwood, the fowls which had 
been sent up for the da/s consumption were shewn 
to his excellency by Captain P. He was pleased 
to admit that they were very bad« 

37/A. — The commissioners came up to Lon^'^ 
wood gate, and wanted to enter^ but were refused 
admission by the officer of the guard, as their 
passes did not specify Longwood, but merely 
^ wherever a British officer might pass.* 

28th. — ^Napoleon occupied in reading Denon^s 
large work on Egypt, from which he was making 
some extracts with his own hand. 

October 1st. — Repeated to Napoleon what Sir 
Hudson Lowe had desired me on the 23rd. He 
replied, *'I expect nothing from the present mi- 
nistry but ill treatment. The more they want to 
lessen me, the more I will exalt myself. It was 
my intention to have assumed the name of Colonel 
Meuron, who was killed by my side at Areola, 
covering me with his body, and to have lived as 
a private person in England, in some part of the 
country where I might have lived retired, without 
ever desiring to mix in the grand world. I would 
never have gone to London, nor have dined out. 
Probably I should have seen very few persons. 
Perhaps I might have formed a friendship with 
some savans. I would have rode out every day, and 
then returned to my books.** I observed, that as 
long as he kept up the title of majesty, the English 


ministers would have a pretext for keeping him 
in St. Helena. He replied, ^ they force me to it. 
I wanted to assume an incognito on my arrival 
here, which was proposed to the admiral, but 
they will not permit it. They insist on calling 
me General Bonaparte. I have no reason to be 
ashamed of that title, but I will not take it from 
them. If the republic had not a legal existence, 
it had no more right to constitute me general, than 
first magistrate. If the admiral had remained," 
continued he, " perhaps matters might have been 
arranged. He had some heart, and to do him 
justice was incapable of a mean action. Do 
you think,** added he, " that he will do us an in- 
jury on his arrival in England ?" I replied, ** I do 
not think that he will render you any service, par- 
ticularly in consequence of the manner in which 
he was treated when he last came up to see yoii, 
but he will not tell any falsehoods : he will strictly 
adhere to the truth, and give his opinion about 
you, which is not very favourable.** " Why so,** 
replied he, ** we were very well together on board 
ship. What can he say of me ? that I want to 
escape, and mount the throne of France again ?** 
I replied, that it was very probable he would 
both think and say so. *^ Bah,** replied Napo- 
leon. ^^ If I were in England now, and a depu- 
tation from France were to come and offer me the 
throne, I would not accept of it, unless I knew such 


to be the unanimous wish of the nation. Other- 
wise I should be obliged to turn bourreau, and cut 
off the heads of thousands to keep myself upon 
it— oceans of blood must flow to keep me there. — 
I have made noise enough in the world already, 
perhaps too much, and am now getting old, and 
want retirement. These," continued he, " were 
the motives which induced me to abdicate the 
last time.** I observed to him, that when he was 
emperor, he had caused Sir George Cockbum*8 
brother to be arrested, when envoy at Hamburg, 
and conveyed to France, where he was detained 
for some years. He appeared surprised at this, 
and endeavoured to recollect it. After a pause, 
he asked me, if I was sure that the person so ar- 
rested was Sir George Cockbum's brother. I re- 
plied, that I was perfectly so, as the admiral had 
told me the circumstance himself. " It is likely 
enough,** replied he, " but I do not recollect the 
name. I suppose, however, that it must have 
been at the time when I caused all the English I 
could find on the continent to be detained, be- 
cause your government had seized upon all the 
French ships, sailors, and passengers they could 
lay their hands upon in harbour, or at sea, before 
the declaration of war. I, in my turn, seized upon 
all the English that I could find at land, in order 
to shew them that if they were all-powerful at 
sea, and could do what they liked there, I was 


equally so by land^ and had as good a right to 
seize people on my element as they had upon 
tfadrs. Now^ said he, ^^I can comprehend tbci 
reason why your ministers selected him. I am 
surprised, however, that he never told me any 
thing about it. A man of delicacy would not have 
accepted the task of conducting me here under 
similar circumstances. You will see,** continued 
he, '^ that in a short time the English will cease to 
hate me. So many of them have been, and are ia 
France, where they will heai* the truth, that they 
will produce a revolution of opinion in England-^ 
I will leave it to them to justify me, and I have 
no doubts about the result.** 

Learned that the commissioners had obtained 
permission from Sir Hudson Lowe to come as far 
as the inner gate of Longwood. 

Sir Hudson Lowe, accompanied by Sir Hios. 
Reade, Major Gorrequer, Wynyard, and Prichard, 
and followed by three dragoons and a servant; 
rode into Longwood^ alighted in front of the bil- 
liard-room, and demanded to ^^see General Bo- 
naparte.** A reply was given by General Mon- 
tholon, that he was indisposed. This did not 
satisfy his excellency, who sent ag^ in rather an 
authoritative manner, to say, that he had some- 
thing to communicate, which he wanted to deliver 
in person to General Bonaparte^ and to no other 
person would he give it An answer was sent. 


that notice would be given to him when he could 
be received, that Napoleon was then suffering 
with a bad tooth. At four, p. m. Napoleon sent 
for me, and desired me to look at one of the denies 
sapientice, which was carious and loose. He then 
asked me if I knew what the governor wanted, or 
why he wished to see him ? I replied, that per- 
haps, he had some communication from Lord 
Bathurst, which he did not like to deliver to any 
other person. " It will be better for us not to 
meet," said Napoleon. '^ It is probably some 
litise of Lord Bathurst, which he will make worse 
by his ungracious manner of communicating it. I 
am sure it is nothing that is good, or he would not 
be so anxious to deliver it himself. Lord * * * * is 
a bad man, his communications are bad, and he is 
worse than all. Nothing good can arise from an 

^^ The last time I saw him he laid his hand 
upon his sabre two or three times in a violent 
manner, therefore go to him or to Sir T. Reade to- 
morrow, and tell him that if he has any thing to 
communicate, he had better send it to Bertrand, 
or Bertrand will go to his house : assure him that 
he may rely upon Bert rand's making a faithful re- 
port. Or let him send Colonel Reade to me to 
explain what he has to say; I will receive and 
hear him, because he will be only the bearer of 
orders and not the giver of them ; therefore if he 

VOL. I. 8 


comes upon a bad mission, I shall not be angry; 
as he will only obey the orders of a superior." I 
endeavoured to induce him to meet the governor, 
in order, if possible, to make up the differences be- 
tween them ; but he replied, ^^ to meet him would 
be the worst mode of attempting it, as he was con- 
*Ment it was some betise of Lord Bathursfs which 
he would make worse, and convert into an insult 
by his brutal mode of delivering it. You know,"* 
added he, ^^ I never got into a passion with the 
admiral, because even when he had something 
bad to communicate, he did it with some feeling ; 
but this man treats us as if we were so many de- 
; serters,** 

Knowing that Sir Thomas Reade was quite 

: incapable of explaining to him in either French or 

Italian the purport of any communication ex- 

. ceeding a few words, I asked him, ^^ In case Sir 

' Thomas Reade should not find himself capable of 

' . expl^ning perfectly every particular, and should 

. commit what he had to say to paper, if he would 

read it, or allow it to be read to him ?"* he replied 

^* certainly, let him do this, or send it to Bertrand. 

.As to me, perhaps I shall not see him for six n&onths. 

Let him break open the doors or level the house, I 

;am not subject to the English laws, because they do 

not protect me. I am sure,*" continued he, '^ that he 

iias nothing pleasant to communicate, or he would 

not be so anxious to do it personally. Nothing 


bat insulte or bad news ever came from Lord 
Bathiirst. I wish they would give orders to have 
me despatched. I do not like to commit suicide ; 
it is a thing that I have always disapproved of. I 
have made a vow to dndn the cup to the last 
draught ; but I should be most rejoiced if they 
would send directions to put me to death." 

2nd. — Saw Napoleon in the morning. A 
tooth-ach, he said, had prevented him from 
sleeping a great part of the night : his cheek was 
swelled. Aifter having examined the tooth, I re- 
commended the extraction of it. He desired rae 
to go to the governor and deliver a message, the 
purport of which was, that in consequence of in- 
disposition, pain, and want of sleep, he found him- 
self unfit to listen calmly to communications, or 
to enter into discussions ; therefore that he wished 
the governor would communicate to Count JBer- 
trand whatever he had to say. That Count Ber- 
trand would faithfully report it to him. If he 
would not communicate it to Count Bertrand, or to 
any other resident at Longwood, Napoleon would 
have no objection to receive it from Colonel 
Reade. The remainder of the message was simi- 
lar to what he had said on the same subject yes^ 
terday. ** If," added he, ** that man were to bring 
me word that a frigate had arrived for the pur- 
pose of taking me to England, I should conceive 
it to be bad news, because he was the bearer of it. 


TV^th such a temper of mind, you must see haw 
improper it would be that an interview should 
take place. He came up here yesterday, sur- 
rounded with his staff, as if he were going in state 
to assist at an execution, instead of asking pri- 
vately to see me. Three times has he gone away 
in a passion, therefore it will be better that no moi'e 
interviews should take place between us, as no 
good can arise from it ; and, as he represents his 
nation here, I do not like to insult or make severe 
remarks to him, similar to those I was obliged to 
express before. 

Went to Sir Hudson Lowe, to whom I made 
known the message with which I had been charged^ 
suppressing the offensive parts, but communicating 
all that was necessary to elucidate its meaning. His 
excellency desired me to give it to him in writing, 
and then told me, that the secretary of state had sent 
directions to him to inquire very minutely concern- 
ing a letter which had appeared in one of the Ports- 
mouth papers concerning Bonaparte, and which 
had given great offence to his majesty's ministers ; 
particularly as it had been reported to them by 
Captain Hamilton of the Havannah frigate, that 
I was cither the author, or had brought it on 
board. His excellency then asked me who I had 
written to, adding, " there is no harm in the letter. 
It is very correct in general, but the ministers do 
not like that any thing should be published about 


him. Every thing must come through them C* also 
that Captain Hamilton had reported that it was »i 
anonymous letter, and expressly intended for pub- 
lication. I replied to Sir Hudson Lowe, that I 
had never written an anonymous letter in my life, 
and that several letters had been published in the 
newspapers, of which I had been supposed the 
author, until another individual had acknowledged 
them to have been written by him« Sir Hudson 
Lowe desired me to write a letter of explanation 
to him on the subject ; after which, he dictated to 
Sir Thomas Reade what he wished me to express 
in answer to General Bonaparte, of which I took 
the following copy ; which the governor read be- 
fore I left the house. 

"Ilie principal object of the governor's visit to 
Longwood to sec General Bonaparte, was from a 
sense of attention towards him, in order to ac- 
quaint him, first, with instructions received con- 
cerning his officers, which could only be decided 
by him, before informing them. The governor 
would wish the communication with General Bo- 
naparte should be made by himself in the pre- 
sence of Sir Thomas Reade, or some of his own 
staff, and one of the French generals. He never 
intended to say any thing which would affront or 
insult General Bonaparte ; on the contrary, he 
wished to conciliate and modify the strict letter 
of bis instructions, with every attention and re- 


spect to him, and cannot conceive the cause of so 
much resentment manifested by General Bona- 
parte towards him. If he would not consent to 
an intei*view with the governor in the presence 
of other pei*sons, the governor would send Sir 
Thomas Reade, (if he consented to it,) to commu- 
nicate the general purport of what he had to say, 
leaving some points for future discussion. If 
Count Bertrand was sent to the governor, some 
expression of concern would be required from 
him for the language made use of by him to the 
governor, on the last interview which the governor 
undertook, by desire of General Bonaparte him- 
self ; and the governor conceives the same expres- 
sion of concern necessary from Count Bertrand, 
on the part of General Bonaparte himself, for his 
intemperate language in the last interview with 
the governor ; and then the latter will express bis 
c )ncern for any words made use of by him in re- 
ply, which may have been deemed unpleasant, us 
there was no intention on his part, of saying any 
thing offensive, his words being merely repelling 
an attack made upon him, and this he would not 
do to a person in any other situation than that of 
General Bonaparte. But if the latter is determined 
to dispute with the governor for endeavouring to 
execute his orders, he sees little hope of a proper 
imderstanding between them.** 

On my return to Longwood, I mmutely ex- 

.4 ▼OIOB WBOU n. HILBNA. 195 

pbdned the above to Napoleon, both alone, and in 
the presence df Count Bertrand. Napoleon smiled 
contemptaoody at the idea of /us apologizing to 
Sir Hudson Lowe. 

9nL — Saw Napoleon in the morning. After I 
had inquired into the state of his health, he enter- 
ed upon the business of yesterday. ^' As this go- 
vernor,** says he, ^ declares that he will not com- 
municate the whole to Reade, but intends to re- 
serve some future points for discussion, I shall 
not see him, for I only agree to see Reade, in 
Older to avoid the sight of the other ; and by re- 
serving the points he speaks of, he might come up 
again to-morrow or next day, and demand another 
interview. If he wants to communicate let him 
send his adjutant-general to Bertrand, or to Mon- 
tholon, or to Las Cases, or Gourgaud, or to you ; 
or send for one of them, and explain it himself; or 
let him communicate the whole to Reade or to Sir 
George Bingham, or somebody else ; and then I 
will see the person so chosen. If he still insists 
on seeing me, I will write myself in answer, ^ The 
Emperor Napoleon will not see you, because the 
last three times you were with him you insulted 
lum, and he does not wish more communication 
with you.* I well know that if we have another 
interview there will be disputes and abuse : a sus- 
picious gesture might produce I know not what. 
H^ for his own sake, ought not to desire one, 


after the language which I applied to him the ladC 
time. I told him, before the admimi, when he 
said that he only did his duty, that so did the 
hangman, but that one was not obliged to see 
that hangman until the moment of execution. 
a sono state tre scene. Scene vergognose ! I do 
not wish to renew them. I know that my blood 
will be heated. I will tell him that no power on 
earth obliges a prisoner to see and debate with 
his executioner; for his conduct has made him 
such to me. He pretends that he acts according 
to his instructions ; a government two thousand 
leagues distant can do no more than point out 
the general manner in which things must be con^ 
ducted, and must' leave a great discretionary 
power, which he distorts and turns in the worst 
possible manner, in order to torment me. A proof 
that he is worse than his government is, that they 
have sent out several things to make me comSattr- 
able ; but he does nothing but torment, insult, 
and render my existence as miserable as possible. 
To complete the business, he writes letters full of 
smoothness and sweetness, professing every re» 
gard, which he afterwards sends home to make 
the world believe that he is our best friend. I 
want to avoid another scena with him. I never. 
In the height of my power, made use of such lan- 
guage to any man, as I was compelled to apply 
to him. ^ It would have been unpardonable at the 


ThuillerieA. I would sooner have a tooth drawn, 
than have an interview with him. He has a bad 
miflfliMi, and fulfils it badly. I do not think that 
he is aware how much we hate and despise him ; 
I should like him to know it. He suspects every 
body, even his own staff are not free from it. You 
see that he will not confide to Reade. Why does 
he not go to Montholon or Las Cases, if he does 
not like Bertrand?** I replied, that Sir Hudson 
Lowe had said he could not repose confidence in 
the fidelity of either of them, in reporting the pur- 
port of his conversation. ^' Oh,** said he, '' he is 
offended with Montholon about that letter, written 
in August last, and with Las Cases, because he 
not only writes the truth to a lady in London, but 
tells it every where here.** I replied, " the gover- 
nor has accused Count Las Cases of having 
written many falsehoods respecting what has 
passed here.** "Las Cases,** replied he, "would 
not be blockhead enough to write lies, when he 
was obliged to send the letters containing them 
through his hands. He only writes the truth, 
which that geolier does not wish to be known. I 
am sure that he wants to tell me that some of my 
generals are to be removed, and wishes to throw 
the odium of sending them away upon me, by 
leaving the choice to me. They would send you 
away too, if they were not afraid you would do 
some mischief in England, by telling what you 
Vol. I. T 


have seen. Their design, I believe, is to send 
every body away who might be inclined to make 
my life less disagreeable. Truly they have chosen 
a pretty representative for Bathurst. I would 
sooner have an interview with the corporal of the 
guard, than with that galeriano. How different 
it was with the admiral ! We used to converse to- 
gether sociably, on different subjects, like friends. 
But this man is only fit to oppress and insult those 
whom misfortune has placed in his power." 

After this, he conversed upon various subjects. 
He made some observations upon the marriage of 
the Princess Chariotte with Prince Leopold and 
spoke in terms of praise of the latter, whom he 
had seen at Paris during his reign. 

According to his desire, I wrote an account of 
what he had said to Sir Hudson Lowe ; avoiding, 
however, to repeat the strongest of his expressions. 

4th. — Sir Thomas Reade came up to my room 
at Longwood, with a written p^)er from the go- 
vernor, containing the new instructions which 
the latter had received from England. I went to 
Napoleon and announced him. He asked me, ^ if 
he was in full possession of every thing?" I re- 
plied, that he had told me so. He desired me to 
introduce him. When I went back. Sir Hiomas 
Reade told me that bis mission was not a vety 
pleasant one, and that he hoped *^ Bonaparte 
would not be offended with him,** and asked me 


h€fW be should explain it to him. I told him how 
to tetpress himself to this effect in Italian. We 
tbea went into the garden where Napoleon was : I 
iBtroduced him, and left them together. In a few 
minntes. Napoleon called Count Las Cases, and 
told him to translate aloud in French, the con- 
tents of the paper, according as Reade repeated it. 
When Reade came to my room on his return, he 
Sttd that Napoleon had been very civil to him, 
tad that so far from being offended, he had asked 
him the news and laughed, and only observed (as 
^e knight repeated in his Italian,) '' Piit mi si 
ferseguiterdf meglio andrh e mostrerh al mondo che 
rabbia de persecuzioni. Fra poco tempo mi si /e- 
veranno tutti gli altriy e quakhe mattina nCam^ 
mazzerannor Sir Thomas then allowed me to 
read the paper, the contents of which were as fol- 
lows : " That the French who wished to remain 
with General Bonaparte must sign the simple 
form, which would be given to them of their wil- 
lingness to submit to whatever restrictions might 
be imposed upon General Bonaparte, without 
making any remarks of their own upon it. Those 
who refused, would be sent off directly to the 
Cape of Good Hope. The establishment to be 
reduced in number four persons ; those who re- 
mained, were to consider themselves to be amen- 
able to the laws, in the same manner as if they were 
British subjects, especially to those which had been 


framed for the safe custody of Geneml Bonaparte^ 
and declaring the aiding and assisting of him to 
escape, felony. Any of them, abusing, reflecting 
upon, or behaving ill to the governor, or the govern- 
ment they were under, would be forthwith sent to 
the Cape, where no facilities would be aflbrded for 
their conveyance to Europe." It explained, also^ 
that it was not to be understood, that the obligar 
tion was to be eternal on those who signed. There 
was also a demand for 1 ,400/. paid for books, whidi 
had been sent out. The whole was couched in 
language of a highly peremptory nature. SirTho- 
mas then told me that Count Bertrand was to go 
the following day to Plantation House, and that 
I might hint to him, that if he behaved himself 
well, perhaps none but domestics would be sent 
away, but that all depended upon his ^ good 
behaviour r 

5th. — ^AVhile walking down the park in the 
morning, thinking of the occurrences of yesterday, 
I heard a voice calling me. Turning about, I was 
surprised to see the emperor, beckoning to, and 
calling me. After he asked how I was, he said, 
^^ Ebbene, hugiardo sempre questo govematore . 
There was nothing in the intelligence, which he 
said he could only communicate to myself, ^wiiich 
might not have been made known through Ber- 
trand, or any one else. But he thou^t that 
he had an opportunity of insulting and grieving 


mei which he eagerly embraced. He came up 
here with his staffs just as if he were going to an* 
noonce a wed^ng, with exultation and joy painted 
cm his countenance, at the idea of having it in his 
power to afflict me. He thought to plant a stih 
in my heart, and could not deny himself the plea- 
mre of witnessing and enjoying it personally. 
Never has he given a greater proof of a bad mind, 
than thus wishing to stab to the heart, one whom 
nosfortunes had placed in his power.** He then 
rq)eated some parts of the communication of yes- 
terday, and observed that it ought to be sent to 
thfsn in writing, as it was impossible for a French- 
man to understand a communication in English, 
by having heard it read only a few minutes. I took 
the liberty of strongly recommending that matters 
should be accommodated as much as possible ; as 
I said I had reason to believe that the governor 
was inclined to gi'ant that domestics should be 
sent away, instead of any of the generals ; but that 
if irritated, he might act otherwise. He replied, 
^ Voi ragionate come un uomo liber o, but we are 
not free ; we are in the power of a bojuy non cV 
rimedio. They will send away the rest by de- 
grees, and it is. as well for them to go now, as in a 
little time. What advantage shall I gain by having 
them here until the arrival of the next ship from 
England, or until that animale finds out some 
pretext to send them away. I would rather they 


were all gone than to have four or five personli 
trembling about me, having the dread of beiB|^ 
forced on board ship constantly hanging over their 
heads. For, by that communication of yesterday; 
they are placed entirely at his discretion. Let 
him send every body away, plant sentinels at the 
doors and windows, and send up nothing but 
bread and water, I regard it not. My mind is 
free. I am just as independent as when I com^ 
manded an army of six hundred thousand men t 
as I told him the other day. This heart is as free 
as when I gave laws to Europe. He wants them 
to sign restrictions without knowing what they 
are. No honest man would sign an obligation^ 
without first knowing what it was. But he wants 
them to sign to whatever he likes to impose here* 
after, and then, with lies always at command, he 
will assert that he has changed nothing. He is 
angry with Las Cases because he wrote to liis 
friends that he was badly lodged and badly 
treated. Was there ever heard of such tyranny? 
He treats people in the most barbarous manner ; 
heaps insults and injuries upon them, and thesa 
wants to deprive them of the liberty oi complaint. 
I do not,** continued he, ^^ think that Lord Liver*- 
pool, or even Lord Castlereagh, would allow me 
to be treated in the way I am. I believe that this 
governor only writes to Lord Bathurst, to whom 
he tells what he likes.** 


' Sr Hndfion Lowe signified to me yesterday, 
Ast be had done every thing in his power to prove 
(aftjsr my commnnication to him) that there was 
nothing vindictive in his conduct towards General 
Bonaparte ; but that not having been met^ he was 
better pleased to leave matters to their natural 
course, and to the judgment of the authority to 
wbidi they had been submitted ; and that I might 
mo0t distinctly contradict to General Bonaparte, 
ibBt he had laid his hand upon his sword ; that 
wttnesses could prove it ; that none but a confirm- 
ed villain could think of doing so agmnst an un- 
ftrmed man. That with respect to the instructions 
he had received, and his manner of making them 
known ; never having regarded General Bona- 
parte*8 opinion in any point, whether as to matter 
or manner, as an oracle by which to regulate his 
judgment, he was not disposed to think less favor- 
ably of the instructions, or of his mode of exe- 
cuting them ; on the contrary, that Bonaparte was, 
he feared insensible to any delicacy of proceed- 
ing ; so that with him^ one must either be a blind 
admirer of his frailties, or a yielding instrument to 
work with, a mere slave in thought to him. Other- 
wise, he who has business which opposes his views^ 
must make up his mind to every species of ob- 
loquy. He added^ that he had sent Sir Thomas 
Reade with his communication ; and concluded 
by intimating^ that before Genei^ Bonaparte pro- 


posed any other style of appellation, he should 
himself drop the title of emperor, and if he wished 
to assume a feigned name, why did he not propose 


Count Bertrand went to Plantation Hoose^ 
where he learnt that Piontkowski and three rf 
the domestics were to be sent away. 

9th. — Sir Hudson Lowe came up to Longwood, 
accompanied by Colonel Wynyard. ITiey went 
into Captain Poppleton's room, where they ap- 
peared to be very busily occupied for two hours. 
During this time the governor frequently came 
out, and walked up and down before the door, 
with one of his arms elevated, and the end of a 
finger in the angle of his mouth, as was his general 
custom when in thought. When they had finished^ 
a sealed packet was given to Captain Poppleton, 
to be delivered to Count Bertrand; after which 
his excellency came to me, and after some conver- 
sation, asked if I thought that any copies of Mon- 
tholon's letter to him had been distributed ? I re- 
plied, that it was veiy probable ; as there was no 
secret made of its contents ; and that the French^ 
as he well knew publicly avowed their intention 
and desire to circulate copies of it. He asked 
me if I thought that the commissioners had got 
a copy. I replied, " very likely.** He appeared 
very uneasy at this at first ; but afterwards said, 
that he had shewn the letter to them himself. 


He ihen asked me if I had got a copy. I replied. 
I bad. This alarmed his excellency much ; who 
demanded to see it^ and said that it would be fe^ 
Umy to send it to England. After some discussion 
upon the subject, during which I observed, that, 
considering my situation, and my being employed 
as I was between Longwood and Plantation 
House, I could not be ignorant of the principal 
part of what was passing. His excellency said, 
true ; and that it was my duty to tell him every 
thing that occurred between General Bonaparte 
and myself. I replied, that if there was any plot 
for his escape, or correspondence tending to it, or 
any thing suspicious, I should conceive it my duty 
to give him notice of it ; also if any thing of poli- 
tical importance was uttered by Napoleon, or 
anecdote, clearing up any part of his history, or 
which might prove serviceable to him, I would 
make him acquainted with it ; but that I could 
not think of telling him every thing, especially 
any thing abusive or injurious, that passed be- 
tween us, or whatever might tend to generate bad 
blood, or increase the difference already unhap- 
pily existing between them, unless ordered so to 
do. Sir Hudson at first agreed that it would not 
be proper to tell him any abuse of himself ; but 
immediately afterwards said, that it was essential 
for me to repeat it ; that one of the means which 
General Bonaparte had of escaping^ was vilifying 
Vol. I. u 


him ; that abtising and le ssening the character of 
the ministry^ was an underhand and a vile way of 
mdeavouring to escape from the island; and there- 
fore, that it was incumhent on me to communicate 
every thing of the kind instantly. That as to 
himself, he did not care ahout his abuse, and 
would never be actuated by vindictive feelmgs 
towards him ; but that he wished to know every 
thing : that nothing ought to be made known or 
communicated in England, except through him ; 
and that he himself only communicated with Lord 
Bathurst. Not perfectly agreeing with his excel- 
lency's sophistry, especially when I reflected upon 
the conversation which I had had with him under 
the trees at Plantation House two days after his 
last interview with Napoleon; I replied, that it 
did not appear that all the members of his ma- 
jesty's government were of a similar opinion, as I 
had received letters from official persons, with a 
request to communicate circumstances relative to 
Bonaparte, and returning thanks for my former 
letters, which had been shewn to some of the ca- 
binet ministers. The governor was excessively 
uneasy at this, and observed that those persons 
had nothing to do with Bonaparte ; that the se- 
cretary of state, with whom he corresponded* 
was the only one who ought to know any thing 
about the matter ; that he did not even communi- 
cate what passed to the Duke of York. That 


none of the ministers excepting Lord Bathui*st, 
ought to know what passed ; and that all commu- 
nication, even to his lordship ought to go through 
him, and him only. His excellency then obsei-ved, 
that my correspondence ought to be subject to the 
same restrictions as those on the attendants of Ge- 
neral Bonaparte. I replied, that if he was not sa- 
tisfied with the manner in which matters stood, I 
was ready to resign the situation I held, and go 
on board ship, as soon as he liked, as I was deter- 
mined not to give up any of my rights as a British 
officer. Sir Hudson said, that there was no ne- 
cessity for this ; that it would be very easy to ar- 
range matters ; and concluded by observing that it 
was a business which required consideration, and 
that he would renew the subject on another day. 

lOM. — Had some conversation with Napoleon 
in his dressing-room, during which I endeavoured 
to convince him that Sir Hudson Lowe might in 
reality have intended to offer civilities at times 
when his conduct was supposed to be insulting ; 
that his gestures sometimes indicated intentions 
far from liis thoughts ; and particularly explained 
to him that Sir Hudson Lowe's having laid his 
hand upon his sword, proceeded entirely from an 
involuntary habit which he had of seizing his 
sabre, and raising it between his side and his arm, 
(which I endeavoured to shew him by gestures) ; 
that he had himself expressed to me that none but 


ai confirmed villain would attempt to draw npon 
an Dnarmed man. "Per i ragazzi doitore^ re- 
plied Napoleon, "se non i hoja, almeno ne ha 
taria. Has he shewn you the new restrictions 
he has sent to us?" I replied, that he had not 
said a word about them. " Ah^ answered the 
emperor, " son certo che ahbta qualche cosa sinistra 
in vista." 

This evening Count Bertrand came to my room 
in order that I should assist him in translating 
some part ofthe new restrictions,* which were, he 
s^d of a nature so outrageous to the emperor^ 
that he was induced to flatter himself with the 
idea that he had not understood them. They 
were those parts where Napoleon was prohibited 
from going off the high road ; from going on the 
path leading to Miss Mason's ; from entering into 
any house, and from conversing with any person 
whom he might meet in his rides or walks. Pre* 
pared as I was by the governor's manner, and by 


tbe count had gone, I told the colonel what he 
wanted, and asked him if I was right in the coiw 
straction which I had given, which I explained to 
him. Colonel Wynyard replied, that I was per- 
fisctly correct. 

IIM. — Sir Hudson Lowe sent for me to town. 
Breakfasted in company with him at Sir Thomas 
Readers ; after which he told rae that he had 
something particular to say, hut that tbe place 
was not a proper one, and another time would do. 
Shewed to him and to Sir Thomas, the translar- * 
tion which I had made of those points in the re- 
striction, of which Count Bertrand had been 
doubtful. Sir Hudson observed, that I had trans- 
lated one part rather too strongly, viz. ** will be 
required to be strictly adhered to,** but that I had 
given a perfectly correct explanation of the sense. 
That the French were not to go down into the 
valley, or separate from the high road, as space' 
was given them to exercise only to preserve their 
health. That they were not to speak to any per- 
son, or enter any house ; and that there needed no . 
further explanation, as every restriction upon Ge- 
neral Bonaparte equally applied to his followers. 
He concluded by observing, that I had better 
take an opportunity of telling Bonaparte that I 
had heard the governor say that the orders origi- 
nated with the Britisli government, and that he 


was merely the person who carried them into exe- 
cution^ and not the framer. 

12th. — ^Napoleon, after asking many questions 
concerning a trial which took place yesterday, at 
which I had appeared as an evidence, spoke about 
the new restrictions, and observed that Bertrand 
could not be brought to think that he had rightly 
comprehended them, and asked me my opinion^ 
which I explained to him as briefly and delicately 
as I could. When I had finished, ** Che rahhia 
di persecuzioni^ exclaimed Napoleon. I observed, 
that I had heard the governor say yesterday, that 
the orders had originated with the British govern- 
ment, and that he was merely the person who 
carried them into execution, and not the framer. 
Napoleon looked at me in a most incredulous 
manner, smiled, and gave me in a good-natured 
manner a slap in the face. 

A quantity of plate sent to town to-day, and 
sold in the presence of Sir Thomas Reade to 
Mr. Balcombe, who was ordered by Reade to 
pay a certain sum an ounce for it, and the money 
which it produced, viz. about two hundred and 
forty pounds, was to lie in Balcombe*s hands, and 
to be drawn for in small sums, as their necessities 

Two letters anived from Sir Hudson Lowe for 
Bertrand. I did not see their contents, but was 


informed that one related to the new restrictions, 
and contained assertions that but little alteration 
had taken place in them, and that very little 
change in the limits had been ordered. The 
other a reprimand to Count Las Cases for hav- 
ing presumed to g^ve Mr. Balcombe, (the pur- 
veyor), an order on the count*s banker in Lon- 
don, without having first asked the governor s per- 
mission, and also containing a demand for the price 
of the books sent out by government for General 
Bonaparte^s use. Notwithstanding this, it ap- 
peared that Las Cases had acquainted the gover- 
nor with his intentions, and obtained his consent, 
which his excellency had forgotten, and detained 
Las Cases' order when presented to him by Mr. 

13th. — Napoleon in his bath. Complained of 
headach, and general uneasiness ; and was a 
little feverish. He railed against the island, and 
observed, that he could not walk out when the 
sun was to be seen, for half an hour, without get- 
ting a headach, in consequence of the want of 
shade. " Veramente^ said he, ^' it requires great 
resolution and strength of mind to support such 
an existence as mine in this horrible abode. Every 
day fresh colpi di stllo al cuore da questo bya, che 
ha piacere a far di male. It appears to be his 
only amusement. Daily he imagines modes of 
annoying,* insulting, and making me undergo fresh 


priTations. He wants to shorten my life by daily 
irritations. By his last restrictions, I am not per-- 
mitted to speak to any one I may meet. To peo» 
pie under sentence of death, this is not denied, 
A man may be ironed^ confined in a cell, and 
kept on bread and water, but the liberty of speak- 
ing is not denied to him. It is a piece of tyranny 
unheard of, except in the instance of the man with 
the iron mask. In the tribunals of the inquisi- 
tion a man is heard in his own defence ; but I 
have been condemned unheard, and without trial, 
in violation of all laws divine and human ; de- 
tained as a prisoner of .war in a time of peace ; 
separated from my wife and child, violently trans- 
ported here, where arbitrary and hitherto unknown . 
restrictions are imposed upon me ; extending even 
to the privation of speech. I am sure,** con- 
tinued he, " that none of the ministers except 
Lord Bathurst would give their consent to this 
last act of tyranny. His great desire of secrecy 
shews that he is afraid of his conduct being made 
known, even to the ministers themselves. Instead 
of all this mystery and espionage, they would do 
better to treat me in such a manner as not to be 
afraid of any disclosures being made. You re- 
collect what I said to you when this governor told 
me in presence of the admiral, that he would send 
any complaints we had to make to England, and 
get them published in the journals. You see 


nofw, that he is in fear and trembling lest Mon- 
tholoifg letter should find its way to England, or 
be known to the inhabitants here. They profess 
in England to furnish all my wants^ and in fact 
they send out many things : this man then comes 
out, reduces every thing, obliges me to sell my 
plate in order to purchase those necessaries of life 
which he either denies altogether, or supplies in 
quantities so small as to be insufficient ; imposes 
daily new and arbitrary restrictions ; insults me 
and my followers ; concludes by attempting to 
deny me the faculty of speech, and then has the 
impudence to write, that he has changed nothing. 
He says, that if strangers come to visit me, they 
cannot speak to any of my suite, and wishes that 
they should be presented by him. If my son 
came to the island, and it were required that he 
should be presented by him, I would not see him. 
You know," continued he, " that it was more a 
trouble than a pleasure for me to receive many of 
the strangers who arrived ; some of whom merely 
came to gaze at me, as they would at a curious 
beast; but still it was consoling to have the right 
to see them, if I pleased.** 

Examined his gums, which were spongy, pale, 
and bled on the slightest touch. Recommended 
him to use a larger quantity than ordinary of ve- 
getable and acescent food, and acid gargle, and 

VOL. I. X 


14th. — ^The paper sent by the governor to 
Longwood, containing an acknowledgment from 
the French of their willingness to submit to such 
restrictions as had, or might be imposed upon 
Napoleon Bonaparte, was signed by all, and sent 
to Sir Hudson Lowe. The only alteration made 
by them, was the substituting of " /' Empereur 
NapoUon^ for ^ Napoleon Bonaparte^ 

15th. — The papers sent back by the governor, 
to Count Bertrand, with a demand that Napoleon 
Bonaparte should be inserted in the place of 
r Empereur Napoleon. 

Saw Napoleon, who told me that he had ad- 
vised them not to sign it, but rather to quit the 
island, and go to the Cape. 

Sir Hudson Lowe came up to Longwood. I 
informed him, that I believed the French would 
not sign the declaration worded in the manner he 
wished. " I suppose,*' replied his excellency, 
*^ that they are very glad of it, as it will give them 
a pretext to leave General Bonaparte, which I 
shall order them to do.** He then sent for Count 
Bertrand, Count Las Cases, and the remainder of 
the officers (except Piontkowski), with whom he 
had a long conversation. At eleven o'clock at 
night, a letter was sent by Sir Hudson J^we to 
Count Bertrand, in which he informed him, that in 
consequence of the refusal of the French officers 
to sign the declaration with the words. Napoleon 


Bonaparte^ they and the domestics must all de- 
part for the Cape of Good Hope^ instantly^ in a 
ship which was ready for their reception ; with 
the exception of a cook, maltre d*hdtel, and one 
or two of the valets ; that in consideration of the 
advanced state of Countess Bertrand*s pregnancy, 
her husband would be permitted to remain until 
she was able to bear the voyage. 

The prospect of separation from the emperor 
caused great grief and consternation among the 
inmates of Longwood, who, without the know- 
ledge of Napoleon, waited upon Captain Popple- 
ton after midnight, and signed the obnoxious 
paper, (with the exception of Santini, who re- 
fused to sign any in which he was not styled 
VEmpereur)^ which was transmitted to the go- 

16M. — Napoleon sent Novarre for me at half 
past six in the morning. On my arrival he looked 
very earnestly at me, and said, laughing, "You 
look as if you had been drunk last night.** I re- 
plied, no ; but that I had dined at the camp, and 
sat up very late. " Quante bottiglie tre F he add- 
ed, holding up three of his fingers. He then com- 
municated the following to me, viz. that Count 
Bertrand had had a conversation with the gover- 
nor yesterday, which partly related to him. That 
he had sent for me, in order that I might explain 
to the governor his real sentiments on tlie subject ; 


and ** here," continued he, taking np a piece of 
paper, in which were contained words, in his owu 
hand-writing, of a meaning similar to the paper 
which he subsequently gave to me, is "what I 
have written, and which I intend to send to him.** 
He then read it out aloud, asking me every now 
and then if I comprehended him, and said, ^ You 
will take a copy of this to the governor, and in- 
form him that such are my intentions. If he asks 
you why it is not signed by me, you will say, that 
it was unnecessary, because I have read it out and 
explained it to you from my own hand-writing.* 
After observing that the name of Napoleon was 
troppo ben conosciutOy and might bring back recol- 
lections which it were better should be dropped^ 
he desired me to propose his being called Colond 
Meuron, who had been killed at his side at Areola^ 
or Baron Duroc ; that as colonel was a title denot* 
iug militaiy rank, it might perhaps give umbrage^ 
and therefore probably it would be better to adopt 
that of Buron Duroc, which was the lowest feodal 
title. " If the governor,** continued he, " con- 
sents, let him signify to Bertrand that he acqui- 
esces in one of them, and such shall be adopted. 
It will prevent many difficulties and smoothen 
the way. Your eyes," continued be, "look very 
much like those of a man who had been commit 
ting a debauch last night.** I explained 40 him 
that it was the efteet of the wind i and dost. He 


then rl^ng the bell, called St. Detiis^ took the 
paper .wliich he had copied from him, made me 
read it aloud, underlined some passages with his 
own band, gave it to me, and gently pushing me 
oat of the room in a smiling manner, told me to 
go to the governor^ and tell him that such were 
Ids intentions. 

The paper was as follows :* 

^ n me revient que dans la conversation qui a 
en lien entre le G6n^ral Lowe et plusiears de ces 
Messieurs, il s*est dit des choses sur ma position 
qui ne sont pas conformes k mes pens^. 

^ «rai abdiqu6 dans les mains des repr^sentans 
de la nation et au profit de mon fils, je me suis 
port^ avec oonfiance en Angleterre pour y vivre \k, 
on en Am^rique, dans la plus profonde retraite, 
et sous le nom d'un colonel tu6 k mes c6t6sy,resolu 
derester Stranger i toute affaire politique de quelque 
nature qtCelle puisse itre. 

" Arriv6 k bord du Northumberland, on me dit 
que j*6tois prisonnier de guerre, qu*on me trans- 
portait an dd^ de la ligne et que je m*appellais 
le G6n6ral Bonaparte. Je dus porter ostensible- 
ment mon titre d*empereur en opposition au tit re 
de G^n^ral Bonaparte qu'on voulait m'imposer. 

^^ n y a sept on huit mois le Comte de Montho- 
lon proposa de pourvoir k des petites difficult^s 

* Th# tnuulAtion will be found in tbe Appendix^ No. VI 


qui naissent k chaque instant en adoptant un nom 
ordinaire. Uamiral croit devoir en 6crire h Lon- 
dres, cela en reste \k. 

^^ On me donne aujourd'hui an nom .qui a oet 
avantage qu*il ne pr^juge pas le pass6, mais qui 
n'est pas dans la forme de la soci6t6. Je suis taU" 
jours dispose A prendre un nom qui entre dans Fusage 
ordinaire^ et r6it6re, que quand on jugera k propos 
de faire cesser ce cruel s^jour, je suis dans la ra- 
lont^ de rester Stranger d la politique quelque chose 
qui se passe dans le monde. Voila ma pens^e, toute 
autre chose qui auroit 6t6 dite sur cette mati^re 
ne le se seroit pas." 

I proceeded immediately to Plantation House, 
where I delivered the paper to the governor, and 
made known to him the conversation which I had 
had. His excellency appeared much surprised, 
and said, that it was a very important communi- 
cation, and one which required consideration. 
After I had made a deposition, the governor wrote 
on a sheet of paper the following words : " The 
governor will lose no time in forwarding to the 
British government the paper presented to him 
this day by Doctor O'Meara. He thinks, how- 
ever, that it would be more satisfactory if it was 
signed by the person in whose name it was pre- 
sented. The governor does not, however, intend 
to cast by this the slightest doubts upon the au- 
thenticity or validity of the paper, '••^''^ •^ to the 


wards or spirit, but merely that it would be better 
to send it in a form to which no objection could be 
oflfered. The governor will consider attentively 
whether the tenor of his instructions will permit 
him to adopt either of the names proposed. He 
would naturally, however, be desirous to defer the 
use of them in any public communication, until 
he obtains the sanction of his government for that 
purpose. The governor will be ready at any time 
to confer with General Bertrand on the subject. 
TUs communication he desired me to shew to 
Napoleon, and added, '^ indeed it is no great 
matter if you leave it with him.** He then asked 
me if I thought Napoleon would sign it. I re- 
plied, perhaps he might, particularly if he (Sir 
Hudson) would authorize him to use either of the 
names in question. This, however, he said, he 
could not yet decide upon. After this, his excel- 
lency told me that I must have no communication 
whatever with any official persons in England 
about Bonaparte ; therefore he insisted that I 
would not mention a word to them of the proposal 
which I had just made ; that he had written to 
Lord Bathui*st about me, and that there was no 
doubt I should do well; that my situation was 
one of great confidence, and that none of the mi- 
nisters, except the one he communicated with, 
ought to know any thing about what passed at 
St. Helena. After which he desired me to go back 


and endeayour to get Napoleon to sign the paper. 

On my return, I explained to Napoleon the go- 
vernor's reply and wishes. He observed^ he bad 
not intended that the paper should be left with 
the governor, but merely read and shewn to him, 
and then returned, as had taken place once before. 
That he wished to communicate his sentiments to 
him, in order to know if he were inclined to meet 
him half way. That after communications with 
Bertrand, a proper letter would be written, and 
that would be the time to sign. He concluded 
by directing me to get back the paper. 

Went accordingly to Plantation House, and ac- 
quainted Sir Hudson Lowe that I was directed to 
bring back the paper, which he returned to m^ 
after some expression of surprise on the part of 
the governor, and a hint, tliat such a demand had 
been caused by shuffling or want of sincerity on 
the part of Bonaparte, or bad advice from some of 
his generals. He then asked my opinion whether 
*^ Count Montholon imagined himself secure of 
remaining in the island because he had signed the 
declaration ?'* He desired me to say that apply 
ing to the British government, was not asking pei> 
mission for General Bonaparte to change his nam^ 
but merely a demand whether they would recog- 
nise such a change. Returned the paper to Na- 
poleon, and explained the govemor*s sentiments 
He observed^ that if Sir Hudson Lowe would 


make known to Bertrand, or even to me, that he 
authorized the change of name, and would address 
him accordhigly, he (Napoleon) would write a 
letter^ declaring that he would adopt one of the 
names which had been proposed, which he would 
ngn and send to the governor. ^ La metd de* dis- 
gUsH che ho pravato qui^* said he, ^' has arisen from 
that title." I observed, that many were surpiised 
at his having retained the title after abdication. 
He replied, ^ I abdicated the throne of France, 
bat not the title of emperor. I do not call myself 
Napoleon, emperor of France, but the emperor 
Napoleon. Sovereigns generally retain their titles. 
Thus Charles of Spain retains the title of king 
and majesty, after having abdicated in favour of 
his son. If I were in England, I would not call 
myself emperor. But they want to make it ap- 
pear that the French nation had not a right to 
make me its sovereign. If they had not a right to 
make me emperor, they were equally incapable of 
making me general. A man, when he is at the 
head of a few, during the disturbances of a coun- 
try, is called a chief of rebels ; but when he suc- 
ceeds, effects great actions, and exalts his country 
and himself from being styled chief of rebels, he is 
called general, sovereign, &c. It is only success 
which makes him such. Had he been unfortunate, 
he would be still chief of rebels, and perhaps pe- 

* " One half of the yexations that I have experienced here." 

Vol. I. Y 


rish on a scaffold. Your nation,** continued he, 
" called Washington a leader of rebels for a long 
time, and refused to acknowledge either him or 
the constitution of his country ; but his successes 
obliged them to change, and acknowledge both. 
It is success which makes the great man. It 
would appear truly ridiculous in me,** added he, 
'^ were it not that your ministers force me to it, 
to call myself emperor, situated as I am here, and 
would remind one of those poor wretches in Beth- 
lem, in London, who fancy themselves kings amidst 
their chains and straw.** 

He then spoke in terms of great praise of Counts 
Bertrand, Montholon, Las Cases, and the rest of 
his suite, for the heroic devotion which they had 
manifested, and the proofs of attachment to his 
person which they had given, by remaining with 
him contrary to his desire. "They had,** continued 
he, *' an excellent pretext to go, first, by refusing 
to sign Napoleon Bonaparte, and next, because I 
ordered them not to sign. But, no ; they would 
have signed tiranno Bonaparte^ or any other op- 
probrious name, in order to remain with me in 
misery here, rather than return to Europe, where 
they might live in splendour. The more your go- 
vemment tries to degrade me, so much more re- 
spect will they pay to me. They pride themselves 
in paying me more respect now than when I was 
in the height of my glory.** 

^ Pare^ said he then, ** che questo govematore 


(i Hato sempre spiane. He is fit to be commissary 
of police in a small town.** I asked him, which 
he thought had been the best minister of police, 
Sayary or Fouch6, adding, that both of them had 
a bad reputation in England. ^Savary/* smd 
he, ^ is not a bad man ; on the contrary, Savary is 
a roan of a good heart, and a brave soldier. You 
have seen him weep. He loves me with the affec- 
tion of a son. The English, who have been in 
France, will soon undeceive your nation. Fouch^ 
is a miscreant of all colonics, a priest, a terrorist, 
and one who took an active paii; in many bloody 
scenes in the revolution. He is a man who can 
worm all your secrets out of you with an air of 
calmness and of unconcern. He is very rich,* 
added he, " but his riches were badly acquired. 
There was a tax upon gambling-houses in Paris, 
but, as it was an infamous way of gaining money, 
I did not like to profit by it, and therefore ordered, 
that the amount of the tax should be appropriated 
to an hospital for the poor. It amounted to some 
millions, but Fouch6, who had the collecting of 
the impost, put many of them into his own poc- 
kets, and it was impossible for me to discover the 
real yearly sum total." 

I observed to him, that it had excited consider- 
able surprise, that during the height of his gloiy, 
he had never given a dukedom in France to any 
person, although he had created many dukes and 


princes elsewhere. He replied, " because it would 
have produced great discontent amongst the peo- 
ple. If, for example, I had made one of my 
marshals Duke of Bourgogne, instead of giving 
him a title derived from one of my victories, it 
would have excited great alaim in Bourgogne, as 
they would have conceived that some feodal rights 
and territory were attached to the title, which the 
duke would claim ; and the nation hated the old 
nobility so much, that the creation of any rank 
resembling them would have given universal dis- 
content, which I, powerful as I was, dared not 
venture upon. I instituted the new nobility to 
^eraser the old, and to satisfy the people, as the 
greatest part of those I created had sprung from 
themselves, and every private soldier had a right 
to look up to the title of duke. I believe that I 
acted wrong in doing even this, as it lessened that 
system of equality which pleased the people so 
much ; but, if I had created dukes with a French 
title, it would have been considered as a revival 
of the old feodal privileges, with which the nation 
had been cursed so long.'' 

His gums were in nearly the same state as be- 
fore ; complained of his general health, and add- 
ed, that he felt convinced that, under all the cir- 
cumstances, he could not last long. 1 advised, as 
remedies, exercise and the diet 1 had formerly re- 
commended. He observed, that he had put in 
practice the diet, and the other remedies, but as to 


taking exercise (which was the most essential) th6 
restrictions presented an insurmountable obstacle. 
He asked many anatomical questions, particularly 
about the heart, and observed. Credo che il mio 
cuore non hatte mai^ non Vho sentito mat hattere.* 
He then desired me to feel his heart. I tried for 
wme time, but could not perceive any pulsation, 
which I attributed to obesity. I had before ob- 
served that in him the circulation was very slow, 
rarely exceeding fifty eight or sixty in a minute, 
and most frequently fifty-four. 

I8/&. — Captain Piontkowski, Rousseau, San- 
tini, and Archambaud, cadet, were the persons 
named by Sir Hudson Lowe to be removed from 
Longwood* Count Montholon desired me to in- 
form the governor, that the emperor did not wish 
to separate the brothers Archambaud, which more- 
over would totally disorganize the carriage, and 
must consequently deprive him of the little means 
he had of taking exercise, as the governor was 
aware, that in such a place as St. Helena, where 
the roads were so dangerous, it was very necessary 
to have careful drivers. He added, that if the 
choice of those who were to go were left to Na- 
poleon, he would fix upon Rousseau, Santini, and 
Bernard, who was a useless subject, and much 
given to intoxication, or Gentilini, as he thought 

^ "I iJUnk thai my heart does not beat ; I have aerer felt it 


that it would be great cruelty to separate two 

Communicated this to Sir Hudscm Lowe, who 
replied, that the choice was not left to General 
Bonaparte; that the servants were to be taken 
from Longwood, and not from Count Bertrand; 
and moreover, that the orders were to send away 
Frenchmen^ and not natives of other countries^ 
That Bernard was a Flamand, and Gentilini an 
Italian, and therefore did not come within the 
strict application of his orders ; that if Santini had 
not refused to sign the paper, he would not have 
accepted him as one, as he was a Corsican, and 
not a Frenchman. He had no objection however, 
that all the Frenchmen in General Bonaparte*s 
service should draw lots. These circumstances 
he desired I might impress upon General Bona- 
parte's muid. He added, that, as by his instruo- 
tions the choice was left to him, he would give 
written directions to Captain Poppleton to send 
away Piontkowski, and both of the Archambauds, 
if Rousseau remained, or one of them, if Rous- 
seau were to go. He then directed me to ask if 
he were to expect any further communication re- 
specting the change of name, as the vessel contain- 
ing his despatches on the subject would sail for 
England in the evening.* 

* The only reply which Hia Majesty's aiinisten oondesoended 
to make to this proposal was contained in a acurriloius artida m 


On my return to Longwood, commanicated 
thii to Napoleon : who replied, ** Has the gover- 
nor it in his power to authorize the change ; in the 
note he sent, the contrary appears. I answered, 
that I knew nothing more than what I had already 
communicated. " Then,** said he, ''before any 
farther steps are taken, let him reply positively 
whether he is authorized or not. Si o nor In- 
formed him of his excellency's opinion and deci- 
sion relative to the domestics who were to leave 
St. Helena. ^ Santini not a Frenchman ?** said he, 
^ Doctor, you cannot be imbecile enough not to 
see that this is a pretext to convey an insult to 
me. AU Corsicans are Frenchmen. By taking 
away my drivers, he wants to prevent me from 
taking a little carriage-exercise.** 

19M. — ^Piontkowski, Santini, Rousseau, and Ar- 
chambaud the younger, sent by order of Sir Hud- 
son Lowe to town in order to embark. Santini had 
a pension of fifty pounds, Archambaud and Rous- 
seau twenty-five each, annually settled upon them ; 
Piontkowski had also a pension and a letter of 
recommendation. On embarkation, their persons 

the Quarterly Review, No. XXXII. which Sir Hudson Lowe took 
care should be sent to Longwood as soon as a copy had reached the 
island. I think that I am justified in attributing the article alluded 
to, to some ministerial person, as the transaction was known only to 
officers in their employment, and to the establishment at Longwood, 
and it is evident that the persons composing the latter, could not 
have been the authors of it. 


and baggage were searched by Captain MaunaeH, 
and the prevost Serjeant, lliey sailed ill the 
evening for the Cape. Piontkowski was stripped 
to the skin by Captain MaunselL 

Communicated to Sir Hudson Lowe Napoleon^s 
last expressions concerning the change of name^ 
who replied, " I believe that it is in my power to 
approve of it." I then recommended him to see 
Count Bertrand upon the subject, and his exeeU 
lency proceeded to Hut*s Gate accordingly. 

20th. — Count and Countess Bertrand and family 
moved from Hut*s Gate to Longwood. 

2\st — ^Dined at Plantation House in company 
with the Russian and Austrian commissioners, 
the botanist, and Captain Gor. They generally ex- 
pressed great dissatisfaction at not having yet seen 
Napoleon. Count Balmaine in particular ob- 
served that they (the commissioners) appeared to 
be objects of suspicion ; that had he been aware 
of the manner in which they should have been 
treated, he would not have come out. That the 
Emperor Alexander had great interest in prevent- 
ing the escape of Napoleon, but that he wished 
him to be well treated, and with that respect due 
to him : for which reason he (Count Balmaine) had 
only asked to see him as a private person and not 
officially as commissioner. That they should be 
objects of ridicule in Europe, as soon as it was 
known they had been so many months in St. He- 
lena, without ever once seeing the individual, to 


asoertain whdse presence was the sole object of 
ibdr mission. That the goveraor alvrays replied 
to their questions thiat Bonaparte had refused to 
receive any person whatsoever. The botanist held 
langoage of a similar tendency^ and remarked, that 
Ltmgwood was ^^ le dernier sSjour du monde^^* and 
m his opinion the worst part of the island. 

'22nd- — Sir Hudson Lowe sent for me, and ob- 
served that the commissioners seemed to have paid 
me much attention ; that he ^ould think nothing 
of their speaking as long as they had done to me, 
to any other person, but that it had an appearance 
as if they wished something to be conveyed to 
General Bonapai^te, and advised me to be very 
cautious in my conversations with them. He also 
informed me that Count Bertrand had oonfirmed 
to him every communication that I had made re- 
lative to the change of name. 

23rd. — ^Napoleon indisposed : one of his cheeks 
considerably tumefied. Recommended fomenta* 
tion and steaming the part affected, which he put 
in practice. Recommended also the extraction 
of a carious tooth, and renewed the advice I had 
given on many previous occasions, particularly 
relative to exercise, as soon as the reduction of 
the swelling permitted it; also a continuance of 
diet chiefly vegetable, with fiiiits. 

''There is either a furious wind,** replied he, 

• " The worst abode in the world." 
VOL. I. Z 



^^ with fog, which gives me a swelled face when I 
go out, or when that is wanting, there is a snn 
which scorches my brains (cV un sole che mi brucia 
il cervello) for want of shade. They continue me 
purposely in the worst part of the island. When 
I was at the Briars, I bad at least the advantage 
of a shady walk and a mild climate ; mais id an 
arrivera au, hut qtion se propose plus vite^ conti- 
nued he. ^^ Have you seen lo shvrro Siciliano f^ 
I replied that Sir Hudson Lowe had informed me 
that he had written to England an account of his 
proposal to assume an incognito name. ^ Non 
dice altro che hugie^ said Napoleon. *' It is his 
system. Lying,** added he, **is not a national 
vice of the English, but this ***** has all the 
vices of the little petty states of Italy." 

Desired me to endeavour to get him un fauteuil 
de maladcy which I communicated to the governor^ 
who returned for answer that he would order one 
to be made, as no such article was to be found 
upon the island. 

26th. — ^Napoleon out in the carriage for the 
first time for a considerable period. Observed to 
me afterwards that he had followed my prescrip* 
tion. His face much better. The dentes sapientiie of 
the upper jaw were loose and carious. Inquired 
if there was any news ? I replied that we were 
in daily expectation of hearing the result of Lord 
Exmouth*s expedition, and asked his opinion re- 

A rmcn FROM ST. HELENA. 171 

lative to the probability of success. He replied 
that he thought it would succeed^ especially if the 
fleet took and destroyed as many olf their vessels 
as th^ could^ then anchored opposite the town^ 
and did not allow a single ship or vessel, not even 
a fishing-boat, to enter or go out. '^ Continue that 
for a short time," added he, ^^ and the dey will sub- 
mit, or else the canaille will revolt and murder 
him, and afterwards agree to any terms you like. 
But no treaty will be kept by them. It is a disgrace 
to the powers of Europe to allow so many nests of 
robbers to exist. Even the Neapolitans could put 
a stop to it, instead of allowing themselves to be 
robbed. They have upwards of fifty thousand 
seamen in the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily, 
and with their navy, they might easily prevent 
a single Barbary ship from stirring out.** I ob- 
served that the Neapolitans were so great cowards 
at sea, that the Algerines had the utmost contempt 
for them. ^^ They are cowards by land as well 
as by sea,** replied the emperor, " but that might 
be remedied by proper officers and discipline. 
At Amiens, I proposed to your government to 
unite with me, either to entirely destroy those nests 
of pirates, or at least to destroy their ships and 
fortresses, and make them cultivate their country 
and abandon piracy. But your ministers would 
not consent to it, owing to a mean jealousy of 
the Americans, with whom the barbarians were 


at war. I wanted to annihilate them^ thcmgbit 
did not concern me much, as tbey geaeraUy .nen 
spected my flag, and carried on a large tradq vntik 
Marseilles." I asked him if he thought it woukL 
be advisable for Lord Exmouth to disembarik ;hia^ 
marines and seamen, and attack the town of Air 
giers. ^* Oh que non^ replied he, " if he has but 
a small force, he will get half his men killed hj 
the canagUe in the houses and batteries ; and it is 
not worth sending a large one, unless you are de^ 
termined to destroy their power altogether." 

After this, the conversation turned upon the nar 
tional debt and the great weight of taxes in £^g«^ 
land. Napoleon professed himself doubtful that 
the English could now continue to manufacture 
goods so as to be able to sell them at the same 
price as those made in France, in consequence of 
the actual necessaries of life being so much dearer 
in England than in France. He professed his 
disbelief that the nation could support the im- 
mense weight of taxes, the dearness of provisions^ 
and the extravagance of a bad administration. 
" When I was in France," continued he, * with 
four times the extent of territory, and four times 
the population I never could have raised one half 
of your taxes. How the English popolazzo bear 
it, I cannot conceive. The French would not 
have suffered one fourth of them. Notwithstanding 
your great successes," continued he, " which are 


indeed almost incredible^ and to which accident^ 
and perhaps destiny^ have much contributed, I do 
BOt: &ink that you are yet out of the scrape : 
though you have the world at command, I do not 
bdieve that you will ever be able to get over your 
debt. Your great commerce has kept you up ; 
bat that will fail when you shall no longer be able 
to. undersell: the . manufacturers of other nations, 
who are rapidly improving. A few years will shew 
if I am right. The worst thing England has ever 
done,* continued he, ^^ was that of endeavouring 
to make herself a great military nation. In at- 
tempting that^ England must always be the slave 
of Russia, Austria, or Prussia, or at least subser- 
vient to some of them ; because you have not a 
popdlation sufficiently numerous to combat on the 
continent with France, or with any of the powers 
I have named, and must consequently hire men 
from some of them ; whereas, at sea, you are so 
superior; your sailors are so much better, that 
you can always command the others, with safety 
to yourselves and with little comparative expense. 
Your soldiers have not the requisite qualities for 
a military nation. They are not equal in address, 
activity, or intelligence to the French. When 
they get from under the fear of the lash, they ob^y 
nobody. In a retreat they cannot be managed : 
and if they meet with wine, they are so many 
devils (tanti diavolij, and adieu to subordination. 


I saw the retreat of Moore, and I never lidtnessed 
any thing like it. It was impossible to collect ot 
to make them do any thing. Nearly all were drunk. 
Your officers depend for promotion upon interest 
or money. Your soldiers are brave, nobody can 
deny it ; but it was bad policy to encourage the 
military mania, instead of sticking to your marine, 
which is the real force of your country, and one 
which, while you preserve it, will always render 
you powerful. In order to have good soldiers, a 
nation must always be at war^ 

" If you had lost the battle of Waterloo,* con- 
tinued he, *^ what a state would England have 
been in ? The flower of your youth would have 
been destroyed; for not a man, not even Lord 
Wellington, would have escaped." I observed here 
that Lord Wellington had determined never to 
leave the field alive. Napoleon replied, " he could 
not retreat. He would have been destroyed ynih 
his army, if instead of the Prussians, Grouchy had 
come up.** I asked him if he had not believed 
for some time that the Prussians who had shewn 
themselves were a part of Grouchy's corps. He 
replied, '* certainly ; and I can now scarcely com- 
prehend why it was a Prussian division and not 
that of Grouchy.** I then took the liberty of asking, 
whether, if neither Grouchy nor the Prussians had 
arrived, it would not have been a drawn battle. 
Napoleon answered, **the English army would 


have been destroyed. They were defeated at 
mid-day. But accident^ or more likely destiny^ 
decided that Lord Wellington should gain it. I 
could scarcely believe that he would have given 
me battle ; because if he had retreated to Ant- 
werp, as he ought to have done, I must have been 
overwhelmed by the armies of three or four hun- 
dred thousand men that were coming against me. 
By giving me battle there was a chance for me. It 
was the greatest folly to disunite the English and 
Prussian armies. They ought to have been united ; 
and I cannot conceive the reason of their separa- 
tion. It was folly in Wellington to give me battle 
in a place, where, if defeated, all must have been 
lost, for he could not retreat. There was a wood 
in his rear, and but one road to gain it. He would 
have been destroyed. Moreover, he allowed him- 
self to be suprised by me. This was a great fault. 
He ought to have been encamped from the begin- 
ning of June, as he must have known that I in- 
tended to attack him. He might have lost every 
thing. But he has been fortunate; his destiny 
has prevailed ; and every thing he did will meet 
with applause. My intentions were, to attack 
and to destroy the English. This I knew would 
produce an immediate change of ministry. The 
indignation against them for having caused the 
loss of forty thousand of the flower of the Eng- 
lish army, would have excited such a popular 


commotion^ that they would have been turned 
out. The people would have said/ ^ What is it 
to ui3 who is on the throne of France^ Louis or 
Napoleon; are we to sacrifice all our blood in 
endeavours to place on the throne a detested 
family ? No^ we have suffered enough. It is no 
affair of ours^ — ^let them settle it amongst them*- 
selves.* They would have made peace. The 
Saxons^ Bavarians, Belgians, Wirtemburghcrs, 
would have joined me. The coalition was no- 
thing without England. The Russians would 
have made peace, and I should have been quietly 
seated on the throne. Peace would have been 
permament, as what could France do after the 
treaty of Paris ? What was to be feared from her ?** 

*^ These,*' continued he, " were my reasons for 
attacking the English. I had beaten the Prus- 
sians. Before twelve o'clock I had succeeded. 
I may say, every thing was mine, but accident 
and destiny decided it otherwise. Doubtless the 
English fought most bravely, nobody can deny it. 
But they must have been destroyed. 

*^Pitt and his politics," continued he, "nearly 
ruined England by keeping up a continental war 
with France." I remarked, that it was asserted by 
many able politicians in England, that if we had 
not carried on that war, we should have been 
ruined, and ultimately have become a province of 
Fi-ance. ** It is not true," said Napoleon, " Eng- 


land beiDg at war with France, gave the latter a 
pretence and an opportunity of extending her con- 
quest under me to the length she did, until I be- 
came emperor of nearly all the world, which could 
not have happened, if there had been no war. The 
conversation then turned upon the occupation 
of Malta. " Two days," said he, " before Lord 
Whitworth left Paris, an oflFer was made to the 
minister and to others about me of thirty millions 
of francs, and to acknowledge me as king of 
France, provided I would give up Malta to you.** 
— He added, however, that the war would have 
broken out, had Malta been out of the ques- 
sion. Some conversation then took place relative 
to English seamen. Napoleon observed, that the 
English seamen were as much superior to the 
French, as the latter were to the Spaniards. I 
ventured to say that I thought the French would 
never make good seamen, on account of their im- 
patience and volatility of temper. That espe 
cially they would never submit without cooiplain- 
ing, as we had done at Toulon, to blockade ports 
for years together, suflFering from the . combined 
eflFects of bad weather, and of privations of every 
kind. ** I do not agree with you there, Signor 
dottore^ said he, ^^ but I do not think that they 
will ever make as good seamen as yours. The 
sea is yours, — your seamen are as much su- 
perior to ours as the Dutch were once to yours, 
vou I. 2 a 


I think^ however, that the Americans are bettw 
seaman than yours, because they are less numer- 
ous." I observed that the Americans had a con- 
siderable number of. English seamen in their ser- 
vice, who passed for Americans, which was re- 
markable, as, independent of other circumstances^ 
the American discipline on board of men-of-war 
was much more severe than ours. And, that if 
the Americans had a large navy, they would find 
it impossible to have so many able seamen in each 
ship as they had at present. When I observed 
that the American discipline was more severe than 
ours, he smiled and said, " sarebbe difficile a ere-- 

Five, p. m. — Napoleon sent for me. Found him 
sitting in a chair opposite to the fire. He had 
gone out to walk, and was seized with rigors, 
headach, severe cough. Examined his tonsils, 
which were swelled. Cheek inflamed. Had se- 
verest rigors while I was present. " Je tremble^ 
said he to Count Las Cases, who was present, 
*^ comme si feiisse peur."* Pulse much quickened. 
Recommended warm fomentations to his cheek, 
a liniment to his throat, warm diluents, a garga- 
rism, pediluvium, and total abstinence ; all of 
which he approved of, except the liniment. He 
asked a great many questions about fever. 

Saw him again at nine in bed. He had strictly 
complied with my directions ; I was desirous that 


he should take a diaphoretic, but he preferred 
trusting to bis warm diUients. He imputed bis 
complaint to the ventaccio* eternally blowing over 
the bleak and exposed site of Longwood. ** I 
ought,** said he, "to be at the Briars, or at the 
other side of the island, instead of being on this 
horrid spot. While I was there last year at this 
season, I was very well." He asked what I 
thought was the easiest mode of dying, and observ- 
ed that death by cold was the easiest of all others, 
because "^/ muore dormendo^ (one dies sleeping). 

Sent a letter to Sir Hudson Lowe, acquainting 
him with Napoleon's illness. 

21th. — ^A free perspiration took place in the 
night, and Napoleon was considerably better. Re- 
commended a continuance of the means he had 
adopted, and not to expose himself to the wind. 
He made nearly the same observations as he had 
done yesterday relative to the exposed and un- 
healthy situation of Longwood, adding, that it 
was so bleak a spot that scarcely any vegetable 
would grow upon it. 

Had some conversation with him relative to the 
Empress Josephine, of whom he spoke in terms 
the most aflFectionate. His first acquaintance with 
that amiable being commenced after the disarming 
of the sections in Paris, subsequently to the 13tfi 

* Ventaccio is a provincial word which means a nasty or acrid 


of Vendemiaire, 1 795. ^ A boy of twelve or tliirteea 
years old presented himself to me," continued he, 
*^and entreated that his fathers sword, (who had 
been a general of the republic,) should be re- 
turned. I was so touched by this affectionate re- 
quest, that I ordered it to be given to him. This 
boy was Eugene Beauharnois. On seeing the 
sword, he burst into tears. I felt so much af- 
fected by his conduct that I noticed and praised 
him much. A few days afterwards, his mother 
came to return me a visit of thanks. I was much 
struck with her appearance, and still more with her 
esprit. This firet impression was daily strengtli- 
ened, and marriage was not long in following." 

Saw Sir Hudson Lowe. Informed him of Na- 
poleon^s state of health and that he had attri- 
buted his complaints to the violence of the wind, 
and the bleak and exposed situation of Long- 
wood ; also that he had expressed a desire to be 
removed either to the Briars, or to the other side 
of the island. His excellency replied, *' The fact 
is, that General Bonaparte wants to get Planta- 
tion House ; but the East India company will not 
consent to have so fine a plantation given to a set 
of Frenchmen, to destroy the trees and ruin the 

Eight, p. m. — ^Napoleon not so well ; right jaw 
much tumefied, with difficulty of swallowing, 
caused by the inflammation of the tonsils^ &c. He 


would not consent to use any thing except diluents 
and fomentations. Recommended a purgative to 
be taken in the morning, and also some other 
active remedies, which he declined doing, observ- 
ing that he had never taken any medicine since 
his childhood ; that he knew his own constitution, 
and was convinced that even a very small dose 
would produce violent effects : that moreover, 
perhaps its effects would be contrary to the ef- 
forts of nature. That he would trust to diet, 
diluents, 8cc. 

29th. — Napoleon rather better. Told him that 
if he were attacked by any of the diseases of the 
climate, he would, in all probability, be a dead 
man in a few days, as the means which he was 
willing to put in execution, were totally inadequate 
to subdue a formidable complaint, although they 
might be sufficient to relieve the trifling one under 
which he had laboured. Notwithstanding all the 
reasoning and the representations which I made 
to him, he appeared to think that it was better 
to do nothing than to take medicines, which 
he was of opinion were dangerous, or at least 
doubtful, as they might disturb the operations of 

30th. — ^Napoleon consented to make use of a 
gargle of infusion of roses and sulphuric acid. 
There were many vesicles on the inside of his 
ch^k and gums. He inveighed against the cUma 


harharo (the barbarous climate) of Longwood, and 
again mentioned the Briars.* 

Informed Sir Hudson Lowe of the state of his 
health, and of his desire to be removed to the 
Briars. His excellency replied, that if General 
Bonaparte wanted to make himself comfortable, 
and to get reconciled to the island, he ought to 
draw for some of those large sums of money which 
he possessed, and lay it out in purchasing a house 
and grounds. I said, that Napoleon had told me 
he did not know where his money was placed. 
Sir Hudson replied, ^^I suppose he told you that, 
in order that you might repeat it to me." 

November \st. — ^Napoleon better. Some tume- 
faction of the legs, and enlargement of the glands 
of the thigh. Recommended him to take some 
sulphate of magnesia, or Glauber s salts. Another 
portion of plate broken up, in order to be sent to 
town for sale. 

2nd. — Nearly the same. Recommended to him 
in the strongest terms, to take exercise as soon as 
the state of his cheeks, and of the weather, would 
admit of its being put in practice ; and gave it as 
my firm and decided opinion, that unless he put 
this advice in practice, he would be infallibly at- 
tacked by some very serious complaint. 

During the conversation, I took the liberty of 
asking the emperor his reasons for having encou- 

* The Briars b nearly two miles distant from the sea-shore. 


raged the Jews so much. He replied, ** I wanted 
to make them leave off usury, and become like 
other men. There were a great many Jews in the 
countries I reigned over ; by removing their disabi- 
lities, and by putting them upon an equality with 
Catholics, Protestants, and others, I hoped to 
make them become good citizens, and conduct 
themselves like the rest of the community. I be- 
lieve that I should have succeeded in the end. My 
reasoning with them was, that as their rabbins ex- 
plained to them that they ought not to practise 
usury against their own tribes, but were allowed 
to practise it with Christians and others, that, 
therefore, as I had restored them to all their privi- 
leges, and made them equal to my other subjects, 
they must consider me, like Solomon or Herod, 
to be the head of their nation, and my subjects as 
brethren of a tribe similar to theirs. Tliat, conse- 
quently, they were not permitted to deal usuri- 
ously with them or me, but to treat us as if we 
were of the tribe of Judah. That enjoying similar 
privileges to my other subjects, they were, in like 
manner, to pay taxes, and submit to the hiws of 
conscription, and to otlier laws. By this I gained 
many soldiers. Besides, I should have drawiLgrcat 
wealth to France, as the Jews are very numerous, 
and would have flocked to a country where they 
enjoyed such superior privileges. Moreover, 1 
wanted to establish an universal liberty of cou- 
gcience. My system was to have no predominant 


religion, but to allow perfect liberty of con* 
science and of thought, to make all men equals 
whether Protestants, Catholics, Mahometans, 
Deists, or others ; so that their religion should 
have no influence in getting them employments 
under government. In fact, that it should neither 
be the means of serving, nor of injuring them ; and 
that no objections should be made to a man*s get- 
ting a situation on the score of religion, provided 
he were fit for it in other respects. I made every 
thing independent of religion. All the tiibunals 
were so. Marriages were independent of the 
priests; even the burying grounds were not left 
at their disposal, as they could not refuse inter- 
ment to the body of any person of whatsoever 
religion. My intention was to render every thing 
belonging to the state and the constitution, purcly 
civil, without reference to any religion. I wished 
to deprive the priests of all influence and power 
in civil afikirs, and to oblige them to confine 
themselves to their own spiritual matter, and 
meddle with nothing else.** I asked if uncles 
and nieces had not a right to marry in France. 
He replied, " Yes, but they must obtain a special 
permission.** I asked if the permission were to 
be granted by the pope. " By the pope r" said 
he, "No;" catching me by the ear and smiling, 
" I tell you that neither the pope, nor any of L^ 
priests, had power to grant any thing. — By the 


I asked some questions relative to the free- 
masons^ and his opinions concerning them. " A 
set of imbeciles who meet, d /aire bonne chhe^ 
and perform some ridiculous fooleries. However/* 
said he, ^* they do some good actions. They as- 
sisted in the revolution, and latterly to diminish 
the power of the pope and the influence of the 
clergy. When the sentiments of a people are 
against the government, every society has a ten- 
dency to do mischief to it.** I then asked if the 
freemasons on the continent had any connexion 
with the illuminati. He replied, '^ No, that is a 
society altogether different, and in Germany is 
of a very dangerous nature.** I asked if he had 
not encouraged the freemasons ? He said, ^^ Ra- 
ther sOj for they fought against the pope.** I then 
asked if he ever would have permitted the re-esta- 
blishment of the Jesuits in France ? " Never,** 
said he, *^ it is the most dangerous of societies, 
and has done more mischief than all the others. 
Thdr doctrine is, that their general is the so« 
vereign of sovereigns, and master of the world ; 
that all orders from him, however contrary to the 
laws, or however wicked, must be obeyed. Every 
act, however atrocious, committed by them pursu* 
ant to orders from their general at Rome, becomes 
in their eyes meritorious. No, no, I would never 
have allowed a society to exist in my dominions, 
under the orders of a foreign general at Rome, 

vou I. 2 b 


In fact. I would not allow any /rati* There were 
priests sufficient for those who wanted thein^ 
without having monasteries filled with canaglie, 
who did nothing but gormandize, pray, and com- 
mit crimes " I observed, that it was to be feared 
the priests and the Jesuists would soon have great 
influence in France. Napoleon replied, " very 
likely. The Bourbons are fanatics, and would 
willingly bring back both the Jesuists and the in- 
quisition. In reigns before mine, the Protestants 
were as badly treated as the Jews ; they could 
not purchase land — I put them upon a level with 
the Catholics. They will now be trampled upon 
by the Bourbons, to whom they and every thing 
else liberal will always be objects of suspicion. 
The Emperor Alexander may allow them to enter 
his empire, because it is his policy to draw into 
his barbarous country, men of information, what- 
soever their sect may be, and moreover, they are 
not to be much feared in Russia, because the re- 
ligion is different. 

The following is his description of Carnot. A 
man laborious and sincere, but liable to the in- 
fluence of intrigues, and easily deceived. He di- 
rected the operations of war, without having me- 
rited the eulogiums which were pronounced upon 
him, as he had neither the experience, nor the 



habitnde of war. When minister of war, he 
shewed but little talent^ and had many quarrels 
with the minister of finance and the treasury ; in 
all of which he was wrong. He left the ministry, 
oonvinced that he could not fulfil his station for 
want of money. He afterwards voted against the 
establishment of the empire, but as his conduct 
was always upright, he never gave any umbrage 
to the government. During the prosperity of the 
empire, he never asked for any thing; but after 
the misfortunes of Russia, he demanded employ- 
ment, and got the command of Antwerp, where he 
acquitted himself very well. After Napoleon's 
return from Elba, he was minister of the interior ; 
and the emperor had every reason to be satisfied 
with his conduct. He was faithful, a man of 
truth and probity, and laborious in his exertions. 
On the abdication, he was named one of the pro- 
visional government, but he was joui by the in- 
triguers by whom he was surrounded. He passed 
for an original amongst his companions when 
he was young. He hated the nobles, and on 
that account had several quarrels with Robes- 
pierre, who latterly protected many of them. He 
was member of the committee of public safety 
along with Robespierre, Couthon, St. Just, and 
the other butchers, and was the only one who was 
not denounced. He afterwards demanded to be 
included in the denunciation, and to be tried for 


his conduct, as well as the others, which was re- 
ftised ; but his having made the demand to share 
the fate of the rest gained him great credit. 

^'Barras,** he said, *^was a violent man. and 
possessed of little knowledge or resolution ; fickle, 
and far from meriting the reputation which he 
enjoyed, although from the violence of his man- 
ner and loudness of tone in the beginning of his 
speeches, one would have thought otherwise.* 

5th. — Sir Hudson Lowe at Longwood. In- 
formed him, that although Napoleon was much 
better, it was my opinion, that if he persisted in 
the system of confining himself to his room, and in 
not taking exercise, he would soon be attacked 
by some serious complaint, and that in all proba- 
bility his existence in St. Helena would not be 
protracted for more than a year or two. Sir Hud- 
son asked with some degree of asperity, ^Why 
did he not take exercise ?** I briefly recapitu- 
lated to him some of his own restrictions : amongst 
others, that of placing sentinels at the gates of 
the garden in which he had formerly walked at 
six o'clock in the afternoon, with orders to let 
nobody out ; which being the cool of the evening, 
was the most desirable time to walk. Sir Hudson 
said they were not placed at six o'clock, but only 
at sun-set. I observed to his excellency, that the 
sun set immediately after six, and that in the 
tropics, the twilight was of a very short duration. 


The governor then sent for Capt. Poppleton, and 
made some enquiries concerning the posting of the 
sentinels and their orders. Captain Poppleton 
informed him^ that the orders which were issued 
to the sentinels being verbal, were continually 
liable to be misunderstood. After some conver- 
sation with Capt. P., Sir Hadson Lowe observed, 
he thought it very extraordinary that General Bo- 
naparte would not ride out with a British officer. 
I remarked, that he would in all probability, if 
matters were well managed. For example, if 
when he mounted his horse, an officer was sent 
after him at a short distance to watch his motions, 
I could answer to his excellency that Napoleon, 
although he should well know what the officer's 
business was, would never appear to be aware of 
ity and that he would be just as secure as if an 
officer rode by his side. I went so far as to say, 
that Napoleon had himself intimated to me, that 
he would not see any person following him, pro- 
tided it were not officially made known that he 
was a guard over him. Sir Hudson replied that 
he would consider of it, and desired me to write 
him a statement of my opinion of the health of 
General Bonaparte ; cautioning me, that in writing 
it, I must bear in mind, that the life of one man 
was not to be put into competition with the mis- 
chief which he might cause, were he to get loose ; 
and that I must recollect. General Bonapai-te had 



been already a curse to the world, and had caused 
the loss of many thousands of lives. That my si- 
tuation was very peculiar, and one of great politi- 
cal importance. 

A quantity of plate, which had been broken up, 
taken to town by Cipriani, and deposited with 
Balcombe, Cole, and Co. in the presence of Sir 
Thomas Reade, to whom the key of the chest con- 
taining it was delivered. 

1th. — ^Napoleon much better, and nearly free 
from complaint. 

8M. — ^Napoleon asked me many anatomical and 
physiological questions, and observed, that be 
had studied anatomy himself for a few days, but 
had been sickened by the sight of some bodies 
that were opened, and abandoned any further pro- 
gress in that science. After some developement 
of his ideas touching the soul, I made a few re- 
marks upon the Poles who had served in his 
army, who I observed were greatly attached to 
his person. " Ah T replied the emperor, ** they 
were much attached to me. The present viceroy 
of Poland was with me in my campaign in 
Egypt. I made him a general. Most of my old 
Polish guard are now through policy employed 
by Alexander. They are a brave nation, and 
make good soldiers. In the cold which prevails 
in the northern countries the Pole is better than 
the Frenchman." I asked him, if in less rigorous 


climates the Poles were as good soldiers as the 
French. ^ Oh, no, no. In other places the 
Frenchman is much superior. The commandant 
of Dantzic informed me, that during the severity 
Qf the winter, when the thermometer sunk eighteen 
degrees, it was impossible to make the French 
soldiers keep their posts as sentinels, while the 
Poles suflfered nothing. Poniatowsky," continued 
he, *^was a noble character, full of honour and 
bravery. It was my intention to have made him 
king of Poland, had I succeeded in Russia." I 
asked to what he principally attributed his failure 
in that expedition. "To the cold, the premature 
cold, and the burning of Moscow," replied Napo- 
leon. *^I was a few days too late — I had made 
a calculation of the weather for fifty years before, 
and the extreme cold had never commenced until 
about the 20th of December, twenty days later 
than it began this time. While I was at Moscow, 
the cold was at three of the thermometer, and 
was such as the French could with pleasure bear ; 
but on the march, the thermometer sunk eighteen 
degrees, and consequently nearly all the horses 
perished. In one night I lost thirty thousand. 
The artillery, of which I had five hundred pieces, 
was in a great measure obliged to be abandoned ; 
neither ammunition nor provisions could be car- 
ried. We could not, through the want of horses, 
make a reconnaissance^ or send out an advance of 


men oa horseback to discover the way. The sol- 
diers lost theu* spirits and their senses, and ML 
into confusion. The most trifling circumstance 
alarmed them. Four or five men were suffident 
to terrify a whole battalion. Instead of keeping 
together, they wandered about in search of fire. 
Parties^ when sent out on duty in advance, aban- 
doned their posts, and went to seek the means of 
warming themselves in the houses. They se- 
parated in all directions, became helpless, and fell 
an easy prey to the enemy. Others lay down, 
fell asleep, a little blood came from their nostrils, 
and, sleeping, they died. In this manner thou- 
sands perished. The Poles saved some of their 
horses and artillery, but the French, and the sol* 
diers of the other nations, were no longer the 
same men. In particular, the cavalry suffered. 
Out of forty thousand, I do not think that three 
thousand were saved. Had it not been for that 
fire at Moscow, I should have succeeded. I would 
have wintered there. There were in that city about 
forty thousand citizens who were in a manner 
slaves. For you must know that the Russian nobi- 
lity keep their vassals in a sort of slavery. I would 
have proclaimed liberty to all the slaves in Russia, 
and abolished vassalage and nobility. This would 
have procured me the union of an immense and 
a powerful party. I would either have made a 
peace at Moscow, or else I would have marched 


the next year to Petersburgh. Alexander was 
assured of it, and sent his diamonds, valuables, 
and ships to England. Had it not been for that 
fire^ I should have succeeded in every thing. Two 
days before, I beat them in a great action at 
Moskwa ; I attacked the Russian army of two hun- 
dred and fifty thousand strong, entrenched up to 
thdr necks^ with ninety thousand, and totally de- 
flated them. Seventy thousand Russians lay upon 
the field. They had the impudence to say that 
they had gained the battle, although I marched 
into Moscow two days after. I was in the midst 
of a fine city, provisioned for a year, for in Russia 
they always lay in provisions for several months 
before the frost sets in. Stores of all kinds were 
in plenty. The houses of the inhabitants were 
well provided, and many had even left their ser- 
vants to attend upon us. In most of them there 
was a note left by the proprietor, begging of the 
French officers who took possession to be careful 
of their furniture and other eflFects ; that they had 
left every article necessary for our wants, and 
hoped to return in a few days, when the emperor 
Alexander had accommodated matters, at which 
time they would be happy to see us. Many ladies 
remained behind. They knew that I had been in 
Berlin and Vienna with my armies, and that no 
injury had been done to the inhabitants; and 
VOL. I. 3 c 


moreorer, they expected a speedy peace. Wfe 
were in hopes of enjoying ourselves in winter qna^- 
ters, with every prospect of success in the spring. 
Two days after our arrival, a fire was discovered^ 
which at first was not supposed to be alarming^ 
but to have been caused by the soldiers kindling 
their fires too near to the houses, which were chiefly 
of wood. I was angry at this, and issued veiy 
strict orders on the subject to the commandanta 
of regiments and others. The next dajr it had 
increased, but still not so as to give serious alarm. 
However, afraid that it might gain upon us, I went 
out on horseback, and gave every direction to 
extinguish it. The next morning a violent \nnd 
arose, and the fire spread with the greatest rapi- 
dity. Some hundred miscreants, hired for that 
purpose, dispersed themselves in different parts 
of the town, and with matches which they con- 
cealed under their cloaks, set fire to as many 
houses to windward as they could, which was 
easily done, in consequence of the combustible 
materials of which they were built. This, toge- 
ther with the violence of the wind, rendered every 
eflFort to extinguish the fire ineffectual. I myself 
narrowly escaped with life. In order to shew an 
example, I ventured into the midst of the flames^ 
and had my hair and eye-brows singed, and my 
clothes burnt oflf my back ; but it was in vain, as 


they had destroyed most of the pumps, of which 
there were above a thousand ; out of all these, I 
believe that we could only find one that was ser- 
viceable. Besides, the wretches that had been 
hu^d by Rostopchin, ran about in every quarter, 
disseminating fire with their matches; in which 
they were but too much assisted by the wind. 
This terrible conflagration ruined evety thing. I 
was prepared for all but this. It was unforeseen, 
for who would have thought that a nation would 
have set its capital on fire ? The inhabitants 
themselves, however, did all they could to ex- 
tinguish it, and several of them perished in their 
endeavours. They also brought before us num- 
bers of the incendiaries with their matches, as 
amidst such a popolazzo we never could have dis- 
covered them ourselves. I caused about two hun- 
dred of these wretches to be shot. Had it not 
been fbr this fatal fire, I possessed every thing my 
army wanted ; excellent winter quarters ; stores 
of all kinds were in plenty ; and the next year 
would have decided it. Alexander would have 
made peace, or I would have been in Petersburgh." 
I asked if he thought that he could entirely sub- 
due Russia. " No,'* replied Napoleon ; '• but I 
would have caused Russia to make such a peace 
as suited the interests of France. I was five days 
too late in quitting Moscow. Several of the gu- 
nerals," continued he, " were burnt out of their 


beds. I myself remaned in the Kremlin * until 
surrounded by flames. The fire advanced^ seized 
the Chinese and India warehouses, and several 
stores of oil and spirits, which burst forth in 
flames and overwhelmed every thing. I then re* 
tired to a country-house of the Emperor Alex* 
ander, distant about a league from Moscow, and 
you may figure to yourself the intensity of the 
fire, when I tell you, that you could scarcely bear 
your hands upon the walls or the windows on the 
side next to Moscow, in consequence of their 
heated state. It was the spectacle of a sea and 
billows of fire, a sky and clouds of flame ; moun- 
tains of red rolling flames, like immense waves of 
the sea, alternately bursting forth and elevating 
themselves to skies of fire, and then sinking into 
the ocean of flame below. Oh, it was the most 
grand, the most sublime,^ and the most terrific sight 
the world ever beheld ! ! Allons^ Docteur'' -f- 
9th. — Had some conversation with the emperor 

* General Gourgaud informed me^ that during the conflagration, 
great numbers of crows (which are in myriads at Moscow) perched 
in flocks upon the towers of the Kremlin, from whence they frc* 
quently descended and hovered round the French soldiers, tapping 
their wings and screaming, as if menacing them with the destruction 
that followed. He added^ that the troops were dispirited by this | 
which they conceived to be a bad omen. 

'^ This was Napoleon's general expression when he wished no to 


conoeming religion. I observed, that in England 
there weiie different opinions about his faith ; that 
some had latterly supposed him to be a Roman Ca- 
tholic. *' Ebhene^ replied he, ^* Credo tutto quel 
eke crede la chiesaJ* (I believe all that the church 
believes.) ** I used," continued he, " to make the 
bishop of Nantes dispute with the Pope frequently 
in my presence. He wanted to re-establish the 
monks. My bishop used to tell him that the em- 
peror had no objection to persons being monks 
in their hearts, but that he objected to allowing 
any society of them to exist publicly. The Pope 
wanted n^ to confess, which I always evaded by 
saying, 'Holy father (santo padre) y I am too much 
occupied at present. When I get older.' I took 
a pleasure in conversing with the Pope, who was a 
good old man, ma testardo, (though obstinate)." 

*' There are so many different religions," conti- 
nued he, " or modifications of them, that it is dif- 
ficult to know which to choose. If one religion 
had existed from the beginning of the world, I 
should think that to be the true one. As it is, I 
am of opinion that every person ought to continue 
in the religion in which he was brought up ; in that 
of his fathers. What are you ?" *' A protestant," I 
replied. "Was your father so?" I said, '*Yes." 
^ Then continue in that belief." 

" In France," continued he, " I received Catho- 
lics and Protestants alike at my levee. I paid 


their ministers alike. 1 gave the Protestants a 
fine church at Paris, which had formerly belong- 
ed to the Jesuists. In order to prevent any reli- 
gious quarrels in places where there were both 
Catholic and Protestant churches, I prohibited 
them from tolling the bells to summon the people 
to worship in their respective churches, unless the 
ministers of the one and the other made a specific 
request for permission to do so, and stating that it 
was at the desire and request of the members of 
each religion. Permission was then given for a 
year, and if at the expiration of that year the de- 
mand was not renewed by both parties again^ it 
was not continued. By these means, I prevented 
the squabbles which had previously existed, as the 
Catholic priests found that they could not have 
their own bells tolled, unless the Protestants had 
a similar privilege." 

" There is a link between animals and the Deity. 
Man," added he, "is merely a more perfect ani- 
mal than the rest. He reasons better. But how 
do we know that animals have not a language of 
their own ? My opinion is, that it is presumption 
in us to say no, because we do not understand 
them. A horse has memory, knowledge, and love. 
He knows his master from the servants, though 
the latter are more constantly with him. I had a 
horse myself, who knew me from any other pei- 
Bon, and manifested by capeiing and proudly 


marching with his head erects when I was on his 
back, his knowledge that he bore a person supe* 
rior to the others by whom he was surrounded. 
Neither would he allow any other person to mount 
him, except one groom, who constantly took care 
of him, and when ridden by him, his motions were 
far different, and such as seemed to say that he 
was conscious he bore an inferior. When I lost 
my way, I was accustomed to throw the reins 
down his. neck, and he always discovered it in 
places where I, with all my observation and boast- 
ed superior knowledge, could not. Who can deny 
the sagacity of dogs ? There is a link between aU 
animals. Plants are so many animals who eat 
and drink, and there are gradations up to man, 
who is only the most perfect of them all. The 
same spirit animates them all in a greater or a 
lesser degree.*' 

** That governor,'* added he, " has closed up the 
path which led to the company's gardens, where I 
used to walk sometimes^ as it is the only spot 
sheltered from the vento agro, which I suppose he 
thought was too great an indulgence, ^ Son certo 
che ha qiutlche cattivo oggetto in vista.* But I do 
not give myself any uneasiness about it, for when a 
man's time is come he must go." I took the liberty 
of asking if he was a predestinarian. ^^ Sicuro^ 
replied Napoleon, " as much so as the Turks aie. 
I have been always so. When destiny wills, it 


must be obeyed. (Quando lo vuole il destino, bi- 
sogna uhhidire.y 

Asked him some questions about Blucher, 
" Blucher,'' said he, " is a very brave soldier, un 
bon sabreur. He is like a bull who shuts his eyes, 
and, seeing no danger, rushes on. He committed 
a thousand faults, and had it not been for circum- 
stances I could repeatedly have made him and the 
greatest part of his army prisoners. -He is stub- 
born and indefatigable, afraid of nothing, and very 
much attached to his country ; but as a general, 
he is without talent. I recollect that when I was 
in Prussia, he dined at my table after he had sur- 
rendered, and he was then considered to be on 
ordinaiy character.** 

Speaking about the English soldiers, he ob- 
served, " the English soldier is brave, nobody 
more so, and the officers generally men of honour, 
but I do not think them yet capable of executing 
grand manoeuvres. I think that if I were at the 
head of them, I could make them do any thing. 
However, I know them not enough yet to speak 
decidedly. I had a conversation with Bingham 
about it ; and although he is of a diflFerent opinion, 
I would alter your system. Instead of the lash, I 
would lead them by the stimulus of honour. I 
would instil a degree of emulation into their minds. 
I would promote every deserving soldier, as I did 
in France. After an action I assembled the offi^ 


cers and soldiers^ and asked, who have acquitted 
themselyes best r Quels sont les braves ? and pro- 
moted such of them as were capable of reading 
and writing. Those who were not^ I ordered to 
study five hours a day until they had learned a 
sufficiency^ and then promoted them. What might 
not be expected from the English army^ if every 
soldier hoped to be made a general if he be- 
haved well? Bingham says^ however^ that the 
greatest part of your soldiers are brutes^ and must 
be driven by the stick. But surely,** continued 
he^ ^^ the English soldiers must be possessed of 
sentiments sufficient to put them at least upon a 
level with the soldiers of other nations, where 
the degrading system of the lash is not used. 
Whatever debases man cannot be serviceable. 
Bingham says, that none but the dregs of the 
canaille voluntarily enter as soldiers. This dis- 
graceful punishment is the cause of it. I would 
remove it, and make even the situation of a private 
soldier be considered as conferring honour upon 
the individual who bore it. I would act as I 
did in France. I would encourage young men of 
education, the sons of merchants, gentlemen, and 
others, to enter as private soldiers, and promote 
them according to their merits. I would substi- 
tute confinement, bread and water, the contempt 
of his comrades (le m4pris de ses camaradesjj and 
such other punishments for the lash. Quando il 
soldato i awilito e disonarato colle Jruste, poco 
VOL. I. 2d 



gli preme la gloria o Vonore della sua pairu^i 
What honour can a man possibly have who is 
flogged before his comrades. He loses all feek 
ing, and would as soon fight against as for his 
country^ if he were better paid by the opposite 
party. When the Austnans had possession al 
Italy, they in vain attempted to make soldiens of 
the Italians. They either deserted as fast as they 
raised them, or else, when compelled to adyanoa 
against an enemy, they ran away on the first fire^ 
It was impossible to keep together a single regi« 
ment. \^en I got Italy, and began to raise sol- 
diers, the Austrians laughed at me, and said that 
it was in vain, that they had been trying for a long 
time, and that it was not in the nature of the Itar 
lians to fight or to make good soldiers. Notwitb* 
standing this, I raised many thousands of Italians^ 
who fought with a bravery equal to the French^ 
and did not desert me even in my adversity 
What was the cause ? I abolished flogging and 
the stick, which the Austrians had adopted. I 
promoted those amongst the soldiers who had 
talents, and made many of them generals. I sub- 
stituted honour and emulation for terror and the 

I asked his opinion relative to the comparative 
merit of the Russians, Prussians, and Germans. 
Napoleon replied, ^ Soldiers change, sometimes 

* ^'When a loldler hai been debased and dishononred by stripesy 
be caret bat Utile for the (^ary, or the honour of hia eounUy." 


brave, sometimes laches. I have seen the Russians 
at Eylau perform prodigies of valour : they were 
so many heroes. At Moscow, entrenched up to 
tbdr necks, they allowed me to beat two hundred 
and fifty thousand men wiUi ninety thousand. At 
Jena, and at other battles in that campaign, the 
Prussians fled like sheep; since that time they 
have fought bravely. My opinion is, that now, 
the Prussian soldier is superior to the Austrian. 
The ^French cuirassiers were the best cavalry in 
the world pour enf oncer Vinfanterie. Individually, 
there is no hoi*seman superior, or perhaps equal 
to the Mamaluke ; but they cannot act in a 
body. As partisans, the Cossacs excel, and the 
P6les as lancers.** This he said in reply to a 
question made by me of his opinion relative to the 

I asked who he thought was the best general 
amongst the Austrians. '^ Prince Charles,** he 
replied, '' although he has committed a thousand 
&ults. As to Schwartzenberg, he is not fit to com- 
mand six thousand men.** 

Napoleon then spoke about the siege of Tou- 
lon, and observed, that he had made General 
0*Hara prisoner, " I may say,** said he, " with 
my own hand. I had constructed a masked bat- 
tery of eight twenty-four pounders, and four mor- 
tars, in order to open upon fort Malbosquet (I think 
It was), which was in possession of the English. 


It was finished in the evening, and it was my in- 
tention to have opened upon them in the morning. 
While I was pving directions at another part of 
the army, some of the deputies from the conven- 
tion came down. In those days they sometimes 
took upon them to direct the operations of the 
armies, and those imbeciles ordered the battery to 
commence, which was obeyed. As soon as I saw 
this premature fire, I immediately conceived that 
the English general would attack the battery and 
most probably carry it, as matters had not been 
yet arranged to support it. In fact O'Hara, seeing 
that the fire from that battery would dislodge his 
troops from Malbosquet, from which last I would 
have taken the fort which commanded the har- 
bour, determined upon attacking it. Accordingly, 
early in the morning he put himself at the head of 
his troops, sallied out, and actually carried the 
battery and the lines which I had formed (Napoleon 
here drew a plan upon a piece of paper of the situa- 
tion of the batteries) to the left, and those to the 
right were taken by the Neapolitans. While he was 
busy in spiking the guns, I advanced with three 
or four hundred grenadiers, unperceived, through 
a hoycni covered with olive-trees, which communi- 
cated with the battery, and commenced a terrible 
fire upon his troops. The English, astonished^ at 
first supposed that the Neapolitans, who had the 
lines on the right, had mistaken them for French^ 


and said, it is those canaglie of Neapolitans who 
are firing upon us (for even at that time your 
troops despised the Neapolitans). O'Hara ran 
oat of the batteiy and advanced towards us. In 
advancing, he was wounded in the arm by the fire 
of a Serjeant, and I, who stood at the mouth of the 
hoyauy seized him by the coat, and threw him 
back amongst my own men, thinking that he was 
a colonel, as he had two epaulettes on. While 
they were taking him to the rear, he cried out that 
be was the commander in chief of the English. 
He thought that they were going to massacre him, 
as there existed a horrible order at that time from 
the convention to give no quarter to the English. 
I ran up and prevented the soldiers from ill-treating 
him. He spoke very bad French ; and as I saw 
that he imagined they intended to butcher him, I 
did every thing in my power to console him, and 
gave directions that his wound should be imme- 
diately dressed, and every attention paid to him. 
He afterwards begged of me to give him a state- 
ment of how he had been taken, in order that he 
might shew it to his government in his justifica- 

** Those blockheads of deputies,** continued he, 
^^ wanted to attack and storm the town first ; but 
I explained to them that it was very strong, and 
that we should lose many men ; that the best way 
would be to make ourselves masters of the forts 


which commanded the harbour, and then the Engu 
lish would either be taken^ or be obliged to burn 
the greatest part of the fleet, and escape. My ad- 
vice was taken ; and the English perceiving what 
would be the result, set fire to the ships and aban- 
doned the town. If a Ubeccio* had come on, they 
would have been all taken. It was Sydney Smith 
who set them on fire, and they would have been 
all burnt, if the Spaniards had behaved well. It 
was the finest ^ei/ d^ artifice possible." 

" Those Neapolitans,'* continued he, *^ are the 
most vile canaglie in the world. Murat ruined 
me by advancing against the Austrians with them* 
When old Ferdinand heard of it, he laughed and 
said in his jargon, that they would serve Murat 
as they had done him before, when Championet 
dispersed a hundred thousand of them like so 
many sheep with ten thousand Frenchmen. I 
had forbidden Murat to act ; for, after I returned 
from Elba, there was an understanding between 
the Emperor of Austria and me, that if I gave 
him up Italy, he would not join the coalition 
against me. This I had promised, and would 
have fulfilled it ; but that imbecille^ in spite of the 
direction I had given him to remain quiet, ad- 
vanced with his rabble into Italy, where he was 
blown away like a pufF. The Emperor of Aus- 
tria seeing this^ concluded directly that it was by 

* A loath- wind. 


nqrordarSj and that I deceived him; and being 
oonscioos that he had betrayed me himself before, 
supposed that I did not intend to keep faith with 
him, and determined to endeavour to crush me 
with all his forces. Twice Murat betrayed and 
rained me. Before, when he forsook me, he joined 
the allies with sixty thousand men, and obliged me 
to leave thirty thousand in Italy, when I wanted 
them so much elsewhere. At that time, his army 
was well officered by French. Had it not been 
for this rash step of Murat^s, the Russians would 
have retreated, as their intentions were not to have 
advanced, if Austria did not join the coalition ; 
80 that you would have been left to yourselves, 
and have gladly made a peace." 

He observed that he had always been willing to 
conclude a peace with England. " Let your mi- 
nisters say what they like," said he, *^ I was always 
ready to make a peace. At the time that Fox 
died, there was every prospect of effecting one, 
if Lord Lauderdale had been sincere at first, it 

would also have been concluded. Before the 
campaign in Prussia, I caused it to be signified to 

him that he had better persuade his countrymen to 
make peace, as I would be master of Prussia in 
two months ; for this reason, that although Russia 
and Prussia united might be able to oppose me, 
yet that Prussia alone could not. That the Rus- 
sians were three months* march distant ; and that 


as I had intelligence that their plan of campaiga 
vas to defend Berlin, instead of retiring, in order 
to obtain the support of the Russians, I would 
destroy their army, and take Berlin before the Rus- 
sians came up, who alone I would easily defeat af- 
terwards. I therefore advised him to take advan- 
tage of my offer of peace, before Prussia, who was 
your best friend on the continent, was destroyed. 
After this communication, I believe that Lord 
Lauderdale was sincere, and that he wrote to 
your ministers recommending peace ; but they 
would not agree to it, thinking that the king of 
Prussia was at the head of a hundred thousand 
men ; that I might be defeated, and that a defeat 
would be my ruin. This w«is possible. A battle 
sometimes decides every thing ; and sometimes 
the most trifling circumstance decides the fate of 
a battle. The event, however, proved that I was 
right ; after Jena, Prussia was mine. After Tilsit 
and at Erfiirth,** continued he, " a letter contain- 
ing proposals of peace to England, and signed by 
the Emperor Alexander and myself, was sent to 
your ministers, but they would not accept of 

He spoke of Sir Sydney Smith. ^' Sydney 
Smith,** said he, " is a brave officer. He displayed 
considerable ability in the treaty for the evacua- 
tion of Egypt by the French. He took advantage 
of the discontent which he found to prevail 


amongst the French troops, at being so long away 
from France, and other circumstances. He also 
manifested great honour in sending immediately 
to Kleber the refusal of Lord Keith to ratify the 
treaty, which saved the French army ; if he had 
kept it a secret for seven or eight days longer, 
Cairo would have been gtven up to the Turks, 
and the French army necessarily obliged to sur- 
render to the English. He also shewed great hu- 
manity and honour in all his proceedings towards 
the French who fell into his hands. He landed 
at Havre, for some sottise of a bet he had made, 
according to some, to go to the theatre ; others 
8ud it was for espionage ; however that may be, 
he was arrested and confined in the Temple as a 
spy ; and at one time it was intended to try and 
execute him. Shortly after I returned from Italy, 
he wrote to me from his prison, to request that 
I would intercede for him ; but under the circum- 
stances in which he was taken, I could do no- 
thing for him. He is active, intelligent, intriguing, 
and indefatigable ; but I believe that he is mezzo 

I asked if Sir Sydney had not displayed great 
talent and bravery at Acre? Napoleon replied, 
^ Yes, the chief cause of the failure there was, 
that he took all my battering train, which was on 
board of several small vessels. Had it not been 
for that, I would have taken Acre in spite of him. 

YOU I. 2 E 


He behaved very bravely, and was well seconded 
by Philippeaux, a Frenchman of talent, who had 
studied with me as an engineer. There was a 
Major Douglas also who behaved very gallantly 
The acquisition of five or six hundred seamen as 
cannoniers, was a great advantage to the Turks, 
whose spirits they revived, and whom they shewed 
how to defend the fortress. But he committed a 
great fault in making sorties, which cost the live* 
of two or three hundred brave fellows, without 
the possibility of success. For it was impossible 
he could succeed against the number of the French 
who were before Acre. I would lay a wager that 
he lost half of his crew in them. He dispersed 
proclamations amongst my troops, which certainly 
shook some of them, and I in consequence pub- 
lished an order, stating that he was mad, and for- 
bidding all communication with him. Some days 
after, he sent, by means of a flag of truce, a lieu- 
tenant or a midshipman with a letter containing 
a challenge to me to meet him at some place he 
pointed out, in order to fight a duel. I laughed 
at this, and sent him back an intimation that when 
he brought Marlborough to fight me, I would 
meet him. Notwithstanding this, I like the cha- 
racter of the man.** 

In answer to a remark of mine, that the inva- 
sion of Spain had been a measure very destructive 
to him, he replied, " If the government I esta- 


blished had remained, it would have been the best 
thing that ever happened for Spain. I would 
have regenerated the Spaniards ; I would have 
made them a great nation. Instead of a feeble, 
imbecile, and superstitious race of Bourbons, I 
would have given them a new dynasty, that would 
have no claim on the nation, except by the good 
it would have rendered unto it. For an heredi- 
tary race of asses, they would have had a mon- 
arch, with ability to revive the nation, sunk under 
the yoke of superstition and ignorance. Perhaps 
it is better for France that I did not succeed, 
as Spain would have been a formidable rival. I 
would have destroyed superstition and priestcraft, 
and abolished the inquisition and the monasteries 
of those lazy bestie di frati. I would at least 
have rendered the priests harmless. The guerillas, 
who fought so bravely against me, now lament 
their success. When I was last in Paris, I had 
letters from Mina, and many other leaders of the 
guerillas, craving assistance to expel their friar 
from the throne.** 

Napoleon afterwards made some observations 
relative to the governor, whose suspicious and 
mysterious conduct he contrasted with the open 
and undisguised manner in which Sir George 
Cockbum conducted himself. *^ Though the ad 
miral was severe and rough,** said he, " yet he 
was incapable of a mean action. He had no atro- 


cities in contemplation, and tlierefore made no 
mystery or secrecy of his conduct. Never have 
I suspected him of any sinister design. Although 
I might not like him, yet I could not despise him- 
I despise the other. As a gaoler, the admiral 
was kind and humane, and we ought to be grate- 
ful to him; as our host, we have reason to be 
dissatisfied, and to complain of him. This gaoler 
deprives life of every inducement to me. Were 
>t not that it would be an act of cowardice, and 
that it would please your ministers, I would get 
rid of it. Tengo la vita per la gloria. There is 
more courage in supporting an existence like mine, 
than in abandoning it. This governor has a double 
correspondence with your ministers, similar to 
that which all your ambassadors maintain; one 
written so as to deceive the world, should they 
ever be called upon to publish it, and the others 
giving a true account, for themselves alone.** I 
observed, that I believed all ambassadors and 
other official persons in all countries, wrote two 
accounts, one for the public, and the other con- 
taining matters which it might not not be right to 
divulge. *^True, signor medico^ replied Napo- 
leon, taking me by the ear in a good-humoured 
manner, ^^ but there is not so Machiavelian a mi- 
nistry in the world as your own. Cela tient h voire 
systhne. That, and the liberty of your press, 
obliges your ministers to render some account to 


the nation, and therefore they want to be able to 
deceive the public in many instances ; but as it is 
also necessary for them to ktK)w the truth them-^ 
selves, they have a double correspondence ; one 
official and fsdse, calculated to gull the nation, 
when published, or called for by the parliament ; 
the other, private and true, to be kept locked up 
in their own possession, and not deposited in the 
archives. In this way, they manage to make every 
thing appear as they wish to John Bull. Now this 
system of falsehood is not necessary in a country 
where there is no obligation to publish, or to ren- 
der an account ; if the sovereign does not like to 
make known any transaction officially, he keeps 
it to himself, and gives no explanation ; therefore 
there is no need of causing varnished accounts to 
be written, in order to deceive the people. For 
these reasons, there are more falsifications in your 
official documents, than in those of any other na- 

lOth. — Wrote a statement to Sir Hudson Lowe, 
purporting it to be my opinion, that a further 
continuance of confinement and want of exercise 
would be productive of some serious complaint to 
Napoleon, which in all probability would prove 
fatal to him. 

12th. — Conversed with Napoleon, who was in 
his bath, for a considerable time. On asking his 
opiuion of Talleyrand, " Talleyrand," said he, " le 


plus vil des agioteursy hasjlatteur. C*est un Jiamme 
carrompuy who has betrayed all parties and per- 
sons. Wary and ch-cumspect; always a traitor, 
but always in conspiracy with fortune^ Talley- 
rand treats bis enemies as if they were one day to 
become his friends ; and his friends, as if they 
were to become his enemies. He is a man of tSr- 
lent, but venal in every thing. Nothing could 
be done with him but by means of bribery. The 
kings of Wirtemberg and Bavaria made so many 
complaints of his rapacity and extortion, that I 
took his portfeuille from him : besides, I found 
that he had divulged to some intrigants, a most 
important secret which I had confided to him 
alone. He hates the Bourbons in his heart. When 
1 returned from Elba, Talleyrand wrote to me 
from Vienna, offering his services, and to betray 
the Bourbons, provided I would pardon and re- 
store him to favour. He argued upon a part of 
my proclamation, in which I said there were cir- 
cumstances which it was impossible to resist, 
which he quoted. But I considered that there 
were a few I was obliged to except, and refused, 
as it would have excited indignation if I had not 
punished somebody.** 

I asked if it were true that Talleyrand had ad- 
vised him to dethrone the King of Spain, and 
mentioned that the Duke of Rovigo had told me 
that Talleyrand had said in his presence, ^^ Your 


majesty win never be secure upon your throne, 
while a Bonrbon is seated upon one " He replied, 
**True, he advised me to do every thing which 
would injure the Bourbons, whom he detests." 

Napoleon shewed me the marks of two wounds ; 
one a very deep cicatrice above the left knee, 
which he said he had received in his first cam- 
paign of Italy, and was of so serious a nature, 
that the surgeons were in doubt whether it might 
not be ultimately necessary to amputate. He ob- 
served, that when he was wounded, it was always 
kept a secret, in order not to discourage the sol- 
diers. The other was on the toe, and had been 
received at Eckmiihl. "At the siege of Acre,** 
continued he, " a shell thrown by Sydney Smith 
fell at my feet. Two soldiers who were close by, 
seized, and closely embraced me, one in fronjt and 
the other on one side, and made a rampart of their 
bodies for me, against the eflfect of the shell, which 
exploded, and overwhelmed us with sand. We 
sunk into the hole formed by its bursting ; one of 
them was wounded. I made them both officers. 
One has since lost a leg at Moscow, and com- 
manded at Vincennes when I left Paris. When 
he was summoned by the Russians, he replied, 
that as soon as they sent him back the leg he 
had lost at Moscow, he would surrender the for- 
tress. Many times in my life," continued he, 
f have I been saved by soldiers and officers throw- 


iDg themselves before me when I was in the most 
imminent danger. At Areola, when I was advanc- 
ing, Colonel Meuron, my aid-de-camp, threw him- 
self before me, covered me with his body, and re- 
ceived the wound which was destined for me. He 
fell at my feet, and his blood spouted up in my 
face. He gave his life to preserve mine. Never 
yet, I believe, has there been such devotion shewn 
by soldiers as mine have manifested for me. In 
all my misfortunes, never has the soldier, even 
when expiring, been wanting to me — ^never has 
man been served more faithfully by his troops. 
With the last drop of blood gushing out of their 
veins, they exclaimed, f^ive VEmperewrr I 

I asked, if he had gained the 1)attle of Waterloo, 
whether he would have agreed to the treaty of 
Paris. Napoleon replied, " I would certainly have 
ratified it. I would not have made such a peace 
myself. Sooner than agree to much better terms 
I abdicated before ; but finding it already mad^ 
I would have kept it, because France had need of 

13<A. — Sir Hudson Lowe sent orders to Count 
Las Cases to dismiss his present servant, and to 
replace him by a soldier whom he sent for that pur- 
pose. The count replied, that Sir Hudson Lowe 
had the power to take away his servant, but that 
he could not compel him (Las Cases) to receive 
another. That it would certainly be an inconve- 


nienoe to lose his servant in the present state of 
ill health of his son ; but that if he were taken 
away^ he would not accept one of Sir Hudson 
Lowers choosing. Captain Poppleton wrote to 
Sir Hudson Lowe^ stating the count's disinclina- 
tion ; and I informed him^ that the man he had 
sent to replace the count's servant, had formerly 
been employed at Longwood, and turned away 
for drunkenness. Sir Hudson then desired me to 
tell Poppleton, that the former servant might re- 
main until he could find one that would answer, 
adding, that he would look out himself for a pro- 
per subject, which he also desired me to tell the 
count. Informed him that it was my intention to 
call in Mr. Baxter, to have the benefit of his ad- 
vice in the case of young Las Cases, which pre- 
sented some alarming appearances. 

Communicated to Count Las Cases the mes- 
sage I was charged with by Sir Hudson Lowe. 
The count replied, " if the governor had told me 
that he did not wish my servant to remain with 
me, or that he would be glad if I sent him away, 
and that he would give me a fortnight to look out 
for another, I would immediately have dismissed 
him, and most probably have asked the governor 
to send me another ; but acting in the manner he 
has done, without saying a word to me, I will 
take no servant from his hands. He treats me as 
a corporal would do. The admiral, even if dis* 

VOL. I. 2 F 


pleased with me^ never would have taken ray ser- 
vant away out of revenge.** 

Dined at Plantation House in company with 
the Marquis Montchenu^ who amused the com- 
pany with the importance which he attached to 
grande naissance, relative to which he recounted 
some anecdotes. 

16th. — ^The Adamant transport arrived from the 
Cape, bringing news of the arrival of Sir George 
Cockbum in England, and that he had had an 
audience with the Prince Regent on the 2nd of 

An inspector of police named Rainsford ar* 
rived from England and the Cape. 

17 th. — ^The allowances for Longwood dimi« 
nished by order of Sir Hudson Lowe two pounds 
of meat daily, in consequence of the departure of 
a servant, who had received but one pound. A 
bottle of wine also struck off. 

The carters who bring up the provisions, state 
that the foul linen of Longwood is frequently in- 
spected by Sir Thomas Reade on its arrival in 
town. Countess Bertrand sent down in the trunk 
eontmning her soiled linen, some novels which 
she had borrowed from Miss Chesborough, before 
the arrival of Sir Hudson Lowe on the island. 
They were placed on the top of the linen, and the 
truidc was unlocked. Sir Thomas Reade said, 
that it was a violation of the proclamation, and 


that Miss Chesborough should be turned off the 
island. He then exanimed the countess's liAen, 
upon which he made observations not consistent 
with the delicacy or the respect due to the female sex. 
Mentioned to the emperor that I had been in* 
formed he had saved Mar^chal Duroc's life during 
his first campaigns in Italy, when seized and con- 
demned to death as an emigrant ; which was as- 
serted to have been the cause of the great attach- 
ment subsequently displayed by Duroc to him 
until the hour of his death. Napoleon looked sur- 
prisedy and replied, " No such thing — who told you 
that tale r I said that I had heard the Marquis 
Montchenu repeat it at a public dinner. '^ There 
is not a word of truth in it,** replied Napoleon. 
^ I took Duroc out of the artillery train when he 
was a boy, and protected him until his death. 
But I suppose Montchenu said this, because 
Duroc was of an old family, which in that boob/s 
eyes is the only source of merit. He despises 
every body who has not as many hundred years 
of nobility to boast of as himself. It was such as 
Montchenu who were the chief cause of the revo- 
lution. Before it, such a man as Bertrand, who 
is worth an army of Montchenu*s, could not even 
be a sous-lieutenanty while vieux enfans like him 
would be generals. God help,** continued he, 
^ the nation that is governed by such. In my 
tim^ most of the generals, of whose deeds France 


is SO proud, sprang from that very class of ple- 
beians so much despised by him. It surprises 
me,** added he, ^ that they have permitted the 
Duchess of Reggio to be premiere dame to the 
Duchess of Bern, as her husband was once a pri- 
vate soldier, and did not spring from grande nais^ 
sancer I asked his opinion of the Duke of Reggio, 
^^ A brave man,** replied Napoleon, '* Ma di poca 
testa. He has been influenced latterly by his young 
wife, who is of an old family, whose vanity and 
prejudices she inherits. However," continued he, 
" he offered his services after my return from 
Elba, and took the oath of allegiance to me.** I 
asked him if he thought that he was sincere. '^ It 
might have been so, signor medico. If I had suc- 
ceeded, I dare say he would have been.** 

Napoleon vety busily employed in dictating his 
memoirs to Counts Bertrand and Montholon. 

Sir Hudson Lowe objected to allowing the pro- 
duce of the last plate which had been disposed 
of to be placed at the disposal of the French, al* 
leging that it was too large a sum, viz. 295/., and 
demanded an explanation of the manner in which 
so large a sum of money was to be disposed of. It 
appeared upon examination, that instead of hav* 
ing 295/. disposable, there would be in reality 
only a few pounds, as 85/. was due to Marchand, 
45/. to Cipriani, 16/. to Gentilini, for money ad« 
Tanced by them to purchase extra articles of food^ 


previous to the sale of the last plate : also 70/. to 
Mr. Balcombe*s concern, 10/. to Le Page, and 20/. 
to Archambaud, for fowls, &c. 

2Qnd. — Orders sent up by Sir Hudson Lowe for 
a fresh reduction in the allowance of meat and 
Saw Baron Sturmer in the town, with whom I 
had some conversation. He was very desirous of 
seeing Napoleon, and informed me that Sir Hudson 
Lowe, in granting the commissioners permission 
to enter as far as the inner gate of Longwood, had 
required them to pledge their honour that they 
would not speak to Napoleon, without having first 
obtained his permission. 

23rd. — Sir Pulteney Malcolm arrived from the 
Cape. Napoleon very anxious to obtain some 
newspapers. Tried to procure some, but was in- 
formed that the governor had got all that were to 
be had. 

25th. — ^On my return from town to Longwood, 
met Sir Hudson Lowe, who was riding up and 
down the road. ViTien I came near to his excel- 
lency, he observed, with an air of triumph, " You 
will meet your friend Las Cases in custody ."^ A 
few minutes afterwards, met the count, under 
charge of the governor's aid-de-camp, Prichard, 
on his way to Hut's Gate. It had been eflfected 
in the following manner : About three o'clock. 
Sir Hudson Lowe, accompanied by Sir Thomas 


Reade^ Major Gorrequer, and three dragoonfF^ 
entered Longwood. Shortly afterwards, Captain 
Blakeney and the minister of police followed* 
them. Sir Hudson and Major Gorrequer rode 
off a little to the left, while the others proceeded 
to Captain Poppletotfs room, having first ordered 
a corporal and party from the guard to follow 
them up to the house. Sir Thomas ordered Cap- 
tain Poppleton to send for Count Las Cases, who 
was with Napoleon. After they had waited a 
short time. Las Cases came out, and was arrested 
while going into his room by Reade and the mi- 
nister of police, who took possession of his clothes 
and effects. His papers were sealed up by his^ 
son, who afterwards proceeded to Hufs Gate 
under custody, where he remained with his father 
in charge of an officer of the 66th regiment, with 
orders not to be allowed to see any body, except 
the governor and his staff. It appeared that the 
count had given a letter, written upon silk, to Scott 
his servant, with which he was to proceed to Eng- 
land. Scott told this to his father, who had him 
brought to a Mr. Barker, and from thence to the 
governor, by whom, after undergoing an examina* 
tion, he was committed to prison. 

Saw Napoleon in the evening, who appeared to 
have been wholly ignorant of Las Cases* inten- 
tions. ''I am convinced,** said he, "however, that 
there is nothing of consequence in the letter, as 


Las* Csaes is an honest man^ and too much' at 
tached to me to undertake any thing of conse- 
qnence without first having acquainted me with 
his project. You may depend upon it that it is 
some letter of complaints to Miledi about the con- 
duct of this governor^ and the vexations which he 
inflicts upon us, or to his banker, as he has four 
or five thousand pounds in some banker's hands 
in London, which I was to have had for my neces- 
sities, and he did not like his letter to go through 
the governor's hands, as none of us will trust 
him. If Las Cases had made his project known 
to me, I would have stopped him ; not that I dis- 
approve of his endeavouring to make our situation 
known, on the contrary ; but I disapprove of the 
bungling manner in which he attempted it. For 
a man of talent, like Las Cases, to make an am- 
bassador of a slave, who could not read or write 
to go upon a six months embassy to England^ 
where he never has been, knows nobody, and who, 
unless the governor was a scioccone, would not be 
permitted to leave the island, is to me incompre- 
hensible. I can only account for it by supposing, 
that the weight of afflictions which presses upon 
us, together with the melancholy situation of his 
son, condemned to die of an incurable malady, 
have impaired his judgment. All this I wish to 
be known. I am sorry for it, because people will 
accuse me of having been privy to the plan, and 


will have a poor opinion of my understanding ; 
supposing me to have consented to so shallow a 
plot. I would have recommended him to have 
requested of some man of honour to make our 
situation known in England^ and to have taken 
a letter to the Prince Regent ; first asking him to 
pledge his honour to observe secrecy if he did not 
choose to perform it. If he betrayed us, so much 
the worse for himself. Las Cases has with him 
my campaigns in Italy, and all the official corre- 
spondence between the admiral, governor, and 
Longwood; and I am told that he has made a 
journal, containing an account of what passes here, 
with many anecdotes of myself. I have desired 
Bertrand to go to Plantation House and ask for 
them. It is the least interesting part of my life, 
as it only relates the commencement of it ; but I 
should not like this governor to have it. 

" I am sure,** continued he, " that there is no- 
thing of consequence in Las Cases' letter, or he 
would have made me acquainted with it ; although 
I dare say this * * * * will write a hundred false- 
hoods to England about it. When in Paris, after 
my return from Elba, I found in M. Blacas*s pri- 
vate papers, which he left behind when he ran 
away from the Thuilleries, a letter which had been 
written in Elba by one of my sister Pauline*s 
chamber-maids, and appeared to have been com- 
posed in a moment of anger. Pauline is very 


handsome and gleeful. There was a description 
of her habits, of her dress, her wardrobe, and of 
every thing that she liked ; of how fond I was 
of contributing to her happiness ; and that I had 
raperintended the furnishing of her boudoir my- 
self; what an extraordinaiy man I was; that one 
night I had burnt my finger dreadfully, and had 
merely poured a bottle of ink over it, without ap- 
pearing to regard the pain, and many little hHises 
true enough perhaps. This letter M. Blacas had 
got interpolated with horrid stories ; in fact, insi- 
naating that I slept with my sister; and in the 
margin, in the hand-writing of the interpolator, 
was written ' to be printed^ ^ 

26/A. — ^Napoleon in' his bath. Asked if I had 
heard any thing more respecting Las Cases ; pro- 
fessed his sorrow to lose him. ^' Las Cases,** said 
he, *' is the only one of the French who can speak 
English well, or explain it to my satisfaction. I 
cannot now read an English newspaper. Madame 
Bertrand understands English perfectly ; but you 
know one cannot trouble a lady. Las Cases was 
necessary to me. Ask the admiral to interest 
himself for that poor man, who, I am convinced, 
has not said as much as there was in Montholon*s 
letter. He will die under all these afflictions, for 
he has no bodily strength, and his unfortunate son 
will finish his existence a little sooner.** 

He asked if Madame Bertrand had not been 

VOL. I. 2 a 


unwell, and said he believed she suspected that 
her mother was either dead or most alarmingly ill. 
"Those Creoles," said he, "are very susceptible. 
Josephine was subject to nervous attacks when in 
affliction. Sh6 was really an amiable woman — 
elegant, charming, and affable. Era la dama la 
pill graziosa di Francla. She was the goddess of 
the toilet, all the fashions originated with her ; 
every thing she put on appeared elegant ; and she 
was so kind, so humane — she was the best wo- 
man in France." 

He then spoke about the distress prevailing in 
England, and said, that it was caused by the 
abuses of the ministry. " You have done won- 
ders,** said he ; " you have effected impossibilities, 
I may say ; but I think that England, encumbered 
with a national debt, which will take forty years 
of peace and commerce to pay off, may be com- 
pared to a man who has drunk large quantities of 
brandy to give him courage and strength ; but af- 
tei^wards weakened by the stimulus which had 
imparted energy for the moment, he totters and 
finally falls ; his powers entirely exhausted by the 
unnatural means used to excite them.** 

Some conversation then took place relative to 
the battle of Austerlitz. Napoleon said, that prior 
to the battle, the king of Prussia had signed the 
coalition against him. '* Haugwitz,** said he, 
•* came to inform me of it, and advised me to think 


of peace. I replied, ' The event of the battle which 
is approaching will decide every thing. I think 
that I shall gain it, and if so, I will dictate such 
a peace as answers my purposes. Now I will 
hear nothing.* The event answered my expecta- 
tion : I gained a victory so decisive, as to enable 
me to dictate what terms I pleased." I asked him 
if Haugwitz had been gained by him ? He replied, 
^ No ; but he was of opinion that Prussia should 
aever play the first fiddle (giuocare ilprimoruolo) 
in the affairs of the continent ; that she was only 
a second-rate power, and ought to act as such. 
Even if I had lost the battle, I expected that 
Prussia would not cordially join the allies, as it 
would naturally be her interest to preserve an 
equilibrium in Europe, which would not result 
from her joining those who, on my being defeated, 
would be much the strongest. Besides, jea- 
lousies and suspicions would arise, and the allies 
would not have trusted to the king of Prussia, 
who had betrayed them before. I gave Hanover 
to the Prussians," continued he, "on purpose to 
embroil them with you, produce a war, and shut 
you out from the continent. The king of Prussin 
was blockhead enough to believe that he could 
keep Hanover, and still remain at peace with you. 
Like a madman, he made war upon me afterwards, 
induced by the queen and prince Louis, with 
some other young men, who persuaded him that 

228 A VOICB FROM ST. helcna; 

Prussia was strong enough, even without Russia. 
A few weeks convinced him of the contrary." I 
asked him what he would have done if the king of 
Prussia had joined the allies with his army previ- 
ous to the battle of Austerlitz ? " Ah, Mr. Doc- 
tor, that would have entirely altered the face of 

He eulogized the king of Saxony, who he said 
was a truly good man ; the king of Bavaria, a plain 
good man ; the king of Wirtemberg, a man of 
considerable talent, but unprincipled and wicked. 
" Alexander and the latter," said he, ** are the only 
sovereigns in Europe possessed of talents. Lord 
* * * *, un jnauvais sujet^ nn agloteur. While nego- 
ciating in Paris, he sent couriers away every day 
to London, for the purposes of stock-jobbing, 
which was solely what he interested himself about. 
Had there been an honest man, instead of an in- 
triguing stock-jobber, it is very likely the negotia^ 
tion would have succeeded. I was much grieved 
afterwards to have had any affairs with such a 
contemptible character." This was pronounced 
with an air of disdain. 

27M. — ^Napoleon very much concerned about 
the treatment which Las Cases had suffered, and 
the detention of his own papers. He observed, that 
if there had been any plot in Las Cases* letter, 
the governor could have perceived it in ten minutes 
perusal. That in a few moments he could also 
see that the campaigns of Italy, &c. contained 


notlniig' treasonable ; and that it was ccmtrary to 
all law to detidn pe^rs belonging to him (Napo- 
leon)^ ^Perfaaps,"" said he^ ^^he will come up 
here some day and say that he has received inti- 
mation that a plot to effect my escape is in sigita- 
tion. What guarantee have I, that when I have 
nearly finished my history, he will not seize the 
whole of it ? It is true that I can keep niy ma- 
misciipts in my own room, and with a couple of 
brace of pistols I can despatch the first who en- 
ters. I must burn the whole of what I have 
written. It served as an amusement Co me in this 
dismal abode, and might perhaps have been inte- 
resting to the world, but with this shirro Siciliano 
there is no guarantee nor security. He violates 
eveiy law^ and tramples under foot decency, po- 
liteness, and the common forms of society. He 
came up with a savage joy beaming from his eyes, 
because he had an oppoitunity of insulting and 
tormenting us. While surrounding the house 
with his staff*, he reminded me of the savages of 
the South Sea islands, dancing round the prisonera 
whom they were going to devour. Tell him," 
continued he, *^ what I said about his conduct.** 
For fear that I should forget, he repeated his ex- 
pressions about the savages a second time, and 
made me say it after him. 

Went to Hut's Gate to see Sir Hudson Lowe, 
who had sent a dragoon for me. On my arrival, his 


exceUency told me that the campaigns of Italy, 
and the official documents, would be sent to Long- 
wood the following day, and desired me to teU 
General Bonaparte that all his papers bad been 
kept sacred, and that all his personal ones should 
be returned. As to Lajs Cases' journal, he said 
that he would have some conversation with Count 
Bertrand concerning it. 

I informed his excellency that Napoleon had 
disclaimed all knowledge of the project which 
Count Las Cases had formed, and added my own 
conviction, that until the moment that the letters 
had been arrested, he was wholly ignorant of his 
intentions. Sir Hudson replied, that he acquitted 
him of any knowledge of the matter, which he de- 
sired me to tell him, and congratulated himself 
much on his own discernment in the opinion he 
had formed of Count Las Cases' servant. 

Saw young Las Cases afterwards, who was very 
unwell. During the time that I was examining 
him professionally. Sir Thomas Reade remained 
in the room. On my going out. Sir Thomas 
said, that ** old Las Cases had been so imperti- 
nent to the governor, that the latter had ordered 
that he should not be permitted to see any person^ 
unless in the presence of some of the governors 

On my return, explained to Napoleon the gover- 
nor's message, and informed him that I had seeB 


part of his papers sealed up. When I said that 
the governor had acquitted him of any participa- 
tion in the business ; " if,'* said he, " I had known 
of it, and had not put a stop to it, I should have 
been worse than a pazzo da catena. I suppose he 
thinks there was some plot for my escape. I can 
safely say that I left Elba with eight hundred 
men, and arrived at Paris, through France, with- 
out any other plot than that of knowing the sen- 
timents of the French nation." 

He then sent for St. Denis, who had copied Las 
Cases* journal, and asked him the nature of it. 
St. Denis replied that it was a journal of every 
thing remarkable that had taken place since the 
embarkation on board of the Bellerophon ; and 
contained divers anecdotes of different persons, of 
Sir George Cockburn, &c. "How is he treated?** 
says Napoleon, " Comme pa, Sire^ ^^ Has he said 
that I called him a requinF' "Yes, Sire,** "Sir 
George Bingham ?" " Very well spoken of, also 
Colonel Wilks." " Is there any thing to compro- 
mise any person ?" (naming three or four.) " No, 
Sire.** " Any thing about Admiral Malcolm ?** 
" Yes, Sire." " Does it say that I observed. Be- 
hold the countenance of a real Englishman ? 
" Yes, Sire, he is very well treated.** " Any thing 
about the governor?" "A great deal. Sire,** re- 
plied St. Denis, who could not help smiling, 
•^ Does it say that I said, Cest un homme ignoble. 


and that his face was the most ignoble I had ever 
seen ?** St. Denis replied in the affirmative^ bat 
added^ that his expressions were very frequently 
moderated. Napoleon asked if the anecdote of 
the coffee-cup was in it ; St. Denis replied, he did 
not recollect it. " Does it say that I called him, 
^bire Sicilien F '* Out, Sire."^ ^^ Cest son nam^^ 
said the emperor. 

Napoleon conversed aboat his brother Joseph, 
whom he described as being a most excellent cha- 
racter. " His virtues and talents are those of a 
private character ; and for such, nature intended 
him : he is too good to be a great man. H^ has 
no ambition. He is very like me in person, but 
handsomer. He is extremely well informed." On 
all occasions I have observed that Napoleon spoke 
of his brother Joseph in terms of warm aflTection. 

29th. — Having been unwell for some days with 
a liver complaint, a disease extremely prevalent, 
and frequently fatal in the island ; and finding the 
symptoms considerably aggravated by the fre- 
quent journeys I was obliged to make to town 
and Plantation House, I felt it necessary to ap- 
ply to Dr. McLean of the 53rd regiment to bleed 
me very profusely. Before the abstraction of 
blood was well over. Sir Hudson Lowe came 
into my apartment. I informed him that Napo* 
leon had said, ^^ what guarantee can I have that 
he will not come up some day when I have 


nearly finmbed my history, and under some pre- 
text, seifse it 7^^ which he had desired might be 
commanicated to him. Sir Hudson replied, " The 
guarttitee of his good conduct T 

Shortly: aft ei-wards I saw Napoleon in his dres- 
sing-room. He was much pleased at having re- 
ceived the campaigns of Italy, and added that he 
would reclaim the other papers. " This gover- 
nor,** said he, " if he had any delicacy, would not 
have continued to read a work in which his con- 
duct was depicted in its true light. He must have 
been little satisfied with the comparisons made 
between Gockbum and him, especially where it 
is mentioned that I said the admiral was rough, 
but incapable of a mean action ; but that his suc- 
cesssor was capable of every thing that was ♦♦♦ 
and ♦ ♦ ♦. I am glad, however, that he has read 
it, because he will see the real opinion that we 
have of him.** While he was speaking, my vision 
became indistinct, every thing appeared to swim 
before my eyes, and I fell upon the floor in a 
fainting fit. When I recovered my senses and 
opened my eyes, the first object which presented 
itself to my view, I shall never forget : it was the 
countenance of Napoleon, bending over my face, 
and regarding me with an expression of great 
concern and anxiety. With one hand he was 
opening my shirt-collar, and with the other, hold- 
ing a bottle de vinaigre des guatre voleurs to my 

VOL. I. 2 H 


nostiils. He had taken off my cravat^ and dashed 
the contents of a bottle of eau de Cologne over 
my face. " 'When I saw you fall," said he, *^ I at 
first thought that your foot had slipped ; but see- 
ing you remain without motion, I apprehended 
that it was a fit of apoplexy ; observing, however, 
that your face was the colour of death, your 
lips white and without motion, and no evident 
respiration or bloated countenance, I concluded 
directly that it was a fit of syncope, or that your 
soul had departed.** Marchand now came into the 
room, whom he ordered to give me some orange- 
flower water, which was a favorite remedy of his. 
When he saw me fall, in his haste he broke the 
bell riband. He told me that he had lifted me up, 
placed me in a chair, torn off my cravat, dashed 
some eau de Cologne and water over my face, 
&c., and asked if he had done right. I informed 
him that he had done every thing proper, and as a 
surgeon would have done under similar circum- 
stances ; except that instead of allowing me to re- 
main in a recumbent posture, he had placed me 
in a chair. When I was leaving the room, I heard 
him tell Marchand in an under-voice to follow me, 
for fear I should have another fit. 

December 1st. — Napoleon, after some inquiries 
touching my health, and the effects of the mercury 
upon me, observe^ that he wished Las Cases to 
go away, as three or four months stay in St He« 


lena would be of little utility either to Las Cases 
or himself. The next^** said he, " to be removed 
mider some pretext, will be Montholon, as they 
see that he is a most useful and consoling friend 
to me, and that he always endeavours to antici- 
pate my wants. I am less unfortunate than them. 
I see nobody ; they are subject to daily insults 
and vexations. They cannot speak, they cannot 
write, they cannot stir out without submitting to 
degrading restrictions. I am sorry that two months 
ago they did not all go. I have sufficient force to 
recdst alone against all this tyranny. It is only 
prolonging their agony to keep them here a few 
months longer. After they have been taken away, 
you will be sent off, et alors le crime sera con- 
wmmd. They are subject to every caprice which 
arbitrary power chooses to inflict, and are not 
protected by any laws. He is at once geolier, 
governor, accuser, judge, and sometimes execu- 
tioner ; for example, when he seized that East 
Indian, who was recommended by that brave 
homme. Colonel Skelton, to General Montholon, 
as a good servant. He came up here and seized 
the man with his own hands under my windows. 
He did justice to liimself certainly ; le metier dun 
shire lui convient beaucoup mieux que celui de reprd-^ 
sentant dune grande nation. A soldier is better 
oflf than they are, as, if he is accused, he must be 
tried according to known forms before he can be 

236 A ¥OiCB FnoM Mv w»mKj^ 

punished. In the worst dongeba » m EngUuifj^ a 
prisoner is not denied prints papers and boo]«5> 
Except obliging me to see bim, be has doiiee?ery 
thing to annoy me. 

'^Instead of allowing us to be sulj^ot to the 
caprice of an individual^'' added he, ^^ there ^ught 
to be a council composed of the admiral. Sir 
George Bingham, and two members of the couildl^ 
to debate and decide upon the measures necessai|r 
to be adopted towards us.** 

3rd. — ^Napoleon sent for me at one x^fdookt 
p. m. Found him in bed suffering from headaeh 
and general uneasiness, which had been preceded 
by shiverings. Had a little fever during the nighti 
I recommended some remedies, and poiotod mit 
in strong terms the necessity there was of his £oh 
lowing my advice, and especially in taking exte^ 
cise, and my firm conviction, that in the contrary 
case, he would soon be seized with an alarming 
fit of illness. *^ Tanto megllo^ replied NapoleoB t 
^^piu presto si Jinirar 

4th. — ^Wrote an account of the state of Nap<^ 
Icon's health, and of the advice which I had given 
him, to Sir Hudson Lowe. Napoleon somewhat 
better. Observed that it was impossible for'him 
to follow the recommendation I had given, to 
take exercise ; first, on account of the restric- 
tions, and next, the furious wind, or when^^that 
was calmed, the want of shade at Longwood^^to 


pnM>ect him from the rays of the tropical sun. 
He: gave his opinions about Moreau and others. 
'^ Moreau^** said he^ ^' was an excellent general of 
division^ but not fit to command a large army. 
With a hundred thousand men, Moreau would 
divide his army in different positions, coven ng 
loads^ and would not do more than if he had 
only thirty thousand. He did not know how to 
profit either by the number of his troops, or by 
their positions. Very calm and cool in the field, 
be was more collected and better able to com- 
mand in the heat of an action than to make dispo- 
sitions prior to it. He was often seen smoking his 
pipe in battle. Moreau was not naturally a man 
of a bad heart ; Un bon vivant, mats il riavait pas 
beaucoup de caractere. He was led away by his 
wife and another intriguing Creole. His having 
joined Pichegru and Georges in the conspiracy, 
and subsequently having closed his life fighting 
against his country, will ever disgrace his memoiy. 
As a general, Moreau was infinitely inferior to De- 
saix, or to Kleber, or even to Soult. Of all the 
generals I ever had under me, Desaix and Kleber 
possessed the greatest talents ; especially Desaix, 
as Kleber only loved glory, inasmuch as it was 
the means of procuring him riches and pleasures, 
whereas Desaix loved glory for itself, and despised 
every thing else. Desaix was wholly wrapt up in 
war and glory. To him riches and pleasure were 


valueless^ nor did he give them a moment's thouglit. 
He was a little black-looking man, about an inch 
shorter than I am, always badly dressed, some- 
times even ragged, and despising comfort or con- 
venience. When in Egypt, 1 made him a present 
of a complete field-equipage several times, but he 
always lost it. Wrapt up in a cloak, Desaix threw 
himself under a gun, and slept as contentedly as if 
he were in a palace. For him luxury had no 
charms. Upright and honest in all his proceed- 
ings, he was called by the Arabs, the just sultan. 
He was intended by nature for a great general. 
Kleber and Desaix were a loss irreparable to 
France. Had Kleber lived, your army in Egypt 
would have perished. Had that imbecile Menou, 
attacked you on your landing with twenty thou- 
sand men, as he might have done, instead of the 
division Lanusse, your army would have been 
only a meal for them. You were seventeen or 
eighteen thousand strong, without cavalry." 

"Lasnes, when 1 first took him by the hand^ 
was an ignorantaccto. His education had been 
much neglected. However,*^.he improved gr^tly ; 
and to judge from the astonishing"' pfbgress^e 
made, he would have been a general of the first 
class. He had great experience in war. Had 
been in fifty-four pitched battles, and in three hun- 
dred combats of different kinds. He was a man 
of uncommon bravery ; cool in the midst of fire ; 


and possessed of a clear and penetrating eye, ready 
to taJce advantage of any opportunity which might 
present itself. Violent and hasty in his expres* 
sions, sometimes even in my presence ; he was ar« 
dently attached to me. In the midst of his anger 
he would not suffer any person to join him in his 
remarks. On that account, when he was in a cho- 
leric mood, it was dangerous to speak to him, as he 
used to come to me in his rage, and say, that such 
and such persons were not to be trusted. As a gene- 
ral he was greatly superior to Moreau or to Soult.** 
•^Massena,** said he, "was a man of superior 
talent. He generally, however, made bad dispo- 
sitions previous to a battle ; and it was not until 
the dead fell around him that he began to act 
with that judgment which he ought to have 
displayed before. In the midst of the dying and 
the dead, of balls sweeping away those who en- 
circled him, then Massena was himself; gave his 
orders, and made his dispositions with the greatest 
sangfroid and judgment. This is, la vera nohilta 
di sangue.* It was truly said of Massena, that he 
never began to act with judgment until the battle 
was going against him. He was, however, vn 
voleur. He went halves along with the contrac- 
tors and commissaries of the army. I signified to 
him often, that if he would discontinue his pecu- 
lations, I would make him a present of eight hun- 

* True noblenoM of blood. 


dred thousand^ or a million of francs ; but he had 
acquired such a habit, that he could lurt keep his 
hands from money. On this account he was hated 
by the soldiers, who mutinied against him three or 
four times. However, considering the circum- 
stances of the times, he was precious ; and had not 
his bright parts been soiled with the vice of ava- 
rice, he would have been a great man." 

*^ Pichegru," continued Napoleon, *' was ripi* 
titeur at Brienne, and instructed me in mathe- 
matics, when I was about ten years old. He pos- 
sessed considerable knowledge in that science. 
As a general, Picliegru was a man of no ordinary 
talent, far superior to Moreau, although he had 
never done any thing extraordinarily great, as the 
success of the campaigns in Holland was in a great 
measure owing to the battle of Fleurus. Pichegrii, 
after he had united himself to the Bourbons, sa- 
crificed the lives of upwards of twenty thousand 
of his soldiers, by throwing them purposely into 
the enemy's hands, whom he had informed before 
hand of his intentions. He had a dispute once 
with Kleber, at a time when, instead of marching 
his army upon Mayence, as he ought to have 
done, he marched the greatest part of them to 
another point, where Kleber observed that it 
would only be necessary to send the ambulances 
with a few men to make a shew. At that time, 
it was thought to be imbecility, but afterwards it 

A rmcm noM sr. hblbna. 241 

discovered to be treachery. One of Fiche- 
gni8 projects was for Louis to come and join the 
army under his command, and to cause himself 
to be proclaimed king. To insure success, he 
fiignified to Liouis that it was necessary for him to 
bring a large sum of money ; as he said that f^ive 
le Roi lay at the bottom of the gosier, and that it 
would require a great quantity of wine to bring it 
oat of the mouth. If LiOuis had come/ continued 
he, '^ he would have been shot.*' 

Sir Hudson Lowe came up to Longwood. 
and observed to me, that General Bonaparte had 
adopted a very bad mode of procedure, by in a 
manner declaring war against him (Sir Hudson), 
when he was the onfy person who had it in his 
power to render him a service, or to make his 
dtuation comfortable. Count Las Cases had, he 
saidy much altered his opinion concerning him 
once the intercourse they had had together, and 
no longer looked upon him in the light of an arbi- 
trary tyrant, who did every thing to annoy them ; 
which change of opinion the count had signified 
to him ; and confessed that they had represented 
every thing to General Bonaparte ^^par un voile 
de sangr* That 1 had better try to remove 
any &lse impressions under which General Bo* 
naparte might labour. He then asked me if I 
had ever signified to General Bonaparte that the 

* Sir Httdfon Lowe's own words. 
VOL. L 2 I 

242 ▲ VOICB FROM m hslbna* 

French who were with him only wanted to make 
an instrument of him to aggrandize themselves^ 
without caring by what means they efifected it? 
I replied, that certainly I never had signified any 
thing of the kind to him ; but that I had always 
laboured to undeceive him, whenever I perceived 
that he was misinformed. Sir Hudson Lowe 
said, that the ministers would hold me in some 
degree accountable, that General Bonaparte was 
correctly informed of every thing; and that no 
false colourings, misrepresentations, or malicious 
constructions were put upon what was done. 
His excellency then made some remarks upon 
*^ General Bonaparte's constantly confining him- 
self to his room/* and asked what I supposed 
would induce him to go out ? I replied, an en- 
largement of his boundaries, taking off some of 
the restrictions, and giving him a house at the 
other side of the island. He had frequently 
complained that he could not walk out at Long* 
wood, without getting a pain in his head from the 
sun, as there was no shade ; or if the rays of the 
sun were obscured, his cheeks became inflamed ; or 
a catarrh was produced by the sharp wind blowing 
over an elevated spot without shelter. I observed 
also, that the allowance of provision was totally 
insufficient, as the French laid out seven or eight 
pounds a day in articles which were indispensable ; 
and which I enumerated. Sir Hudson Lowe 


answered, '* that with respect to this last, he hfid 
exceeded by one half what was allowed by thd 
ministers, who were answerable to parliament that 
the expenses of Longwood did not exceed' eight 
thousand pounds per annum, and that perhaps 
he (Sir Hudson) might be obliged hereafter to pay 
the surplus out of his own salary. That his in^ 
structions were much more rigid that those of his 
predecessor. But unfortunately General Bona- 
parte had thought thc'it he had come out furnished 
with instructions of a much more lenient nature 
than those of the admiral ; when the fact was 
directly the reverse. That all his actions had 
been misconstrued and misrepresented, and mali« 
cious constructions put upon them. That the 
British government did not wish to render Gene- 
ral Bonaparte's existence miserable, or to torture 
him. That it was not so much himself (Bonapai-te) 
they were afraid of; but that turbulent and dis- 
affected people in Europe would make use of his 
name and influence to excite rebellion and dis- 
turbances in France and elsewhere, in order to 
aggrandize themselves, and otherwise answer their 
own purposes ; also, that Las Cases was very well 
treated, and wanted for nothing." This he desired 
I would communicate to General Bonaparte. 

I communicated some of those remarks of the go- 
vemoi's to Napoleon, who replied, "I do not believe 
that he acts according to his instructions ; or if he 


does, be has disgraced himself hy accepting a dis* 
honourable employment. A government two thou- 
sand leagues off^ and ignorant of the localities of 
the island^ can never give orders in detail ; they 
can only give general and discretionary ones. 
They have only directed him to adopt every mea- 
sure he may think necessary to prevent my escape. 
Instead of that^ I am treated in a manner disho- 
norable to humanity. To kill and bury a man 
is well understood, but this slow torture, this 
killing in detail, is much less humane than if they 
ordered me to be shot at once. I have often 
heard," continued he, " of the tyranny and oppres- 
sions practised in your colonies ; but I never 
thought that there could exist such violations of 
law and of justice, as are practised here. From 
what I have seen of you English, I think there is 
not a nation on earth more enslaved ; as I told Co- 
lonel Wilks, the former governor of this island.** 
Here 1 observed, that 1 begged of him not to form 
his opinion of the English nation by a little co- 
lony, placed under peculiar circumstances, and 
subject to military law ; that to judge correctly of 
England, one must be Mere, and there he would 
see how little a person with a brown, or a black 
coat, cared about the ministers. ^^So said the 
old colonel/* replied Napoleon, '* but I only 
speak of you as I have seen you, and I find joa 
to be the greatest slaves upon earth. All tremr 


bling with fear at the sight of that governor. There 
is Sir Greorge Bingliam^ who is a well disposed 
man^ yet he is so much afraid, that he will not 
eome and see me^ through fear that he miglit give 
umbrage to the governor : the rest of the officers 
ran away at the sight of us.** I observed that it 
was not fear, but delicacy, which prevented Sir 
George Bingham from coming, and that as to the 
other officers, they must obey the orders which they 
had received. Napoleon replied, " If they were 
French officers, they would not be afraid of ex- 
pressmg their opinion as to the barbarity of the 
treatment pursued here ; and a French general, 
second in command, would, if be saw his country 
dishonoured in the manner yours is, write a com- 
plaint of it himself to his government. As to my- 
self," continued he, ^ I would never make a com- 
plaint, if I did not know, that were an inquiry 
demanded by the nation, your ministers would 
say," * he has never complained, and therefore he is 
conscious that he is well treated, and that there are 
no grounds for it.* Otherwise, I should conceive it 
degrading to me to utter a word ; though I am so 
disgusted with the conduct of this sbirro, that I 
should, with the greatest pleasure, receive the in- 
timation that orders had arrived to shoot me — I 
should esteem it a blessing.** 

I observed that Sir Hudson Lowe had pro- 
filed himself very desirous to accommodate and 


arrange matters in an amicable manner. Napo- 
leon replied, " If be wisbes to aecommodate, 
let bim put tbings upon tbe same footing tbey 
were during tbe time of Admiral Cockbum. Let 
no person be permitted to enter bere for tbe pur* 
pose of seeing me, witbout a letter from Ber- 
trand. If be does not like to give Bertrand liberty 
to pass people in, let bim make out a list bimself 
of sucb persons in tbe island as be will allow to 
visit, and send it to Bertrand, and let tbe latter 
have tbe power to grant tbem permission to enter, 
and to write to tbem. Wben strangers arrive, 
in like manner let bim make out a list of such 
as be will permit to see us, and during their 
stay, let tbem be allowed to visit with Bertrand^s 
pass. Perhaps I should see very few of them, as 
it is difficult to distinguish between those who 
come up to see me as they would a wild boar^ 
and others, who are actuated by motives of re* 
spect; but still, I should like to have the privilege. 
It is for him to accommodate if he likes ; be has 
the power, I have none ; I am not governor, I 
have no places to give away. Let him take off his 
prohibitions that I shall not quit the high road, or 
speak to a lady if I meet one. In a few words, 
che si comporti bene verso di me, (let him behave 
well to me). If he does not choose to treat me 
like a man, che ha giuocato un ruolo nel mondo 
come quel che ho giuocato to, let him not treat me 


worse than a galley-slaTe or a condemned crimi« 
nal^ as they are not prohibited to speak. Let 
him do this^ and then I will say that he acted at 
first inconsiderately^ through fear of my escap- 
ing, but that when he saw his error, he was not 
ashamed to alter his treatment. Then J will say, 
that I formed a hasty opinion of him ; that I have 
been mistaken. Ma siete un bambino, dottore, 
(you are a child, doctor) ; you have too good an 
opinion of mankind. This man is not sincere. I 
bdieve the opinion I first formed of him is correct, 
that he is a man whose natural badness is increas- 
ed by suspicion and dread of the responsibility 
of the situation which he holds, C'est un komme 
retors, abject^ et tout a fait au-dessous de son emploi. 
I would wager my life," continued he, " that if I 
sent for Sir George Bingham, or the admiral, to 
ride out with me, before I had gone out three times 
with either the one or the other, this governor 
would make some insinuations to them which 
would render me liable to be affronted, by their re- 
fusing to accompany me any longer. He says that 
Las Cases is well treated, and wants for nothing ; 
because he does not starve him. C'est un komme 
vraiment ignoble. He degrades his own species ; 
he pays no attention to the moral wants which dis- 
tinguish the man from the brute ; he only looks to 
the physical and grosser ones. Just as if Las 
Cases were a horse, or an ass, and that a bundle 


of hay was sufficient to entitle him to say, he is 
happy; hecause his belly was full^ therefore all 
his wants were satisfied.** 

Sth. — Had a long conversation with the empe- 
ror in his bath. Asked his opinion of the Empe- 
ror Alexander, ^^(Test un homme extremement fattx. 
Un Grec du bos empire^' replied Napoleon. ^* He 
is the only one of the three,* who has any talent. 
He is plausible, a great dissimulator, very ambi- 
tious, and a man who studies to make himself 
popular. It is his foible to believe himself skilled 
in the art of war, and he likes nothing so well as 
to be complimented upon it, although every thing 
that originated with himself, relative to military 
operations, was ill-judged and absurd. At Tilsit, 
Alexander and the King of Prussia used fre- 
quently to occupy themselves in contriving dresses 
for dragoons ; debating upon what button the 
crosses of the orders ought to be hung, and such 
other fooleries. They fancied themselves on an 
equality with the best generals in Europe, be- 
cause they knew how many rows of buttons there 
were upon a dragoon's jacket. I could scarcely 
keep from laughing sometimes, when I heard 
them discussing these coglionerie with as much 
gravity and earnestness as if they were planning 
an impending action between two hundred thou- 
sand men. However, I encouraged them in th^ 

* Alexander^ Franoii, and the kii^ of Fraslai 


argmnents as I saw it was their weak point. We 
rode out every day together. The king of Prussia 
was une hite, et rums a tellement ermuy^s, that 
Alexander and myself frequently galloped away 
in order to get rid of him.* 

Napoleon afterwards recounted to me some 
part of his early life : said^ that after having been 
at school at Brienne^ he was sent to P^ris, at the 
age of fifteen or sixteen, " where at the general ex- 
amination,** continued he, "being found to have 
l^ven the best answers in mathematics, I was ap- 
pointed to the artillery. After the revolution, 
about one-third of the artillery officers emigrated, 
and I became chef de hataillon at the siege of 
Toulon ; having been proposed by the artillery 
officers themselves as the person who, amongst 
them, possessed the most knowledge of the science. 
During the siege I commanded the artillery, di- 
rected the operations against the town, and took 
O'Hara prisoner, as I formerly told you. After 
the siege, I was made commandant of the artillery 
of the army of Italy, and my plans caused the 
capture of many considerable fortresses in Pied- 
mont and Italy. Before my return to Paris I was 
made general, and a command in the army of La 
Vendue offered to me, which I refused, and i-eplied 
that such a command was only fit for a geneml 
of gendarmerie. On the 13th of Vendemiaire, I 
commanded the army of the convention in Paiis 

VOL. I. 2 k 


against the sections^ whom I defeated after an ac- 
tion of a few minutes. Subsequently I got the 
command of the army of Italy^ where I established 
my reputation. Nothing,** continued he, " has 
been more simple than my elevation. It was not 
the result of intrigue or crime. It was owing to 
the peculiar circumstances of the times, and be- 
cause I fought successfully against the enemies of 
my country. What is most extraordinary, and I 
believe unparalleled in histoiy, is, that I rose from 
being a private person to the astonishing height 
of power I possessed, without having committed 
a single crime to obtain it. If I were on my death- 
bed, I could make the same declaration.** 

I asked if it were true that he was indebted to 
Barras for employment at Toulon, and if he had 
ever offered his services to the English. ^^Both 
are false,** replied Napoleon. " I had no con- 
nexion with Barras until after the affair of Toulon. 
It was to Gasparin, deputy for Orange, and a man 
of talent, to whom I was chiefly indebted for pro- 
tection at Toulon, and support against a set of 
ignorantacci sent down by the convention. I 
never in my life offered my services to England, 
nor ever intended it. Nor did I ever intend to go 
to Constantinople : all those accounts sont des 
romans. 1 passed a short time with Paoli in Cor- 
sica, in the year y who was very partial to me, 

and to whom I was then much attached. Paoli 


espoused the cause of the English faction, and 1 
that of the French, and consequently most of my 
family were driven away from Coreica. Paoli 
often patted me on the head, saying, ^ you are one 
of Plutarch*s men.' He divined that I should be 
something extraordinary.** Of General Dugom- 
mier, he spoke as a personal friend in terms of 
great affection, describing him to be a brave and 
mtrepid officer, who had judgment enough to carry 
into execution the plan proposed by him, in oppo- 
sition to those directed by the committee of public 

He spoke about the expedition to Copenhagen, 
** That expedition,** said he, " shewed great energy 
on the part of your ministers : but setting aside 
the violation of the laws of nations which you 
committed, for in fact it was nothing but a rob- 
bery, I think that it was injurious to your inte- 
I'ests, as it made the brave Danish nation irrecon** 
cileable enemies to you, and in fact shut you out 
of the north for three years. When 1 heard of it, 
I s£ud, I am glad of it, as it will embroil England 
irrecoverably with the northern powers. The 
Danes being able to join me with sixteen sail of 
the line was of but little consequence. I had 
plenty of ships, and only wanted seamen, whom 
you did not take, and whom I obtained afterwards ; 
while by the expedition your ministers established 
their characters as faithless, and as persons with 


whom no engagements, no laws, were binding," 
" During the war with you," said he, " all tJie 
intelligence I received from England came through 
the smugglers. Tliey are terrible people, and 
have courage and ability to do any thing for mo- 
ney. They had at first a part of Dunkerque al- 
lotted to them, to which they were restricted ; but 
as they latterly went out of their limits, committed 
riots, and insulted eveiy body, I ordered Grave- 
lines to be prepared for their reception, where 
they had a little camp for their accommodation, 
beyond which they were not permitted to go. At 
one time there were upwards of five hundred of 
them in Dunkerque. 1 had every information I 
wanted through them. They brought over newspa- 
pers and despatches from the spies that we had 
in London. They took over spies from France, 
landed and kept them in their houses for some 
days, then dispersed them over the country, and 
brought them back when wanted. The police had 
in pay a number of French emigrants, who gave 
constant information of the actions of the Vendean 
party, Georges, and others, at the time they were 
preparing to assassinate me. All their movements 
were made known. Besides, the police had in 
pay many English spies, some of high quality, 
amongst whom there were many ladies. There 
was one lady in particular of very high rank who 
furnished considerable information, and was some- 


times paid so high as three thousand pounds in 
one month. They came over,'' continued he, " in 
t>oats not broader than this bath. It was really 
astonishing to see them passing your seventy-four 
gun ships in defiance.** I observed, that they 
were double spies and that they brought intelli- 
gence from France to the British government. 
"That is very likely,** replied Napoleon. "They 
brought you newspapers; but I believe, that as 
spies, they did not convey much intelligence to 
you. They are genti terrihW^ and did great mis- 
chief to your government. They took from France 
annually forty or fifty millions of silks and brandy. 
They assisted the French prisoners to escape from 
England. The relations of Frenchmen, prisoners 
in your country, were accustomed to go to Dnn- 
kerque, and to make a bargain with them to bring 
over a certain prisoner. All that they wanted was 
the name, age, and a private token, by means of 
which the prisoner might repose confidence in 
them. Generally, in a short time afterwards, they 
eflFected it ; as, for men like them, they had a great 
deal of honour in their dealings. They offered 
several times to bring over Louis and the rest of 
the Bourbons for a sum of money ; but they 
wanted to stipulate, that if they met with any ac- 
cident, or interruption to their design, they might 
be allowed to massacre them. This I would not 
consent to. Besides, I despised the Bourbons too 


much, and had no fear of them : indeed, at thai 
time, they were no more thought of in France 
than the Stuarts were in England. They also offer- 
ed to bring over Dumourier, Sarrazin, and others, 
whom they thought I hated, but I held them in too 
much contempt to take any trouble about them." 

This conversation was brought about by my 
telling him that Lefebvre Desnouettes had ar- 
rived at New York, and was with his brother 
Joseph ; when I asked if Lefebvre had not broken 
his parole in England. Napoleon replied that he 
had, and then observed, " A great deal has been 
said about French officers having been employed 
after having broken their parole in England. 
Now the fact is, that the English themselves were 
the first to break their parole at a time when 
twelve of them ran away. I proposed afterwards 
to your ministers, that both governments should 
reciprocally send back every prisoner of whatso- 
ever rank he might be, who had broken his parole 
and escaped. This they refused to do, and I be- 
came indifferent about it. I did not receive at 
court those who escaped ; or encourage them, nor 
discourage them, after this refusal. Your minis- 
ters made a great fuss (chiasso) about officers 
who broke their parole having been employed in 
my armies, although they refused to agree to the 
only measure which could put a stop to it, viz, 
that both sides should send them back imme- 


diately ; and afterwards had the impudence to at* 
tempt to throw all the odium upon me. But you 
English can never do any wrong.** 

I asked if he thought that the expedition to 
Walcheren, might, if it had been well conducted, 
have taken Antwerp ? Napoleon replied, '^ I am 
of opinion, that if you had landed a few thousand 
men at first at Williamstadt, and marched directly 
for Antwei'p, that between consternation, want of 
preparation, and the uncertainty of the number of 
assmlants, you might have taken it by a coup de 
main. But after the fleet had got up it was impos- 
sible; as the crews of the ships, united to the na- 
tional guard, workmen, and others, amounted to 
upwards of fifteen thousand men. The ships would 
have been sunk, or taken into the docks, and the 
crews employed upon the batteries. Besides, 
Antwerp, though old, is strongly fortified. It is 
true that Lord Chatham did every thing possible 
to insure the failure of the object of the expedi- 
tion ; but after the delay of a few days, it would 
have been impossible for any man to have effected 
it. You had too many and too few men ; too 
many for a couf de main, and too few for a regular 
siege. The inhabitants were all against you ; as 
they saw clearly that your object was to get pos- 
session of the town, to burn and destroy every 
thing, and then go to your ships and get away. 
It was a very bad expedition for you. Your mi- 
nisters were very badly informed about the coun- 


try. You had afterwards the betise to remedn in 
that pestilential place, until you lost some thou- 
sands of men. (Tdtait le comhle de la hetlse (st de 
Vinhumanite.* I was very glad of it, as I knew 
that disease would carry you off by thousands^ 
and oblige you to evacuate it without any exer- 
tion being made on my part. I sent none but de- 
serters and mauvais sujets to garrison it, and gave 
orders that they should sleep in two frigates I 
had sent there for that purpose. I also had water 
conveyed to them at a great expense, but still 
it was most unhealthy. The general who com- 
manded Flushing,'* added he, " did not defend 
it as long as he ought to have done. He had 
made a large fortune by the smugglers (as there 
was another depot of them there) and had been 
guilty of some mal-practices, for which he was 
afraid of being brought to a court-martial, and I 
believe was glad to get away." 

I asked him if it were true th<at a Corsican, 
named Masseria, had been sent with some pro- 
posals to him once by our government ? Napoleon 
replied, " Masseria ? Yes, I recollect perfectly 
well that he was brought to me when I was first 
consul. He was introduced with great mystery 
and secrecy into my room, when 1 was in a bath, 
as I am now. I think he began to speak about 
some political matters, and to make some insi- 
nuations about peace, but I stopped him, as it 

* It WM the height of idiotism and of inhumanitjr. 


had been published in the English papers^ that 
he was coming upon some mission to me^ which 
I did not like. Besides, Masseria, though un hron 
vissimo uomo, was a great havard. I believe that 
he was sent by King George himself. He was 
a republican, and maintained that the death of 
Charles the first was just and necessary.** 

Lady Lowe came up to Longwood, and for the 
first time paid a visit to Countesses Bertrand and 
Montholon. ^^ 

6/A. — ^Napoleon observed to me that the visit 
of Lady Lowe yesterday appeared to him to be an 
artifice of her husband, per gettar la polvere negli 
occhi (to throw dust in the eyes) ; to make people 
believe that notwithstanding the arrest of Las 
Cases, the governor was very well at Longwood, 
and had only done his duty ; and that there was 
no foundation for the reports which had been 
spread of the ill treatment said to be inflicted upon 
the inhabitants of Longwood. I informed him that 
Lady Lowe had been always desirous to call 
upon Countesses Bertrand and Montholon, and 
had embraced the first opportunity which pre- 
sented itself after her accouchement. Napoleon 
replied, ^' I am far from thinking that she parti- 
cipates in the designs of her husband, but she has 
badly chosen the time. At the moment when he 
treats Las Cases so barbarously and illegally he 
sends her up. It is either an artifice of her hus- 

VOL. I. 2 L 


band's to blind the world, or else he mocks our 
misfortunes. Nothing is so insulting as to add 
irony to injury.** I observed, that more probably 
it was a preliminary step of the governor's towards 
an accommodation. " No," replied Napoleon, 
^^ that cannot be. If he really wished to accom- 
modate, the first step would be to take away 
some of his useless and oppressive restrictions. 
Yesterday, after his wife had been here, Madame 
Bertrand and family went out to walk. On their 
return, they were stopped and seized by the sen- 
tinels, who refused to let them in because it was 
six o'clock. Now, in he name of God, if he had a 
mind to accommodate, would he continue to pre- 
vent us from walking at the only time of the day 
when, at this season it is agreeable. Tell him,^ 
continued Napoleon, " candidly the observations 
I have made, if he asks you what I thought of the 

7th. — ^Wrote to Sir Hudson Lowe a statement 
of what Napoleon had informed me on the 4th 
inst. would be the best mode of effecting wl ac- 

Had a long conversation with Napoleon upon 
the anatomy of the human body. He desired to 
see some anatomical plates, which I explained to 
him. He informed me that at one time he had 
tried to study anatomy, but that he had been dis* 
gusted with the sight and the smell of the sub* 


jects. I observed^ that plates only served to re* 
mind A person of what he had already learned 
from actual dissection ; for which last they could 
never be entirely substituted. In this Napoleon 
(lerfectly agreed with me^ and gave me some ac- 
count of the great encouragement which be had 
given to the schools of anatomy and surgery; land 
of the facilities which he had afforded to liiedkd 
Miidehts to learn their profession at a trifling etr 

Heard him express some opinions afterwards 
relative to a few of the characters who had figfunefl 
in the revolution. ^^ Robespierre,** said he, . "thpu^ 
a blood-thirsty monster, was not so. bad as CioUpt 
d*Herbois, Billaud de Varennes, Hebert, Fouqiiier 
Unville, and many others. Latterly Robespierre 
wished to be more moderate ; and actually some 
time before his death said that he was tired of 
executions, and suggested moderation. When He- 
bert accused the queen de contrarier la nature, 
Robespierre proposed that he should be denounc* 
ed, as having made such an improbable accusa- 
tion purposely to excite a sympathy amongst the 
people, that they might rise and rescue her. From 
the beginning of the revolution, Louis had con- 
stantly the life of Charles the First before his eyes. 
The example of Charles, who had come to extre- 
mities with the parliament and lost his head, pre- 
vented Louis on many occasions from making 


the defence which he ought to have done ag^nst 
the revolutionists. When brought to trial, he 
ought merely to have said, that by the laws he 
could do no wrong, and that his person was sacred. 
TThe queen ought to have done the same. It would 
have had no effect in saving their lives ; but they 

would have died with more dignity. Robespierre 
was of opinion that the king ought to have been 
despatched privately. ^What is the use,* said 
Robespierre^ ^ of this mockery of forms, when you 
go to the trial prepared to condemn him to deaths 
whether he deserves it or not.' The queen," added 
Napoleon, ^^ went to the scaffold with some sen- 
sations of joy ; and truly it must have been a re- 
lief to her to depart from a life in which she was 
treated with such execrable barbarity. Had I,** 
continued he, *' been four or five years older, I 
have no doubt that I should have been guillotined 
along with numbers of others." 

Sth. — ^Napoleon in a bath. — Conversed at length 
about the situation of England, which he imputed 
entirely to the imbecility of Lord Castlereagh. 
" If," said he, '* your ministers had paid attention 
to the interests of the country, instead of intriguing, 
they would have rendered you the most b^ppy, 
and the most flourishing nation in the world. At 
the conclusion of the war they should have said 
to the Spanish and Portugueze governments, ^ we 
have saved your country, we alone have supported 


you^ and prevented you from falling a prey to 
France. We have made many campaigns, and 
shed our best blood in your cause. We have ex- 
pended many millions of money, and consequently 
the country is overburdened with debt on i/aur 
account, which we must pay. You have the 
means of repajdng us. Our situation requires that 
we should liquidate our debts. We demand, 
therefore, that we shall be the only nation allowed 
to trade with South America for twenty years ; 
and that our ships shall have the same privilege 
as Spanish vessels. In this way we will reim- 
burse ourselves without distressing you.* Who,** 
continued he, ^ could say no to this. France is 
now nothing. Besides, to tell the truth, it would 
be only a just demand, and none of the allied 
powers could deny your right to exact it; for it 
was through you alone, and the energy which 
you displayed, that both Spain and Portugal 
did not fall. You might have asked, * who saved 
Portugal ? who alone assisted you with men and 
money, besides having saved your existence as 
a nation ?* In this way you would have had 
your manufacturers thriving ; your sailors em- 
ployed in your own ships instead of starving, or 
being forced to seek a livelihood with foreign 
powers : your canaille would have been contented 
and happy, instead of being obliged to have re- 
course to subscriptions to keep them from starva- 


tion. As it now is> France will soon have the 
trade of the Brazils ; you have in your own co- 
lonies more cotton and sugar than you want, and 
consequently will not take the productions of 
the Brazils in exchange for your merchandise. 
Now the French will ; for Martinique cannot sup- 
ply a quantity sufficient for the consumption of 
France. They will exchange their manufactured 
goods, silks, furniture, wines, &c. against co* 
lonial produce, and soon have the whole trade of 
the Brazils. In like manner they will have the 
preference in trading with the Spanish colonies; 
partly on account of the religion, and also because 
the Spaniards, like other nations, are jealous of a 
people all-powerful at sea, and will constantly 
assist to lessen that power ; which is most effectu- 
ally to be done by lessening your commerce. 
Another piece of folly in your ministers was 
the allowing any nation but yourselves to trade 
with India ; particularly the Dutch, who will be 
your greatest enemies ; and probably beforle twenty 
years, when France has recovered herself, you 
will see the Dutch unite with her to humble you. 
If you had made those demands they must have 
been granted ; and the powers of Europe would 
not have been more jealous of you than they are 
now, and always will be, as long as you have ab- 
solute power over the seas, and insist upon tbe 
right of search, and other articles of your maritime 


code. You would then have the means of keep* 
ing np your maritime empire, which most decay 
if you have not more commerce than the rest of 
the world. But your ministers have had false 
ideas of things. Hiey imagined that they could 
inundate the continent with your merchandise, 
and find a ready sale. No, no t the world is 
now more illuminated.* Even the Russians wiU 
say, ^why should we enrich this nation, to ena- 
ble lier to I keep up a monopoly and tyranny of 
the seas, while our own manufacturers are nu- 
merous and skilful Y You will,** continued he, 
f .find that in a few years very little English mer- 
chandise will be sold on the continent.-f- I gave a 
ne4r era to manufactories. The French already 
ercd you in the manufactory of cloths and many 
other articles. The Hollanders in cambric and 
linen. I formed several thousand. I established 
the Ecok Polytechniqucy from which hundreds of 
able chemists went to the different manufactories. 
In each of them, I caused a person well skilled in 
chemistry to reside. In consequence, every thing 
proceeded upon certain and established princi- 
ples ; and they had a reason to give for every part 
of their operations ; instead of the old vague and 

* A perusal of the tariff just promulgated b^ Russia will shew how 
Japhetic this opinion was. 

t The wfade of this conversation was communicated bj- me to offi- 
oal persons. in London shortly after it took pUoe. 


uncertain mode. Times are changed^** continued 
Napoleon^ '^ and you must no longer look to the 
continent for the disposal of your manufactures. 
America, the Spanish and Portuguese main, are 
the only vent for them. Recollect what I say to 
you. In a year or two your people will complain^ 
and say, ' we have gained every thing, but we are 
starving : we are worse than we were during the 
war.' Then perhaps your ministers will endeavour 
to effect what they ought to have done at first. 
You are not able," continued he, '* to face even 
Prussia in the field, and your preponderance on 
the continent was entirely owing to that naval 
sovereignty which perhaps you may lose by this 
military disease of your ministers. England has 
played for all or for nothing, {ha giuocato per tutto 
o per niente). She has gained all, effected impos* 
sibilities, yet has nothing ; and her people are 
starving, and worse than they were during the 
midst of the war ; while France, who has lost 
every thing, is doing well, and the wants of her 
people are abundantly supplied. France has got 
fat, notwithstanding the liberal bleedings which 
she has had ; while England is like a man who 
has had a false momentary strength given to him 
by intoxicating liquors, but who, after their effect 
ceases, sinks into a state of debility." 

lOth. — ^Water very scarce at Longwood. Sir 
Hudson Lowe gave directions that the horses of 



the establishment should be ridden to water to 
Hut*s Gate^ instead of getting it from the tubs that 
were placed for the use of Napoleon's house- 
hold. The water in them is extremely muddy, 
green, and nauseous. In Deadwood it is much 
more easy to get a bottle of wine than one of 
water. Parties of the 53d are employed daily in 
rolling butts of water to their camp. It reminded 
me of my former residence in Egypt, where we 
were obliged to buy bad water at an exorbitant 

Charles, a mulatto servant, discharged from 
Longwood. Orders g^ven by Sir Hudson Lowe 
that he should be sent to his house. Underwent 
a long interrogation from his excellency as to 
what he had seen and heard during the time he 
had been at Longwood. Application made to 
the governor by the orderly officer to allow a cart 
for the purpose of bringing water to the establish- 
ment, that in the tubs being so very scanty and 

Napoleon rather melancholy, and annoyed, 
that instead of the whole of the campaigns of 
Italy having been returned by Sir Hudson Lowe, 
only three or four chapters had been sent. De- 
sired me to tell Sir Hudson Lowe that he sup- 
posed he was getting them copied, and that ac- 
cording as they were finished, he would send 
them back. 

llth. — ^Went to Plantation House^ and ac- 

VOL. I. 2 m 


qnainted Sir Hadson Lowe with the message I 
was charged to deliver to him. His excellency 
waxed very wroth, and said, " that if General Bo- 
naparte persisted in his belief that the papers had 
been kept for the purpose of copying ; after the 
assurance to the contrary, which he had yester- 
day had from young Las Cases ; he (Sir Hudson) 
considered him unworthy of being treated like a 
man of honour, and undeserving the consideration 
due from one gentleman to another P This he not 
only repeated twice, but obliged me to insert it 
in my pocket-book ; desiring me not on any ac- 
count to omit communicating those expressions to 
General Bonaparte. After having cooled a little, 
however, his excellency rescinded his directions, 
gave me some explanations which he desired me 
to make known to Napoleon, and ordered me to 
rub out of my pocket-book the obnoxious expres- 
sions. He then walked about with me in the li- 
brary, and said, **that in reference and reply to 
what I had written to him. General Bonaparte 
could not be permitted to run about the country. 
That if the intentions of ministers were only to 
prevent his escape from the island, a compto/s 
governor would have answered as well as any 
other person; but that there were other objects 
in view, and material ones, which he had been 
sent out to fulfil. That there were several strong 
reasons for not allowing him to communicate m 
the island. That any man might secure his per- 


ion by ]danting sentries about him, but that muck 
mord was to be done.** When I was about to 
leave tbe room, he called me back, and said, '' Tell 
General Bonaparte that it is very fortunate for him 
that he has so good a man for governor over him ; 
that others, with the instructions I have, would 
have put him in chains for his conduct/' He 
<k>ncladed by desiring me to endeavour to get Sir 
Thomas Strange introduced to Napoleon, 
-fidpriani in town, purchasing provisions. 
,> IS/Av^^Explained to Napoleon in the least of- 
fiensive manner I could, the message I had been 
ordered by Sir Hudson Lowe to deliver, with an 
assurance from the governor, that his papei*s had 
been kept sacred ; which I observed had been 
conflitned by a letter from Emanuel de Las 
Gases, accompanying those that had been re- 
turned, testifying that the papers had been re- 
spected. That Sir Hudson Lowe had told me, 
that during the examination of the papers, which 
took place always in presence of Las Cases, 
whenever the latter pointed out one as belong- 
ing to him, (Napoleon,) it was immediately put 
aside, without being looked at ; and that when 
tbe examination was finished, the papers were 
sealed' up with Las Cases' seal, and not opened 
again, unless in his presence. That Sir Hudson 
had said, that so far from being instigated by 
pialice or revenge, he had written to the ministry 
to ameliorate his condition, &c. Napoleon xe« 


plied, that he did not believe it ; no government 
two thousand leagues off could know the localities 
so well as to give minute details, they could only 
g^ve general orders ; that no assertion from a man 
who had told so many falsehoods, could be cre- 
dited ; and that the letter from young Las Cases 
was not satisfactory, as it merely contained an as- 
surance from Sir Hudson Lowe, that they would 
be respected. * " As to his instructions,** conti- 
nued he, ^^ I have no doubt that if he has not re- 
ceived written orders to ♦ ♦ ♦, he has verbal ones, 
(a voce). When it is intended to ♦**, it is always 
commenced by cutting off all communication be- 
tween him and the world ; by enveloping him with 
mystery and secrecy, in order, that after having 
accustomed the world to hear nothing about him, 
♦***♦*. Tell him,** added he, " my sentiments 
on the subject." 

I then spoke about Sir Thomas Strange, and 
informed him that Sir Thomas Strange, who had 
been chief judge in the East Indies, was desirous 
of paying his respects to him, and that his intend- 
ed visit did not arise from curiosity, but was a 
mark of that attention which every person ought 
to shew towards so great a man, and one who had 
filled so high a station in the world. Napoleon 
replied, ^^ I will see no person who does not first 
go to Bertrand. Persons sent direct by the go- 

* This reply, in full, wai communicated by me in writing to Sir 
Hndfon Lowe. 


ternor I will not see, as it would have the appear- 
ance of obeying a command from him." 

Count Bert rand now came in, and mentioned 
that the governor was at Longwood, and wanted 
to see me. Napoleon then said, " If he asks you 
any questions about my thoughts, tell him that 
I intend writing a Protest to the Prince Regent 
against his barbarous conduct. That his keeping 
Las Cases in custody, when there is nothing 
against him, is illegal. That he ought either to 
Ue sent back here, or sent off the island, or tried. 
That if he wishes to accommodate diflFerences, as 
he informed you, let him alter his conduct, and 
put matters upon the footing they were during the 
time of Admiral Cockbum. As to the visit of the 
judg^ whom he wishes me to see, tell him que les 
gens qui sont dans un tornheau ne repoivent pas de 
visiteSy as he has literally immured me in a tomb. 
Besides, according to his restrictions, if the judge 
does not speak French, I cannot employ one of 
my officers to interpret, for he has prohibited 
strangers who may visit me from speaking or com- 
municating with any person of my suite, and more- 
over, I have lost Las Cases." 

Count Bertrand desired me to say, that if he 
saw Sir Thomas Strange, he should be obliged to 
shew him those parts of the governor's restrictions, 
signed by himself, in which he had prohibited 
those who had a pass to see the emperor, from 


holding any communication with others of hb 
household unless specially permitted. 

Informed Sir Hudson Lowe of what I had been 
desired, which he said he would communicate to 
Lord Bathurst. He then observed, ** that Count 
Las Cases had not followed Greneral Bonaparte 
out of affection, but merely to have an opportunity 
of obtaining materials from him to publish his life ; 
that General Bonaparte did not know what Las 
Cases had written, or the expressions which had 
dropped from him ; that he had already collected 
some very curious materials for his history ; that 
ministers feared that some turbulent, intriguing 
persons in France, or on the continent, would en- 
deavour to excite rebellion and new wars in Eu- 
rope, by making use of his (Napoleon s) name to 
insure their purposes ; that General Bonaparte was 
very lucky in having so good a man as himself 
to deal with, &c,*' 

He added again, that he could not tell the na- 
ture of his orders ; that he had an important object 
to fulfil, independent of the detention of General 
Bonaparte : and, after some more conversation 
upon similar subjects, said, that he would give 
permission to-morrow to Sir Thomas Strange and 
family to communicate with Bertrand^ or with any 
others of the suite. 

Saw Sir Thomas Reade, to whom I mentioned 
Napoleon's answer relative to the interview which 


the gOTCPnor was desirous to obtain for Sir Thomas 
Strange. Sir Thomas replied, " If I were gover- 
nor, ni be d d if I would not make him feel 

that be was a prisoner." I observed, " Why you 
cannot do much more to him than you have al- 
iready done, unless you put him in irons." " Oh,* 
answered Reade, ** If he did not comply with what 

I wanted, 111 be d d if I wouldn't take his 

books from him, which I'll advise the governor to 

do. He is a d d outlaw and a prisoner, and 

the governor has a right to treat him with as much 
severity as he likes, and nobody has any business 
to interfere with him in the execution of his duty.** 

Told Napoleon what his excellency had direct- 
ed me to communicate. He observed, that the 
only way to prevent people from making use of 
his name, in order to excite rebellion, was to put 
him to death. " That," said he, " is the only ef- 
fectual mode, and the sooner the better. // riy 
a que les marts qui ne reviennent pas^ 

" All that he says," continued he, " is per get- 
tar la polvere, to deceive the judge, in order that 
he may say when he arrives in England, that it 
is my own fault if I do not receive whoever I 
please. Un uomo cattivo che ha tutta la scaltrezza 

13M. — ^A sealed letter from Napoleon to Las 
Cases given by Count Bertrand to Captain Pop- 
pleton, for the purpose of being forwarded through 


the governor to the count. At six, p. m. a dragocA 
brought two letters from Sir Hudson Lowe to 
Count Bertrand, one returning Napoleon's letter 
to Count Las Cases, because it was sealed, add- 
ing, that he would not forward any sealed letter ; 
and that even if it were open, it would depend 
upon the nature of the contents, whether it would 
be forwarded or not ; as he (the governor) did not 
wish that any communication should take place 
between Longwood and Count Las Cases. In the 
other, the governor intimated that probably he 
should not take any steps with respect to Las 
Cases, until he heard from the British govern* 

Saw Napoleon, who observed, that he believed 
nothing good could come from the governor, who 
was a man of bad lymph. " He ought,** continued 
he, " to have several large blisters applied, to draw 
away some of that bad lymph from him." 

He conversed upon the probability of a revolu- 
tion in France. *^ Ere twenty years have elapsed, 
when I am dead and buried," said he, ** you will 
witness another revolution in Fmnce. It is im- 
possible that twenty-nine millions of Frenchmen 
can live contented under the yoke of sovereigns 
imposed upon them by foreigners, and against 
whom they have fought and bled for nearly thirty 
years. Can you blame the French for not being 
willing to submit to the yoke of sucti animaU 

xfWicK FROM w; mlbna* 87SI 

flb Mkmtohemi? You are very fond in England of 
malciiig^ a comparison between the restoration of 
diaries the Second and that of Louis ; but there 
b not the smallest similitude. Charles was re- 
called by the mass of the English nation to the 
throne which his successor afterwards lost for a 
mass : but as to the Bourbons, there is not a village 
in France which has not lost thirty or forty of the 
flower of its youth in endeavouring to prevent their 
return. The sentiments of the nation are, — ^ Ce 
flest pas nous qui avons ramenS ces misdrdbles ; 
turn, ceux qui out ravag^ notre paj/Sj qui ont bruU 
nas maisonsj qui ont vioU nos femmes et nos Jilles^ 
ks ont mis sur le trdne par la/orce.^"*^ 

I asked him some questions about the share that 
Morean had in Georges' conspiracy. " Moreau,** 
said he, '^confessed to his advocate that he had 
seen and conversed with Georges and Kehegru, 
and that on his trial he intended to avow it. His 
counsel, however, dissuaded him from doing so, 
and observed, that if he confessed having seen 
Georges, nothing could save him from being con- 
demned to death. Moreau, in an interview with 
the other two conspirators, insisted that the first 
step to be taken was to kill me ; that when I was 
disposed of, he should have great power and in- 

* We hare not brought luu^k thote wretchet ; no, thoie who hare 
raraged our country, burnt our houaes, and yiolated our wires and 
our daaghtere, haye (daeed them on the throne by force* 

VOL. I. 2 N 


fluence with the army ; but that as long as I liredf 
he could do nothing. When he was arrested, the 
paper of accusation against him was given to him, 
in which his crime was stated to be, the having 
conspired against the life of the first consul and 
the security of the republic, in complicity with 
Pichegru and Georges. On reading the names of 
those two he dropt the paper and fainted.** 

" In the battle before Dresden,** said Napoleon, 
" I ordered an attack to be made upon the allies 
by both flanks of my army. While the manoiuvres 
for this purpose were executing, the centre re- 
mained motionless. At the distance of about from 
this to the outer gate,* I observed a group of per- 
sons collected together on horseback. Conclud- 
ing that they were endeavouring to observe my 
manoeuvres, I resolved to disturb them, and called 
to a captain of artillery who commanded a field 
battery of eighteen or twenty pieces : * Jettez une 
douzalne de houlets a la fois dans ce groupe Ut, 
peut-etre ily a quelques petits giniraux^ (Throw 
a dozen of bullets at once into that group ; per- 
haps there are some little generals in it.) It was 
done instantly. One of the balls struck Moreaa, 
carried off both his legs, and went through his 
horse. Many more, I believe, who were near 
him, were killed and wounded. A moment be- 
fore Alexander had been speaking to him. Mo« 

* About five hundred yardi. 


reaa*8 legs were amputated not far from the spot. 
One of his feet, with the boot upon it, which the 
surgeon had thrown upon the ground, was brought 
by a peasant to the king of Saxony, with infor- 
mation that some officer of great distinction had 
been struck by a cannon-shot. Tlie king, con- 
ceiving that the name of the person might perhaps 
be discovered by the boot, sent it to me. It was 
^Eamined at my head-quarters, but all that could 
be ascertained was, that the boot was neither 
of Ikiglish nor of French manufacture. The 
next day we were informed that it was the leg of 
Morean* It is not a little extraordinary," conti- 
nued Napoleon, " that in an action a sliort time 
afterwards, I ordered the same artillery officer, 
with the same guns, and under nearly similar cir- 
cumstances, to throw eighteen or twenty bullets 
at once into a concourse of officers collected toge- 
ther, by which General St. Priest, another French- 
man, a traitor and a man of talent, who had a 
command in the Russian army, was killed, along 
with many others. Nothing," continued the em- 
peror, " is more destructive than a discharge of a 
dozen or more guns at once amongst a group of 
persons. From one or two they may escape ; but 
from a number discharged at a time, it is almost 
impossible. After Esling, when I had caused my 
army to go over to the isle of Lobau, there was 
for some weeks, by common and tacit consent on 


both sides between the soldiers^ not by any agree* 
ment between the generals^ a cessation of firing, 
which indeed had produced no benefit, and only 
killed a few unfortunate sentinels. I rode out 
every day m different directions. No person was 
molested on either side. One day, however, riding 
along with Oudinot, I stopped for a moment upon 
the edge of the island, which was about eighty 
toises distant from the opposite bank, where the 
enemy was. They perceived us, and knowing' 
me by the little hat and grey coat, they pointed 
b three-pounder at us. The ball passed between 
Oudinot and me, and was very close to both of 
us. We put spura to our horses, and speedily 
got out of sight. Under the actual circumstances, 
tlie attack was little better than murder; but if 
they had fired a dozen guns at once, they roust 
have killed us.** 

Count Bertrand brought back Napoleon's letter 
to Captain Poppleton, broke the seal before him, 
and desired that it might be sent in that state to 
Sir Hudson Lowe. 

Some oranges sent to Longwood by the admiral. 

14M. — ^Napoleon very unwell. Had passed a 
very bad night. Found him in bed at eleven, 
p. m. ^^ Doctor," said he, ^ I had a nervous at- 
tack last night, which kept me continually un- 
easy and restless, with a severe headach, and in- 
voluntary agitations. I was without sense for a 
few moments. I verily thought and hoped, that 

a morei violent attack would have taken place, 
which would have carried me off before morning.' 
It seemed as if a fit of apoplexy was coming on« 
I felt a heaviness and giddiness of my head, (as if 
it were overloaded with blood,) with a desire to 
put myself in an upright posture. I felt a heat ia 
my head, and called to those about me to pour 
fiome cold water over it, which they did not com- 
prehend for some time. Afterwards, the water 
felt hot, and I thought it smelt of sulphur, though 
in reality it was cold.** At this time he was in a 
free perspiration, which I recommended him to 
encourage, and his headach was much diminished* 
After I had recommended every thing I thought 
necessary or advisable, he replied, ^^ si viverebbe 
troppo lungamenter* He afterwards spoke about 
funeral rites, and added, that when he died, he 
would wish that his body might be burned. '^ It 
is the best mode,"* said he, ^^as then the corpse 
does not produce any inconvenience ; and as to 
the resurrection, that must be accomplished by a 
miracle, and it is easy to the being who has it in 
his power to perform such a miracle as bringing 
the remains of the bodies together, to also form 
again the ashes of the dead/* 

\5th. — Had a long conversation with Sir Hud- 
son LfOwe relative to the affairs of Longwood^ 
and to Napoleon's health. His excellency said^ 
that he supposed it was Count Bertrand who had 

* One would live too long; 


informed Count Las Cases, that he (Sir Hudson) 
would send him off the island, if he persisted in 
writing any more injurious reflections upon the 
manner that General Bonaparte was treated. That 
be would hold him (Bertrand) answerable for the 
consequences. He also observed, that as to the 
restrictions which had been so much complained 
of, there was in reality but little difference ; that 
with respect to the prohibition to speak, which 
General Bonaparte complained of, it was not an 
crder to him not to speak, hut merely a request It! 
He also added, that Las Cases had attempted 
to send a secret accusation against him, which 
was like stabbing a man in the back, and that 
they must be conscious they were telling lies, or 
they would not be afraid to send them to England, 
through him, as He had offered to forward them. 
In his conversation with Bertrand he had merely 
observed, that according to his instructions, he 
ought to have sent Las Cases off the island, in 
consequence of the letters he had written. His 
instructions, he said, were of such a nature, that 
it was impossible to draw a line between some 
which directed that General Bonaparte should 
be treated with great indulgence, and others, pre- 
scribing regulations and restrictions impossible 
to be reconciled with the first. That he had in 
consequence written for further explanations, and 
had i^ecommended the lessening of the existing 


16th. — Saw Napoleon, to whom I repeated what 
the governor had desired. Napoleon replied, "he 
sent back, and refused to forward a letter of 
complaints, sent to him by Montholon ; he told 
Bertrand that he would receive no letters in which 
I was not styled as his government wished ; and 
he sent up by his chef. d*dtat major ^ a paper, me- 
nacing with transportation from tlie island all those 
who should make reflections upon him or his go- 
vernment ; independent of his having given Ber- 
trand clearly to understand, that if Las Cases 
continued his complaints, he would send him from 
St. Helena. In orders like his, there must be 
always some apparent contradiction, and great dis- 
cretionary powers ; but he interprets every thing 
badly, and where there is a possibility of putting a 
bad construction upon any part, which would as 
well admit of a favourable one, he is sure to choose 
the former. Un uomo che ha la mallziay ma non 
Vanima. Perhaps he sees that he has gone too 
far, and now wants to saddle the odium of his 
proceedings upon Iiis government." 

18M. — ^Went along with Mr. Baxter to visit 
Count Las Cases and son. The Count informed 
me that the governor had given him permission to 
return to Longwood, under certain conditions, but 
that he had not entirely decided what he would 
do. Young Las Cases said that his father feared 
he would be looked upon in a slighting manner 
at Longwood^ if he returned, in consequence 


of the disgraceful manner in which he had been ar- 
rested and dragged away by the governor s police. 

Informed Napoleon on my return that the go- 
vernor had offered to allow Las Cases to return 
to Longwood. After some discussion on the sub- 
ject, he observed, that he would give no advice to 
Las Cases about it. If he came back, he would 
receive him with pleasure ; if he went away, he 
would hear of it with pleasure ; but that in the 
latter case, he should wish to see him once more 
before he left the island. He added, that since 
the arrest of Las Cases, he had ordered all his 
generals to go away ; that he should be more in- 
dependent without them, as then he should not 
labour under the fear of their suffering ill-treat* 
ment by the governor, in order thereby to revenge 
himself upon him. "I,** continued he, "am not 
afraid that they will send me off the island.** 

Saw Sir Hudson Lowe, who said, that with 
the exception of certain necessary restrictions^ he 
had orders from government to treat General Bo- 
naparte with all possible indulgence, which he 
thought he had done. That if some restrictions 
had been imposed, it was his own fault, and that 
of Las Cases. That he had been very mild ! ! 
This he desired me to communicate. Shortly 
afterwards he said, that if Count Bertrand had 
shewn his (Sir Hudson's) restrictions to Sir Tho- 
mas Strange, he, the governor, would have been 
authorized to send him off the island. Nearly hi 


the 8^1116 breath, he asked if I thought' that the 
interftrence of Sir George Bingham as an inter- 
iktediator would be^ of any service ? I rephed ttmt 
probably it might, bat as Sir George Bingham did 
not speak French with sufficient fluency to entet 
into long discussions or reasonings, I was of opi- 
nion that Admiral Sir Pulteney Malcolm would 
be a much better intermediator. 

Told Napoleon what Sir Hudson Lowe had 
directed. " Doctor," replied he, ^ when this man 
has the audacity to tell j/ou, who know every thing 
that has been done, that he treats me with induli- 
^pence; I need not suggest to you what he writes 
to his government.** 

Informed me that last night he had suffered an- 
other attack similar to that of the 13th, but more 
violent. " Ali,*** said he, " frightened, threw some 
eau de Cologne in my face, mistaking it for water. 
This getting into my eyes gave me intolerable pain, 
and certainly brought me to myself." 

Told him what Sir Hudson Lowe had said re- 
lative to the intermediation of Sir George Bing- 
ham. He replied, ^^ perhaps it might be of some 
service ; but all he has to do is, che esca del sua 
ruolo di carceriere e che si metta nel ruolo di galan^ 
tuomo.^ If any person were to undertake the 

f St. jOenb was commonly called AIL 

t This means, '* let him conduct himself no longer as a gaoler, but 
behave like a gentleman." 

VOL. I. 2 O 


office of intermediator^ the most fit would be the 
admiral, both because he is independent of Sir 
Hudson Lowe, and because he is a man with 
whom I can reason and argue. But,** continued 
he, ^^ questo governatore S un uomo senza fede. 
When your ministry is insincere, wants to shuffle, 
or has nothing good to execute, a polisson like 
Drake, or Hudson Lowe, is sent out as ambas- 
sador, or governor ; when it is the contrary, and 
it wishes to conciliate or treat, such a man as 
Lord Cornwallis is employed. A Comwallis 
here, would be of more avail than all the restric- 
tions that could be imagined." He then observed, 
that he thought it would be better for Las Cases 
to return back to Longwood, than either to re- 
main in the island separated from them, or sent to 
the Cape, and that I might report that I had heard 
him say so. 

21*^ — ^A letter received from Major Gorrequer, 
stating that the governor would permit Archam- 
baud to see his brother on the following day, who, 
with Santini and Rousseau, had arrived in the 
Orontes frigate from the Cape.* 

22nd. — ^Archambaud allowed to see his brother 
in the presence of one of the governor s agents, 
but not permitted either to see or converse with 
any of the others. 

23rd. — Sir Hudson Lowe at Longwood; in- 

* Thif request had been at first refused by Sir Hudson Lowa 


formed him- what Napoleon had said ahout Las 
Cases. He told me that Las Cases wanted to 
make terms, previous to returning to Longwood^ 
and desired me to ^^ go to Hut's Gate^ and tell 
him what General Bonaparte had said ; hut not 
to hold any other communication with him.*' I 
mentioned to his excellency the fit of syncope 
with which Napoleon had been attacked: "It 
would be lucky," replied Sir Hudson Lowe, "if 
he went off some of those nights in a fit of the 
kind.*' I observed that I thought it very prob- 
able he would be attacked with a fit of apo- 
plexy, which would finish him, and that continu- 
ing to lead his present mode of life, it was im- 
possible he could remain in health. Sir Hudson 
asked, what could induce him to take exercise. 
I replied to moderate the restrictions, and to 
remove some of which he complained so much. 
Sir Hudson Lowe made some observations about 
the danger of allowing a man to get loose who 
had done such mischief already, and desired me 
to write him a statement of the health of young 
Las Cases. I replied that I was going to see him, 
in company with Mr. Baxter. His excellency 
observed, that he would go and have some con- 
versation with Count Bertrand on the subjects 
complained of. 

On my return met Sir Hudson Lowe, who ap- 
peai*ed in a very bad humour, and said, that Count 
Bertrand had for s^ ^Qrt time spoken very rea- 

5t84 A voiefi FROM st; hbuna^ 

sonably, but that afterwards he had broldm oat 
foolishly about ndtre situatiafiy just < as if it«wero 
of any consequence to England, or^to Europe^ 
what became of Count Bertrand ; or as if it were 
not Bonaparte alone who was looked after/^that 
he did not know what business he had to couple 
his situation \nth Bonaparte*s. 

Mrs. Balcombe and eldest daughter came to see 
Countess Bertrand. They were desirous of paying 
a visit to Napoleon and to Countess Montholon^ 
but as their pass specified Count Bertrand*s houses 
and did not mention either of the others, it was 
not permitted by the orderly officer. 

Saw Napoleon afterwards. " This governor,* 
said he, ''has been with Bertrand making some 
proposals, but in such a dark and mysterious 
manner, that one cannot understand what object 
he has in view. Every thing he says is destitute 
of clearness ; and when he reluctantly gives the 
truth, it is enveloped in quibbles and evasions. 
He had a long pourparler about Las Cases, which 
be concluded by asserting, that Las Cases was not 
in prison^ and never had been so I — ^ J? un uomo com* 
posto d'imbecillitd,, di bugie, e d*un poco di seal* 
trezza. Can Las Cases go out ? Can he see any 
person, either French, or English, besides his 
gaolers ? (for seeing a surgeon is nothing). Can 
he send or receive a letter that does not pass open 
through their hands r I know not really,"* conti- 
nued he, ''what this man calls being in prisoaT 


. •^ijyiHit Aclbol I was to give myself tip to you,** 
CGAtixKied he; ''I had a mistaken notion of your 
national character ; I had formed a romantic idea 
of the Englidu There entered into it also a ppr- 
l|oa of pride* I disdained to give myself up to 
any' of those sovereigns whose countries I had 
conquered^ and whose capitals I had entered in 
triumph ; and I determined to confide in you^ 
whom I had never vanquished. Doctor^ I am well 
punished for the good opinion I had of you, and 
for the confidence which I reposed in you, in- 
stead of giving myself up to my father-in-law, or 
to the emperor Alexander, either of whom would 
have treated me with the greatest respect.** I ob- 
ser^'ed^ that it was possible that Alexander might 
have sent him to Siberia; ''not at all,** replied Na^ 
poleon, ''setting aside other motives, Alexander 
would, through policy, and from the desire which 
be has to make himself popular, have treated me 
like a king, and I should have had palaces at 
command. Besides, Alexander is a generous 
man^ and would have taken a pleasure in treating 
me well; and my father-in-law, though he is an 
imbecile, is still a religious man, and incapable of 
committing, crimes, or such acts of cruelty as are 
practised here.** 

r SaW' Las: Cases and son along with Mr. Baxter. 
Wrote a letter afterwards to Sir Hudson Lowe re- 
specting the state of health of young Las Cases; 


and concluded by recommending him to be re* 
moved to Europe for the recovery of his health. 
Mr. Baxter also wrote one of a similar tendency, 
and one about the count himself, in which he said, 
that in consequence of his being afflicted with 
dyspepsia, it was probable that a change to a 
colder climate would be beneficial, and that that 
of Europe would be preferable. 

25th. — ^Napoleon in very good spirits. Asked 
many questions in English, which although he 
pronounced it as he would have done French, yet 
the words were correct, and applied in their pro- 
per meaning. 

26th. — Sir Hudson Lowe sent for me. Found 
him in town. He observed that I had put too 
much political feeling into my letter respecting 
young Las Cases : that my opinion must have re- 
lated to what would have happened had he re- 
mained at Longwood ; and that it appeared to 
enter too much into the feelings of those people. 
I replied, that I could not separate my opinion 
from the cause of his complaints, and that he him- 
self had said, if the state of his son's health abso- 
lutely required his removal to Europe, he would 
not oppose it. Sir Hudson answered, that he had 
certainly said, that if it absolutely required such 
a measure, he would not oppose it; but that I 
had entered into a discussion not called for in the 


He then spoke about the restrictions, and 
shewed roe a letter which he said he intended to 
send to Bertrand, and upon which he desired to 
know roy opinion. After reading it, I observed 
to his excellency that I thought it calculated to 
produce some severe remarks from Napoleon ; as 
in fact it left matters in nearly the same state as 
they had been before, after having nominally re- 
moved some of the restrictions. On a little re- 
flection, his excellency appeared to be of the same 
opinion, and said that he would reconsider the 
matter. In the mean time he authorised me to 
tell Greneral Bonaparte that several of the re- 
strictions should be removed, especially those re- 
lative to speaking ; that the limits should be en- 
larged, and that liberty should be granted to peo- 
ple to visit him, nearly as in former times under 
the admiral. 

Informed Napoleon of this, who replied, that 
he desired no more than to have matters put 
as nearly as possible as they were under the ad- 
miral. That he thought it right and just if the 
governor suspected either an inhabitant of the 
island, or a passenger, or any of them, that he 
should not allow them to enter Longwood; but 
that what he (Napoleon) meant was, that the ma- 
jority of respectable passengers or inhabitants 
should be allowed to visit him, and not one or 
two who had been picked out and sent up to 


Ijongwood by the governor, or by hls^^tafllt as 
a keeper of galley-slaves would sesd at ei}t4o>a8 
traveller to his galleys to see some extraordinary 
criminaL If^*" continued he, " I met a man whose 
conversation pleased me (like the -admiral, for ex- 
ample) I should wish to see him again, and per- 
haps ask him to dinner or breakfast, as was done 
before this governor's arrival ; therefore I wish 
that a list should be sent in the first place by 
the governor to Bertrand, containing the names of 
the persons that he will allow to visit us ; and 
that afterwards, Bertrand shall have the privi- 
lege of asking any person again whose name is 
upon that list. I will never see any one com- 
ing up with a pass in which the day is fixed, 
which is a way of saying, come out this day and 
exhibit yourself. I want also that our situation 
may be clearly defined, so that my household shall 
not be liable to the insults which they have all 
suffered, and continue to suffer, either from being 
kept in the dark respecting the restrictions which 
he imposes, or from misconception of sentinels, or 
the orders given being of a discretional nature, 
which may put a sentinel upon his responsibility, 
and Mall constitute him an arbitrary judge. The 
trifling vexations and humiliations which he makes 
us undergo, are worse to us than the greater. I am 
willing,** continued he, ^ to listen to accommoda- 
tion, and not to insist upon too much. But, he 


has no heart or feeling. He thinks that a man is like 
a horse, give him a bundle of hay and a roof to co- 
yer him, and nothing further is necessary to make 
him happy. His policy is that of the petty states 
of Italy; to write and promise fairly, apparently 
give liberty, but afterwards by insinuations change 
every thing. His is the policy of insinuations.** 

I then asked, if the governor consented, and 
the admiral were satisfied, would he hold a con- 
ference with that officer as an intermediator, in 
order to bring about an arrangement ? Napo- 
leon replied, " willingly. With the greatest plea- 
sure I would treat personally with the admiral, 
and I think that we could settle it in half an 
hour. I have so much confidence in him, that if 
the English government would allow it, and the 
admiral would pledge his word of honour, that 
no one bnt himself should know the contents, (un- 
less there was some plot or intrigue against his go- 
vernment,) I would write a letter, putting him in 
possession of every thing I know relative to my 
property, in order that I might be able to make 
use of it. To-morrow," continued he, ** I shall 
let you know whether I am of the like opinion 
relative to the intermediation. If I continue the 
same, yon shall go to the governor and propose it 
to him.** 

A letter sent by Count Bertrand to Sir Hudson 

VOL. I. 2 p 


Lowe, requesting that Count Las Cases might be 
permitted to visit Longwood previous to his de- 
parture, to take leave of the emperor. 

21th. — Gave Napoleon some newspapers. On 
looking over them he observed an article about 
Pozzo di Borgo. " Pozzo di Borgo,** said he, 
*^was deputy to the legislative body during the 
revolution. He is a man of talent, an intriguer, 
and knows France well. As long as he remains 
there as ambassador, you may be sure that Alex- 
ander does not consider Louis to be firmly seated 
upon the throne. When you see a Russian no- 
minated as ambassador, you may then conclude 
that Alexander thinks the Bourbons likely to con- 
tinue in France.** 

He then desired me to go to the governor and 
tell him, " that if he were willing to come to an 
amicable arrangement, he (Napoleon) thought the 
best means of effecting it would be to authorize 
the admiral to act as an intermediator. That if 
such were done, he had little doubt but matters 
might be adjusted. That he wished it himself, as 
he did not like to complain. All he wanted was 
to live, or in other words, that the restrictions 
should not be of such a nature as to induce a per- 
son to wish for death. That in consequence of 
what I had said to him, he had ordered Bertrand 
to discontinue writing a complaint^ which he had 


intended to have sent to Lord Castlereagh for the 
Prince Regent ; and in fact, that he was desirous 
an accommodation should take place^** 

Went to town to deliver the above message. 
Found that the governor had left it before my 
arrival. Communicated the object of my mis- 
sion to Sir Thomas Reade, who replied, that he 
knew the governor would never consent to al- 
low the admiral to act as an intermediator. — 
There was no use in proposing it. I replied, that 
as I had been charged with the messc^e, I must 
deliver it^ as perhaps it might lead to good ef- 

Went to Plantation House and communicated 
my message to Sir Hudson Lowe. He said, 
" that he would accept of the proposal, but that 
he had previously to decide upon a very delicate 
point, which might break off any purposed ar- 
rangement. That General Bonaparte had asked 
to see Count Las Cases before his departure, 
which would do away with the great object he 
had had in view for a month back, viz. that oi 
cutting off all communication between Longwood 
and Las Cases. That General Bonaparte might 
make important and dangerous communications 
to Las Cases ; to obviate which, he would propose 
that a staff officer should be present at the de- 
manded interview, which it was likely might anger 
General Bonaparte.** 

iSH Jl voice from ST. fiELBttCA. 

He then wrote the following words on a piece 
of paper, which he desired me to copy, and to 
shew the copy : — *^ The governor is not conscious 
of ever having wilfully given to General Bonaparte 
any just cause of olBTence or disagreement. He 
has seen with pain misunderstandings arise on 
points where his duty would not allow him to 
pursue any other course, and which might have 
been frequently removed by a single word of ex- 

" Any channel by which he may think such 
misundei*standings may be removed, the governor 
is perfectly ready and willing to avail himself of.** 

Sir Hudson then gave me a large packet for 
Count Bertrand, containing his answer to the ap- 
plication to see Las Cases, and some explana- 
tions relative to the restrictions, some of which he 
said he was willing should be altered ; and that 
the 5th paragraph of the restrictions delivei'ed in 
October was merely meant as a civil request to 
General Bonaparte, not to subject himself to the 
interference of an officer, by entering into long 
conversations with persons not authorized by the 
governor to communicate with him. He added, 
that he would have some conversation with the 
admiral previous to the latter's going to see Na- 
poleon, for the purpose of entering upon the inter- 

28/A. — Napoleon indisposed. Had passed a 


very uneasy night and had suffered* considerably 
from faeadacfa. Saw him at three, p. m. when he 
was still in bed^ and afflicted with severe headache 
He had not seen any one. Informed him what 
Sir Hudson Lowe said respecting the proposed 
intermediation* I did not like to communicate 
what his excellency had said about the interview 
which he had desired to have with Las Cases, as I 
thought it would both aggravate his illness and 
tend to impede the desired accommodation. While 
I was in bis bed-room, Marchand came in and in- 
formed him that the bath which he had ordered 
could not be got ready on account of the total 
want of water at Longwood. However, he ap- 
peared well satisfied, and expressed his fear, that 
if Sir Pulteney came up this day, his indisposition 
might prevent his seeing and conversing with him. 
He desired me, therefore, to tell Count Bertrand, 
in case the admiral came, to take him to his house^ 
shew him the necessary papers, and talk the mat- 
ter over; adding, that if he found himself well 
enough, he would send for him, but if not, that 
be would appoint a future day. 

Saw Count Bertrand afterwards, who asked 
me to explain the meaning of the passage in his 
excellency s letter in which he attempted to make 
it c^pear that the prohibition to Napoleon to speak 
was a piece of civility. Not having been educated 
for a special pleader, I felt myself at a loss to af- 


ford any explanation sufficient to establish the 
truth of the governor's doctrine. 

Sir Pulteney and Lady Malcolm came to Long- 
wood and paid a visit to Counts and Countesses 
Bertrand and Montholon. No communication had 
been yet made by the governor to Sir Pulteney, 
who, when informed of the proposal, expressed 
his ardent wish that something might be done to 
put things upon a better footing between Napo- 
leon and the governor ; adding, that he thought if 
the matter were left to him, he could arrange it 
satisfactorily in a vei-y little time. He observed, 
however, that until the governor authorized him, 
he would have no conversation on the subject 
either with Napoleon or with any of his suite. 

Saw Napoleon in the evening in his bed-room, 
along with Mat^hal Bertrand. The parcel of 
letters which I had brought from the governor 
was before him. He had just* been informed of 
his reply to the application that Count Las Cases 
might be allowed to visit Longwood before his 
departure. He observed, that " criminals con- 
demned to death, and on the point of being led 
out to execution, were allowed to bid adieu to 
their friends, without it being required that a 
third person should be present.'' He was very 
much displeased, and expressed in strong terms 
his indignation at such barbarous conduct. He 
then asked me for the governor's reply to the proh 


posal I had made, which I gave him in French 
and English, having made a translation of it into 
the former, and also repeated to him what the go- 
vernor had expressed to me relative to Las Cases. 
When he came to the words, ^ where his duty 
would not allow him.* ^ misunderstanding,** &c. 
^ TVacasMTi e,* said he, '* this is the language he has 
always held. It is an insult to the human under- 
standing. His intentions could not be mistaken. 
They were to heap all sorts of useless vexations 
upon me. I cannot,* continued he, '' think that he 
will allow the admiral to act as intermediator. 
Depend upon it, it is some shuffling trick of his, 
and that he will never allow it to come to a con- 
clusion.** He then dictated a few lines to Count 
Bertrand, containing a protest against the gover- 
nor's conduct, which he desired him to write out 
fair in the next room. He requested me to commu- 
nicate to the governor the remarks which he had 
made upon his conduct, and observed, that he 
hoped the admiral would not commence any pro- 
ceedings without having first made himself per- 
fectly master of the subject, in not to allow 
himself to be jou^ by the governor ; who would 
probably fill him with those falsehoods which he 
always had at command. " I should be sorry that 
the admiral,** continued he, " should undertake any 
thing likely to prove abortive, as I have an esteem 
for him.* 


Sir Thomas Reade all day in consultatioii a({ 
Plantation House. 

29th. — ^A letter from Sir Hudson Lowe (at 
Count Bertrand arrived at eight o'clock in the 
morning. Saw Napoleon at two^ p. m. Informed 
me, that as the governor had fourteen or fifteen 
days ago expressed a wish to know what the 
French complained of, he had directed Bertrand 
to send him a copy of his restrictions, with some 
observations thereupon, that he might think and 
reflect upon them. Also that he had caused the- 
following remarks to be written upon the back of 
the memorandum containing the governor's sen^ 
timents, which I had delivered to him yesterday^ 
and which he directed me to forward to Sir Hud-^ 
son Lowe : — 

^^1. On ne peut justifier la conduite qu'on tieni 
depuis six mois par quelques phrases de la corres* 
pondance du ministre. Une longue et volumi* 
neuse correspondance minist^rielle est un arsenal 
od il y a des armes k tout tranchant. 

^^ 2. Les demiers r^glemens seraient consid6r68 
k Botany Bay comme injurieux et oppressifis ; ils 
doivent £tre, quoique Ton en dise^ contraires k la 
volont^ du gouvemement Anglais, qui a approuv6 
les r^glemens qui ont ^t^ en vigueur jusqu*aa 
mois d*Ao{it dernier. 

" 3. Toutes les observations que le Comte Beri- 


trand et le Comte de Montholon ont faites ont 6t6 
inutiles. Une libre discussion leur a ^t6 interdite 
par des menaces."** 

'^This governor,** said he, "is a man tot<illy 
unfit to fill the situation he holds. He has a good 
deal of cunning, but no talent or steadiness. C'est 
un homme soupformeuXy astucieux, menteur, double, 
et plein dHnsinuationSy like the Italians of two or 
three centuries ago. CTest un excellent familier de 
VinqidsUUm. II mettrait de Vastuce h dire le hon 
Jour. Je crois quit en met a manger son d^j^n^^ 
He ought to be sent to Goa. Bertrand wrote that 
he hoped he would not refuse his consent to a 
matter of so little consequence as that of permit^ 
ting Las Cases to come up here. If he refuses, 
Bertrand will go down to see him along with an 
officer, which I could not consent to do.** 

"What can he be afraid of?" continued he, 
" that I would tell him to write to my wife ? He 
will do that without my direction. That I would 
tell him my sentiments and intentions ? He knows 
them already. Does he think that Europe is a 
mine of gunpowder, and Las Cases the spark to 
blow it up. 

A letter superscribed " in haste,** from Sir Hud- 
son, was given to Captain Poppleton, containing 
one for Count Bertrand, signifying that " in conse* 
quence of the manner in which Count Las Cases 

* The tranfllation will be found in tiie Appendix, Nob VIl. 
. VOL. I. 2 Q 


had been removed from Longwood^ the governor 
could not permit him to take leave of General 
Bonaparte," &c. Shortly afterwards Count Ber- 
trand and Baron Gourgaud went to town, accom- 
panied by Captain Poppleton, to see and take 
leave of Count Las Cases. It is difficult to recon- 
cile the conduct pursued towards them there, with 
the other measures practised by Sir Hudson Lowe, 
and with the importance which he professed to 
attach to " cutting off all communication with 
Longwood.** At breakfast they were left to them- 
selves, with the exception of Capt. Poppleton, who 
understands French with difficulty, and not at all 
when spoken in the quick manner in which French- 
men usually converse with each other. For some 
hours they remained together in the large room 
of the castle, which is about fifty feet by twenty, 
walking up one side, while Colonel Wynyard and 
Major Gorrequer, who were to watch them, re- 
mained on the opposite side of the room ; so that 
in fact. Las Cases might just as well have been 
permitted to come to Longwood, and thereby a 
refusal, which was considered as an insult, would 
have been spared to Napoleon. 

About three, p. m. Las Cases and his son em- 
barked on board of the Griffon sloop of war. Cap- 
tain Wright, for the Cape of Good Hope. He was 
accompanied to the sea*side by Sir Hudson Lowe, 
Sir Thomas Reade, &c. His journal and papers, 
except a few of no consequenccj were detuned 


by the governor. Previous to his departure he 
made over 4,000/. (which he had in a banker's 
hands in London), for Napoleon's use. 

I saw Sir Hudson Lowe on horseback in the 
street, who called out to me when passing, " your 
negotiation has failed.** 

About five hundred pounds' worth of plate 
brought down by Cipriani in the morning to be 
sold. When Sir Hudson Lowe saw it he sent for 
Cipriani, from whom he demanded, in what man- 
ner they could spend so much money r Cipriani 
(an arch, intelligent Corsican), replied. ** to buy 
food." His excellency affected surprise, and said, 
*• What, have you not enough ?" " We have pur- 
chased," said Cipriani, ^^ so many fowls, so much 
butter, bread, meat, and divers other articles of 
food daily for some months ; and I have to thank 
your chef d*4tat major, Colonel Reade, for his 
goodness in not only procuring me many things 
that I wanted, but for his kindness in seeing that 
the people did not impose upon me when I was 
paying for them " Sir Hudson was a little dis- 
concerted at this reply at first ; but afterwards 
resuming an appearance of astonishment, asked, 
**why do you buy so much butter, or so many 
fowls T " Because," replied Cipriani, *^ the allow- 
ance granted by vostra eccellenza does not give us 
enough to eat. You have taken off nearly half of 
what the admiral allowed us." Cipriani then gavQ 


him an account in detail of their wants ; explained 
the difference between the French and English 
mode of living, and accounted satisfactorily ior 
every thing. Sir Hudson said, that the scheme 
of allowances had been hastily made out; that he 
would look into it, and endeavour to increase the 
quantity of those articles of provisions of which 
they stood most in need ; and that on the next 
arrival from England he expected a change for 
the better. 

31 st — Sir Hudson Lowe sent for me at six in 
the morning. Soon after my arrival he called me 
into a private room, and in a very solemn manner 
said, that he had sent for me about a very extraor- 
dinary circumstance ; that last evening the Baroa 
Sturmer had written a note to Major Grorrequer, 
stating that General Bonaparte had had a fainting 
fit, accompanied hy fever I some time back, and 
detailing the fact of the eau de Cologne having 
been thrown in his face, and some other circum- 
stances, and begging to know if it were true, as 
such stories were good to send to his court. His 
excellency said, that he was very much surprised 
how Baron Sturmer could know that Greneral Bo- 
naparte had experienced a fit, or any of the cir- 
cumstances attending it ; and asked me to whom 
I had told it ? I replied, ^' I mentioned it to none 
but yourself, your staff, possibly the admiral, and 
Baxter, whom I consulted professionally upon the 


inatter; that moreover many of the circumstances 
detailed in the Baron's letter were falsehoods ; also 
that every body at Longwood knew that Napoleon 
had had a fiunting fit on the night he had men- 
tioned, as well as the circumstances which accom* 
panied it." His excellency then gave me some ad- 
vice about the necessity of secrecy, and desired me 
to write him a statement of the business, in order 
that,! as it had unfortunately got abroad, he might 
be able to contradict any incorrect account of it ; 
he supposed the admiral had repeated it to Mont- 
chenu or Sturmer. 

Saw the admiral in town, who told me that I 
had not mentioned the circumstance to him, nor 
had be done so either to Montchenu or Sturmer ; 
but that half the town knew it, which I was soon 
convinced of by the number of questions put to 
me by divers persons before leaving it. 

Saw Napoleon on my return. " Veramente^ 
said he, laughing, '^ vostro govematore i una bestia 
che non ha senso commune. His conduct within a 
few days has proved his incapacity more than 
ever. He comes up here with an army of staff, 
just as if he were going to take a town by assault, 
seizes Las Cases, drags him away, keeps him au 
secret for some weeks ; he then offers to allow him 
to return back. Las Cases is determined to go 
away. This governor in a most brutal manner re- 
fuses to allow him to take leave of me^ although 


at the same time he offers to allow him to return 
to Longwood until he hears from England ; and, 
to crown the business, he permits Bertrand and 
Gourgaud to go down and converse with him for 
hours. Bertrand tells me that they had every 
opportunity for communication that they could 
desire, and every facility of informing him of my 
wishes, and of giving him letters. Ah,** continued 
he, " if all in England were like him, I should not 
be here now. C*est un homme bom^, a poor sub- 
ject. He has a little cunning, and that is all, with- 
out any firmness or consistency. He spoke to 
Cipriani yesterday, to whom he pretended that he 
did not know we had not enough of provisions, 
(although his privy counsellor Reade has assisted 
Cipriani to buy bread and salt for us for some 
months) and professed his sorrow that the plate 
had been broken up. Veramentefa pietd to see a 
great nation represented by such a man.** 

Jan. 1st, 1817. — Saw Napoleon in the drawing* 
room. Wished him a happy new year. He said 
he hoped that the succeeding one would find him 
better situated ; and added, laughing, " perhaps I 
shall be dead, which will be much better. Worse 
than this cannot be.** He was in very good spirits, 
spoke about hunting the stag and the wild boar. 
Shewed me the scar of a wound in the inside of 
the ring-finger, which he told me he had received 
from a wild boar while hunting, accompanied by 


the Dnlce of Dalmatia. Count Montholon came 
in, to whom Napoleon whispered something ; after 
which he went out, and returned with a snuff-box, 
which he gave to the emperor, who presented it 
to me with his own hands, saying, " here, doctor, 
is a present I make to you for the attention which 
you manifested towards me during my illness.** 
it is needless to say that a gift from the hands of 
such a man was received with sensations of pride, 
and that I endeavoured to express the sentiments 
which occupied my mind. 

Napoleon also made some elegant presents to 
the Countesses Bertrand and Montholon, consist- 
ing of some of the beautiful porcelain, unique in 
the world, presented to him by the city of Paris, 
with some handsome crapes ; to Count Bertrand, 
a fine set of chess-men ; to Count Montholon, a 
handsome ornament, &c. All the children also 
were gratified with some elegant gift from him. 
The weather was so bad and so foggy, that the 
signal from Deadwood could not be discerned. 

2nd. — Cipriani in town buying provisions. 

3rd. — ^Napoleon had been ill during the night ; 
but felt better. In pretty good spirits. After 
some conversation, I asked his opinion about 
Georges. " Georges,** said he, " was una bestia 
ignorante. He had courage, and that was all. 
After the peace with the Chouans I endeavoured 
to gain him overj as then he would have been 

804 A TOICS FROM ST; rblkna; 

usrful to me, and I was toxious to 6alm all parties. 
I sent for and spoke to him for a long time. His 
father was a miller, and he was an ignorant fellow 
himself. I asked him, ^ why do you want to re- 
store those Bourbons ? If even you were to suc- 
ceed in placing them upon the throne, you would 
still be only a miller's son in their eyes. They 
would hold you in contempt, because you are not 
of noble birth.* But I found that he had no heart ; 
in fact, that he was not a Frenchman. A few 
days after he went over to London.** 

4th. — ^The Spey man of war arrived, and brought 
the news of the destruction of the Algerine ships, 
and the treaty which they had been obliged to 

5th. — Sir Hudson Lowe at Longwood. Had 
a long conversation with him concerning the re- 
strictions. His excellency said that he had no 
objection to allow General Bonaparte to ride to 
the left of Hut's Gate, in the direction of Miss 
Mason's; but that he did not like to grant the 
same permission to his attendants. I observed, 
that it would be difficult to draw such a line of 
distinction, as Napoleon never rode out without 
being acc<Mnpanied by two or three of them. 
Sir Hudson Lowe replied, that he had no objec- 
tion to their being permitted to ride in that direc- 
tion when in company with General Bonaparte; 
but without him, he would not grant it. He then 


desired me to tell General Bonaparte that he 
might ride in that direction, whenever he pleased, 
that there would be no impediment to his going. 
I observed that he had better make Count Ber- 
trand acquainted with it : and also that some no- 
tice ought to be given to the sentinel at Hut's Gate, 
othen^e he would stop him if he attempted to 
avail himself of the permission. Sir Hudson Lowe 
replied that the sentinel had no orders to stop him. 
I said that Generals Montholon and Gourgaud 
had been stopped several times when going to the 
alarm-house, although within the limits. The go- 
vernor replied that this must be a mistake, as the 
sentinels had no orders to stop them. I observed, 
that I had been twice stopped myself by the sen- 
tinels in that spot. '* How can that be,** said Sir 
Hudson, " as the sentinels have orders only to stop 
French people F" I answered, that the sentinel had 
said, that he had orders to stop all suspicious peo- 
ple ; and that conceiving me to be one, he had 
stopped me, for which I could not blame him. 
His excellency laughed at this, then observed that 
he would not enlarge the limits, that they were 
fixed ; but that he would give General Bonaparte 
leave to extend his rides in different directions, 
and ordered me to tell him, " that he might ride 
within the old limits unaccompanied, that no im- 
pediment would be opposed.** 
Saw Napoleon shortly after^ to whom I con* 

VOL. I. 2 R 


yeyed his excellency's message. He asked me if 
the picquets had been placed upon the hills as 
formerly, when he used to ride in that direction. 
I replied, that I had not observed them. He took 
out his glass and looked towards the spot for a 

Informed Napoleon of the Algerine affair, and 
gave him a paper which contained the official 
detail. After reading it he professed great plea- 
sure that those barbarians had been chastised, 
but observed that the victory we had gained did 
not alter his opinion, as to the best mode of acting 
with them. " You might,*' said he, ^^ have settled 
it equally well by a blockade. It no doubt re- 
flects great credit upon the English sailors for 
their bravery and skill ; yet still I think that it 
was hazarding too much. To be sure, you ef- 
fected a great deal, and got away, because your 
seamen are so good ; but that is an additional 
reason why you should not run the risk of sacri*- 
ficing them against such canaille. There are no 
other seamen (except the Americans,) who would 
have done what yours have eflfected, or perhaps 
have attempted it. Notwithstanding this, and that 
you have succeeded, it was madness and an abuse 
of the navy, to attack batteries elevated above 
your ships, which you could not injure; to en- 
gage red hot balls and shells, and run the hazard of 
losing a fleet, and so many brave seamen against 


such canaille ; independent of the disgrace which 
it would have been to England to be beaten by 
the barbarians, which ought to have been the case. 
If the Algeiines had fired upon you in coming 
down, instead of, like imbeciles, allowing you to 
take up your position, quietly, and anchor, as if 
you were going to a review, you would not have 
succeeded. Suppose the Dey of Algiers had re- 
fused to agree to Lord Exmouth's terms the next 
day, what could he have done? Nothing. De* 
pend upon it, he never would have gone in to at- 
tack them a second time with disabled ships, and 
powder deficient. He would have been obliged 
to withdraw his fleet, and it would have been a 
slap in the face for England. Moreover you have 
taught those wretches what they wanted for the 
defence of the place." 

** If you have struck terror into them, and that 
the terms you have made,*' continued he, *^be 
strictly adhered to for the future, you have done 
a great benefit to humanity, as well as having 
shewn much maritime skill and bravery ; but I do 
not believe that the Algerines will adhere to the 
stipulation that prisoners are not to be made 
slaves. I fear that they will be worse treated 
than they were before, in consequence of those 
barbarians not having any hope of ransom ; which 
was the only reason they spared the lives of their 
captives. But now, havini; lost the hope of mak- 


mg money by them, they will massacre and throw 
them overboard, or else mutilate them horribly; 
for you know that they conceive it to be a merito* 
rious action to destroy heretics * 

He spoke in very high terms of Lord Nelson, 
and indeed attempted to palliate that only stigma 
to his memory, the execution of Caraccioli ; which 
he attributed entirely to his having been deceived 
by that wicked woman, Queen Caroline, through 
Lady Hamilton, and to the influence which the 
latter had over him. 

While conversing with Napoleon, General Gour- 
gaud sent in his name and entered. He commu- 
nicated some information rather in discordance 
with the message which the governor had directed 
me to deliver. It appeared, that while taking a 
ride within the limits, he was stopped about five 
o'clock, p. m. by the sentinel at Hut's Gate, and 
detained, until released by the Serjeant com- 
manding the guard. He added, that almost every 
time he went out, the same thing occurred, the 
sentinels wishing to screen themselves from any 

6th. — Communicated this to Sir Hudson Lowe, 
and brought him a letter from Captain Poppleton 
on the subject. His excellency denied that the 
sentinels had ever received any new orders ; and 
that it was the fault of the sentinel. 

Cipriani informed me that Pozzo di Borgo was 


the son of a shepherd in Corsica, who used to 
bring eggs, milk, and butter to the Bonaparte fa- 
mily. Being a smart boy, he was noticed by Ma^- 
dame M^re, who paid for his schooling. After- 
wards, through the interest of the family, he was 
chosen deputy to the legislative body, as their 
sons were too young to be elected. He returned 
to Corsica ba procuratore generalcy where he united 
himself with Peraldi, an implacable enemy of the 
Bonapartes, and consequently became one him- 

By the same authority I was informed that 
Masseria, on his arrival at Paiis in order to obtain 
xm interview with Napoleon, had applied to him^ 
(Cipriani), for advice how to accomplish this ob- 
ject, stating that he intended to apply to the Arch 
Chancellor- Cipriani advised him by no means 
to do so, as possibly he might be arrested and 
tried, (being an emigrant,) in which case he must 
be condemned to death ; but to apply to Mar- 
dame Mi^re, to whom he was known. Masseria 
followed his advice, and s.uceeeded in obtaining 
an interview, although he failed in the attempt to 
open a negociation. In a subsequent endeavour to 
obtain another, he received a hint to quit France. 

On making inquiry at Hut's Gate, the Serjeant 
commanding the guard shewed a scrap of paper 
containing the orders to the sentinels, which w-ere 


^ that none of the French, not even Bonaparte 
himself, were to be permitted to pass that post, 
unless accompanied by a British officer." The 
Serjeant also said, what indeed was notorious, that 
Sir Hudson Lowe frequently gave verbal orders 
himself, not only to the non-commissioned officers 
of the guard, but sometimes to the sentinels them* 
selves. That those orders might be written down 
afterwards, or they might not. 

Dined with Sir Pulteney Malcolm in town. 

7th. — ^Napoleon did not retire to rest until three 
in the morning, having been employed dictating 
and writing until that hour. He got up agsun at 
five, and' went into a warm bath. Eat nothing 
until seven in the evening, and went to bed before 

8th. — Had some further conversation concern- 
ing the Algerine business. Asked him if it were 
true that Desaix had, a little before his death, sent 
a message of the following purport to him. "Tell 
the fii-st consul that I regret dying before I have 
done sufficient to make my name known to pos- 
terity.* Napoleon replied, " it was true," and ac- 
companied it with some warm eulogiums on De- 
saix. He breakfasted this morning in the English 
manner, upon a little toast and tea. Weather so 
foggy that signals could not be passed. 

\Qth. — Sir Pulteney Malcolm^ accompanied by 


Captmns Meynel and Wauchope, R. N., came 
to Longwood, and had an interview with Napo- 
leon. He recounted to the admiral a sketch of his 

Went to town, and applied to Sir Thomas 
Reade that permission might be granted to the 
French to purchase two cows, that a little good 
milk might be provided for the establishment. 

The fog so thick, and the weather so bad, that 
the signal of airs well could not be seen. Order- 
lies sent to acquaint the governor and admiral. 

llth. — ^Weather still very bad. 

I2th. — Saw Napoleon in his dressing-room. 
Gave him a newspaper of the 3rd of October, 
1816. Had some conversation with him relative 
to Chateaubriand, Sir Robert Wilson, &c. I ob- 
served, that some persons were surprised that he 
had never written, or caused to be written, an an- 
swer to Sir Robert Wilson's work, and to others 
containing similar assertions. He replied, that 
it was unnecessary; that they would fall to the 
ground of themselves ; that Sir Robert had al- 
ready contradicted it, by the answer which he had 
given in his interrogation, when tried in Paris for 
having assisted Lavalette in his escape ; and that 
he was convinced Wilson was now sorry for hav- 
ing published what he then had been led to believe 
was true. That moreover the English, who re- 


turned from their travels in Prance, would return 
undeceived as to his character, and would unde- 
ceive their countrymen. 

I asked if he had not been very thin when he 
was in Egypt. He answered^ that he was at that 
time extremely thin, although possessed of a 
strong and robust constitution. That he had sup- 
ported what would have killed most other men. 
After his thirty-sixth year he began to grow fat. 

He told me that he had frequently laboured in 
state affairs for fifteen hours, without a moments 
cessation, or even having taken any nourishment. 
On one occasion, he had continued at his labours 
for three days and nights without lying down to 

When Napoleon was rising up from table this 
day, and in the act of taking his hat off the side- 
board, a large rat sprang out of it, and ran be« 
tween his legs to the surprise of those present. 

I3th. — Made inquiries from the purveyor if 
credit were given to the establishment on any 
articles allowed them by government during the 
week, which had not been consumed, and whe- 
ther they might be permitted to appropriate the 
value of such articles as had not been used, to 
increase the allowance of others, of which they had 
not a sufficient quantity ; or whether the savings 
80 made, were to be credited to government? 


TTic reply was, *^any saving made by the establish- 
ment upon the English confectionary allowed to 
them, may be carried to increase the quantity of 
y^;etables allowed ; but all and eveiy other saying 
is to be credited to government, and not to the 
French. That some weeks back, no saving of any 
description was permitted to be appropriated to 
increase the allowances in which there might be a 
deficiency; but after several representations had 
been made by me during Napoleon's illness, of 
the deficiency of vegetables, Sir Hudson Lowe 
had directed, that the value of the confectionary 
not used by them,* might be carried over to in- 
crease the allowance of provisions ; that a very 
severe reprimand had been given to the purveyors, 
in a letter from Major Gorrequer, for having cre- 
dited the value of the fruit allowed (when none 
was to be procured on the island), to increase the 
quantity of vegetables, accompanied by a strict 
order never to repeat it." 

I4th. — Made inquiries from Brigade Major Har- 
rison, who was stationed at Hut's Gate, if any 
alteration had been made in the orders, so as to 
allow Napoleon to pass the picquet at that gate, 
and to go round by Miss Mason's and Woody 
Range^ unaccompanied by a British officer? Major 

* The French rarely used any of the confectionary sent from En^ 
land, ai Pi^ron, the chef (t office, was very superior in his art 

YOU I. 2 8 


Harrison replied, that no change of orders to that 
effect had been given, and that if he attempted to 
pass he would be stopped by the sentinels. He 
added, that General Gonrgaud had asked him the 
same question yesterday, to whom he had returned 
a similar answer. Cipriani in town purchasing 

15th. — Saw Napoleon in his bath. He was ra^ 
ther low spirited and thoughtful. Made somef 
observations about the governor's not having kept 
his word relative to the proposed intermediation 
through the medium of the admiral. 

17th. — Madame Bertrand delivered of a fine 
boy, at half-past four o'clock. Her accouche- 
ment was followed by some dangerous symp- 

Sir Hudson Lowe came up to Longwood, and 
asked me, " if I had had any conversation with Na- 
poleon touching the admiral since he had seen me ^* 
I replied, that he " appeared much surprised that 
he (the governor) had not acted upon the proposed 
intermediation by means of the admiral." Sir 
Hudson LfOwe observed ^^ that he had considered 
the negociation to be broken off, by Greneral Bo- 
naparte's having sent to him a number of stric- 
tures upon the restrictions of October last, written 
in a violent manner, and containing falsehoods ; 
and by the tenor of the remarks written upon 
the back of the answer delivered by him to the 


original proposition. That hOiWaSfiignoranit tfli6*! 
ther tbey intended those remarks for his pemsa^ 
or to be sent to England. That the frequent use 
ef the word * emperor,^ in the strictures written 
by Count Bertrand, was sufficient for him to break 
off the affair." I replied, that the strictures bad 
merely been sent by Napoleon for his own consi* 
deration. His excellency then began to inveigh 
igainst Count Las Cases, whom be accused. of 
^ having been the cause of much mischief between 
Bonaparte and himself; said he had asserted in 
his journal, that Bonaparte had dedared, that 
he abhorred the sight of the British uniform, or 
of a British officer ; that he held both in abomi- 
nation ; and that I had better take an opportunity 
to tell him this, and add, that I had heard him (the 
governor) say, that he did not believe that he had 
ever said so.** 

Sir Hudson then asked me if ^ I had informed 
General Bonaparte, that he was at liberty to ride 
round by Miss Mason^s and Woody Range unac« 
companied T I replied, that I had, but that Ma- 
jor Harrison had asserted the contrary to Gene- 
ral Gourgaud and myself. His excellency said, 
that since that time, permission had been granted, 
of which be desired me to inform General Bona« 
parte ; as well as of his reasons for not having gone 
on any further with the proposed intermediation. 
AlsOj ^^ that he dsdly expected good newm from 


England for the French^ and hoped he should be 
permitted by the English government to render 
their situation more comfortable.** 

In the evening, however, his excellency changed 
his mind^ and ordered me ^^ not to communicate 
any thing to General Bonaparte on the subject of 
the ride to the left of Hut*s Gate, but to mention 
every thing else he had directed me. 

18M. — ^Napoleon sent for me. Complained of 
severe headach, and made many inquiries con- 
cerning Madame Bertrand, about whose state of 
health he appeared very anxious. I informed him 
of the real cause of the unpleasant symptoms 
which had appeared. 

Acqusdnted him with the causes which the go- 
vernor had assigned yesterday, as his reasons 
for not having proceeded farther in the proposed 
intermediation^ and the other matters that I was 
directed to tell him. Napoleon replied, ** I never 
intended to break off the negociation. The ob- 
servations were sent to him, because he asked 
for them himself, and desired to know what we 
complained of. It was never intended as a re- 
fusal, nor to be sent to England, as it was only 
a copy of what I once intended to send. I 
wished,** continued he, " to have had the admiral 
present at any agreement which might be made, in 
order to be able to call upon him hereafter as a 
jnaa of honour and an Englishmani to bear wit- 


nes9 to whatever was agreed upon, that the go- 
vernor might not be able to change the orders 
and directions, subsequently deny what had been 
settled^ and then say that he had changed nothing. 
But this governor never intended to call in the 
admiral. It was all a trick. ^E un uomo senza 
fedeT I said that the governor had informed me 
that he had written to England, and daily ex- 
pected orders to ameliorate his condition. " He 
has never written for any such thing," replied 
Napoleon ; *^ he sees that he has gone too far, 
and now he awaits the arrival of some ship from 
England^ in order that he may throw the weight 
and odium of those restrictions upon the minis- 
ters, and say that he has written and got them 
taken off. The ministers have merely given him 
directions to take every precaution to prevent me 
from escaping; all the rest is discretional. He 
treats us as if we were so many peasants, or poor 
simple creatures, who could be duped by his 
shallow artifices." 

The Adamant arrived from the Cape. A present 
of some fruit sent by Lady Malcolm to Napoleon, 
Went to town, and procured some newspapers, 
which I gave to Napoleon on my return. As- 
sisted in explaining some of the passages to him. 
Repeated an anecdote which I had heard about 
his son, at which he laughed much, appeared 
entertained, and brightened up. Made me re* 


peat it again ; asked about Marie Louise, and de^ 
sired me to endeavour to see all the newspapers 
that arrived, in order, that if I could not procure 
the loan of them, I should be able to inform him 
of any thing they might contain relative to his 
wife and child. ^^For,* added he, *'one reason 
that this governor does not send up a regular 
series of papers, is to prevent me from seeing any 
article which he thinks would g^ve me pleasure 
especially such as contain some little information 
about my son or my wife.** 

19/A. — Sir Hudson Lowe sent for me. Pro* 
ceeded to Plantation House. Communicated to him 
Napoleon*s reply to the message he had charged 
me to deliver on the 17th, concealing any offensive 
epithets, and otherwise moderating the manner* 
Sir HudsQU said, ''that he had never asked for the 
observations on the restrictions. That he believed 
he had asked what they complained of, and that 
he was glad to know they had not intended to 
break off the accommodation by sending them." 

A little afterwards, however, his excellency 
began to wax warm, and said, "that the per- 
son who had ordered observations to be written 
couched in such language, and containing lies, 
could not be actuated by any conciliatory views, 
and he should take no positive steps in the mat- 
ter. That he conceived a peinson's proposing an- 
other for a mediator could have no other object 


\n yiew than to make some concession or apology i 
if such were Greneral Bonaparte's views, he (Sir 
Hadson) should think it advisable to employ one^ 
and not otherwise.** He then asked me, ^^ if such 
were General Bonaparte's intentions ?** I told his 
excellency, that I could assure him Napoleon 
had no such intention, nor ever had. Sir Hud* 
son, after some hazardous assertions relative to 
Napoleon's motives, got up, walked into another 
room, from whence he returned with a volume of 
the Quarterly Review, containing an article on 
Miof 8 work upon Egypt, which he put into my 
hands, and with a triumphant laugh pointed out 
the following passage, which he desired me to read 
aloud. ^^ He (Bonaparte) understands enough of 
^nankind to dazzle the weak, to dupe the vain, to 
overawe the timid, and to make the wicked his in* 
Btruments. But of all beyond this, Bonaparte is 
grossly and brutally ignorant. Of the strength of 
patriotism, the enthusiasm of virtue, the fortitude 
of duty, he knows nothing, and can comprehend 
nothing." During the time I was reading this, 
his excellency indulged in bursts of laughter. He 
afterwards made me observe a definition of the 
word caractire in a posthumous work of Voltaire's, 
(I think) of which he said General Bonaparte must 
have been ignorant, or he would not be so fond of 
using the word. 

Subsequently, Sir Hudson Lowe said that '^ G^- 

%0 A roica FROM st. hblbna; 

aeral Bonaparte ought to send the admiral to lum.* 
I observed that Sir Pulteney Malcolm would not 
undertake any office of the kind, unless first spoken 
to and authorized by him (Sir Hudson) to under- 
take it. That as he had now the complaints of the 
French in his possession, he might let the admiral 
know how far he would agree to their demands ; 
and, by making that officer acqumnted with his 
intentions, the latter would know how to act and 
what answer to make. Sir Hudson recurred again 
to the language in which the observations on his 
restrictions were couched, and after a discusmon 
which continued for some time, gave me a me&- 
sage similar to that which he had done on 
the 17th, with the addition, " that at the time be 
had foreseen that the request to see Las Cases, 
which he could not grant, would probably break 
off the proposed accommodation." He then told 
me that I iiiigbt borrow any books I liked in his 


fereuTj de Roi^ et de Prince^^ put it into my hand, 
and with a peculiar giin^ said^ ^ you had better 
taike General Bonaparte this also. Perhaps he 
may find some characters in it resembling him- 

20M. — Cipriani in town^ purchasing meat, but- 
ter, and other necessaries. Sir Thomas Reade 
very active in assisting him to procure them. 

2\st. — Saw Napoleon in the evening. Gave 
him FlUef s libel, mentioning at the same time, 
some of the falsehoods contained in it ; amongst 
others the incestuous practices which the wretch 
who wrote it asserted to be prevalent in England. 
He appeared surprised and shocked at this, and 
observed that malice frequently defeated itself. 
When I mentioned that Fillet had asserted that 
the French naval officers were more skilful and 
manoeuvred better than the English, he smiled 
contemptuously, and observed, *^ truly, they have 
proved it by the result of their actions.** 

I then told him that I had got a book entitled 
^Amours secretes de NapoUan Bonaparte^ but 
that it was a foolish work. He laughed, and de- 
sired me to bring it to him. *^ It will at least 
make me laugh,** said he. I accordingly brought 

* Famons Impostors^ or Historiei of manf pitiful Wretchet of low 
biith of aU Nations, who have uiorped the office of Emperor, King, 

TOU I. 2 T 


it. He observed a print in the book which repre- 
sented him plung^g a sword into a balloon, be* 
cause the manager of it would not let him ascend, 
and remarked, " It is believed by some that 1 did 
what is represented here, and I have heard that it 
was asserted by persons who knew me well, but 
it is not true. The circumstance represented real- 
ly occurred, but the actor was one of the comitd, 
a young man of great bravery, of a singular ap- 
pearance and peculiar manner, always elevated 
upon his tiptoes, and loving to walk near the 
brink of precipices." 

Some one cainu into the room now, to whom 
he cried " eh h'ten, voild, mes amours tecretes^ 
lie then ran tlirougli the book, read out some 
parts, laugliing very heartily, but observed that it 
was monstrous silly; that they had not even de- 
scribed him to be a wicked man. After having 
perused a portion of it which I had not read, be 


Bertrand and Montholon in the billiard-room, 
which he has converted into a cabinet de travaiL 
Occasionally he amuses himself with collecting 
the balls together and endeavouring to roll them 
all into the opposite comer-pocket. 

Sir Hudson Lowe sent me up some coffee for 
Napoleon's own use, which he said was of very 
good quality, and which he strongly recommended* 

23rrf. — ^Napoleon in good spirits. Spoke about 
Rllef s book. Observed that he had no recollec- 
tion whatever of such a name. " Probably," said 
be, ^^ Pillet is some person who has been harshly 
treated by you in the prison-ships (pontonsjy and 
has written in a bad humour and full of malice 
against the English, which is evidently displayed 
in his work. There is," continued he, " only one 
statement in the book which I believe to be cor- 
rect, viz. that relative to the treatment of the pri- 
soners in the pontons. It was barbarous on the 
part of your government to immure a number of 
poor wretches of soldiers, who had not been ac- 
customed to the sea, on board of ships so many 
hours every night, without fresh air. There was 
something horrid," continued he, "in the treat- 
ment of the prisoners in England. The very 
idea of being put on board of a ship, and kept 
there for several years, has something dreadful in 
it. Even your seamen hate the idea of being al- 
ways on board of ships, and run to seek the de- 


lights <^ the shore ^enever tbey can. There was 
nothing which so much irritated the nations of tte 
continent against yon . For yoar ministers not only 
heaped Frenchmen in them, hut also prisoners of 
all other nations at war with you. I received so 
many complmnts abont the barbarons treatment 
to which they were subjected in the portions, a 
treatment so contrary to that practised in France 
towards the English, that at last I gare orders 
that all the English prisoners should be put on 
hoard of pontojts, which were to be prepared for 
that purpose, and to be treated precisely as you 
treated mine in England. Had I remained in 
France it would have been carried into execu- 
tion, and would have had a good effect, for 1 
would have given every liberty and &cility to the 
English so confined to vent their complaints, and 
your ministry would, in spite of themselves, have 
been obliged to remove the French from the pon- 


treated well : at least my intentions towards them 
were good. Some abuses existed doubtless, as 
there always will under similar circumstances ; 
but that was not my fault. Whenever they came 
to my knowledge, I always punished the guilty. 
There was Mrion ; as soon as I found out his 
robberies, I gave orders to have him tried, and I 
would have had him hanged, i^ dreading the re- 
sult, he had not shot himself. Others did the 
same. It is impossible that any government could 
have given more lenient directions for the treat* 
ment of prisoners of war than those which were 
issued by me ; but I could not help some abuses 
being practised. I always punished the authors 
of them when they came to my knowledge. LiCt 
the thousands of English prisoners who were in 
France be asked to state candidly the manner in 
which they were treated. Tliere are some of them 
now in this island. When they attempted to 
escape and were retaken, then indeed they were 
closely confined ; but never were treated in such a 
barbarous manner as you treated mine in your 
pontons. Your ministers made a great noise 
about my having employed French prisoners who 
had broken their parole and escaped. But the 
prisoners of your nation were the first to set the 
example to escape, and your ministers employ- 
ed them afterwards. In retaliation, I of course 
did the saine. I published the names of several 

326 A VOICE mow st. helbna. 

Englishmen who broke their parole previous to 
the French having done so, and who were after- 
wards employed by yon ; nay I did more, I 
made an oflfer to your ministers to send back all 
the French prisoners who had violated their pa- 
role from the beginning of the war, provided they 
would in like manner send back all the English 
who had done the like. They, however, refused 
to consent to this. What more couM I do ? 
Your ministers made a great outcry about the 
English travellers that I detained inFVance; al- 
tliough they themselves had set the example, by 
seizing upon all the French vessels and persons 
on board of them, upon whom they could lay 
their hands, either in their harbours, or at sea, 
before the declaration of war, and before I bad 
detained the English in France. J said then, if 
you detain my travellers at sea, where you can do 
what you like, I will detain yours at land, where 


in other cases^ they turn, disguise, or suppress 
every thing, as best answers their views.** 

I made some observations relative to the ca- 
lumnious assertions of Pillet, of the general de- 
pravity alleged by him to exist amongst the Eng- 
lish ladies, and the horrible assertions he had put 
forth ; and maintained, that in no country was 
there less reason for supposing that an improper 
connexion e^sted between near relations ; nor 
in any country were there to be found females 
more delicate, or more irreproachable in their 
mode of life ; pointing out to the emperor that it 
was evident Pillet had kept very low company, by 
his assertions about sweethearts, which I explain- 
ed was a word in habitual use only amongst cham- 
bermaids, low shop-keepers* daughters, and others 
of a similar rank, although Pillet had the impu- 
dence to assert that such a term was in familiar 
use with young ladies of the first^ respectability. 
"True,** said Napoleon, "I fancy that he never 
saw any English women on board of his ship, ex- 
cept puttane of the lowest class. He had," conti- 
nued he, " a fine opportunity truly of learning the 
manners and customs of the English, confined as 
he was on board of a ponton for seven or eight 
years. He defeated his own intention ; for in 
some parts he has written so many lies and horrors 
of the English, that the truth which he has stated 
in another part will not be credited. His book is 


like those which have described me as a mouBtet 
delighting in bloodshed, in crimes and atrocities 9 
that merely to gratify a sanguinary disposition^ I 
drove my carriage over the bodies of the killed and 
wounded in battle. His book is just as true, and 
in like manner defeats the intentions of the pnl^ 
lisher. I was indeed pleased to see those violent 
works, as I knew that no person of sense or reasons 
ing would believe them. Those written with an 
appearance of moderation and impartiality were 
the only ones I had to fear.** 

I asked the emperor then if he had ever read 
Miot*s history of the expedition to Egypt. " What, 
the commissary ?** replied he. " I believe Las 
Cases gave me a copy ; moreover it was published 
in my time.** He then desired me to bring the 
one which I had, that he might compare them« 
He observed, " Miot was a polisson^ whom, to- 
gether with his brother, I raised from the dirt. 
He says that I threatened him for writing the 
book, which is a falsehood. I said to his brother 
once that he might as well not have published 
untruths. He was a man who had always fear 
before his eyes. What does he say about the 
poisoning affair and the shooting at Jaffa ?** I 
replied^ that as to the poisoning, Miot declared, 
he could say no more than that such had been 
the current report ; but that he positively as- 
serted that he (Napoleon) had caused between 


three and four thooBand Turks to be shot, some 
days after the capture of Jaffa. Napoleon an- 
sweredj ^ It is not true that there were so many. 
I ordered about a thousand or twelve hundred to 
be shot, which was done. The reason was, that 
amongst the garrison of Jaffa, a number of Turkish 
troops were discovered, whom I had taken a short 
time before at El-Arish, and sent to Bagdat upon 
their parole not to serve again, or to be found in 
arms against me for a year. I had caused them 
to be escorted twelve leagues on their way to 
Bagdaty by a division of my army. But those 
Turks, instead of proceeding to Bagdat, threw 
themselves into Jafla^ defended it to the last, and 
cost mq a number of brave men to take it, whose 
lives would have been spared, if the others had 
not reinforced the garrison of Jaffa. Moreover, 
before I attacked the town, I sent them a flag 
of truce. Immediately afterwards we saw the 
head of the bearer elevated on a pole over the 
wall. Now if I had spared them again, and sent 
them away upon their parole, they would directly 
have gone to St. Jean d*Acre, where they would 
have played over again the same scene that they 
have done at Jaffa. In justice to the lives of my 
soldiers^ as every general ought to consider him-* 
self as their father, and them as his children, I 
could not allow this. To leave as a guard a poiv 
Uon of my army^ already miall and reduced ia 

VOL. I. 2 u 


number^ in consequence of the breach of faith of 
those wretches ; was impossible. Indeed, to have 
acted otherwise than as I did, would probably 
have caused the destruction of my whole army. 
I therefore, availing myself of the rights of war, 
which authorize the putting to death prisoners 
taken under such circumstances; independent 6f 
the right given to me by having taken the city by 
assault, and that of retaliation on the Turks, or- 
dered that the prisoners taken at £1-Arish, who, 
in defiance of their capitulation, had been found 
bearing arms against me, should be selected out 
and shot. The rest, amounting to a considerable 
number, were spared. I would," continued he, " do 
the same thing again to-morrow, and so would 
Wellington, or any general commanding an army 
under similar circumstances.** 
V " Previous to leaving Jaffa,** continued Napo- 
leon, *' and after the greatest number of the sick 
and wounded had been embarked, it was reported 
to me that there were some men in the hospital so 
dangerously ill, as not to be able to be moved. I 
ordered immediately the chiefs of the medical staff 
to consult together upon what was best to be done, 
and to ^ve me their opinion on the subject. Ac- 
cordingly they met, and found that there were 
seven or eight men so dangerously ill, that they 
conceived it impossible for them to recover ; and 
also that they could not exist twenty-four or 


thirty-six hours longer ; that moreover^ being af« 
flieted with the plague^ they would spread that 
compliant amongst all those who approached 
them. Some of them, who were sensible, perceiv- 
ing that they were about to be abandoned, de- 
manded with earnest entreaties to be put to death, 
Larrey was of opinion that recovery was impos* 
sible, and that those poor fellows could not exist 
many hours; but as they might live long enough to 
be alive when the Turks entered, and experience 
the dreadful torments which they were accustomed 
to inflict upon their prisoners, he thought it would 
be an act of charity to comply with their desires, 
and accelerate their end by a few hours. Desge-> 
nettes did not approve of this, and replied, that 
his profession was to cure the sick, and not to des- 
patch them. Larrey came to me immediately after- 
wards, informed me of the circumstances, and of 
what Desgenettes had said ; adding, that perhaps 
Desgenettes was right. * But,* continued Larrey, 
' those men cannot live for more than a few hours, 
twenty-four, or thirty-six at most ; and if you will 
leave a rear-guard of cavalry, to stay and protect 
them from advanced parties, it will be sufficient.* 
Accordingly I ordered four or five hundred ca- 
valry to remain behind, and not to quit the place 
until all were dead. They did remain, and in* 
formed me that all had expired before they had 
left the town ; but I have heard since, that Sydney 


Smith found one or two alive, when be entered it;, 
This is the truth of the business. Wilson huB» 
self^ I dare say^ knows now that he was mistaken. 
Sydney Smith never asserted it. I have no doubt 
that this story of the poisoning originated in 
something said by Desgenettes, who was a ba^ 
vard, which was afterwards misconceived or in* 
correctly repeated. Desgenettes,*" continued he, 
^^ was a good man, and notwithstanding that he 
had given rise to this story, I was not offended, 
and had him near my person in different can^ 
paigns afterwards. Not that I think it would 
have been a crime, had opium been g^ven to 
them ; on the contrary, I think it would have 
been a virtue. To leave a few mis&ables, who 
could not recover, in order that they might be 
massacred by the Turks Mrith the most dreadful 
tortures, as was their custom, would, I think, have 
been cruelty. A general ought to act with his 
soldiers, as he would wish should be done to him- 
self. Now would not any man under similar ciiv 
cumstances, who had his senses, have preferred 
dying easily a few hours sooner, rather than ex- 
pire under the tortures of those barbarians ? You 
have been amongst the Turks, and know what 
they are ; I ask you now to place yourself in the 
situation of one of those sick men, and that you 
were asked which you would prefer, to be left to 
suffer the tortures of those miscreaQts, or to. bRve 


ot^iuiti administered to your** I replied^ '^most 
undoubtedly I should prefer the latter." "Cer- 
tainly^ so would any man,** answered Napoleon : 
^ if my own son, (and I believe I love my son as 
well as any father does his child,) were in a similar 
situation with those men, I would advise it to be 
done ; and if so situated myself, I would insist 
upon it, if I had sense enough, and strength enough 
to demand it. But, however, affairs were not so 
pressing as to prevent me from leaving a party to 
take care of them, which was done. If I had 
thought such a measure as that of giving opium 
necessary, I would have called a council of war, 
have stated the necessity of it, and have published 
it in the order of the day. It should have been 
no secret. Do you think that if I had been ca« 
pable of secretly poisoning my soldiers, (as do« 
ing a necessary action secretly would give it the 
appearance of a crime,) or of such barbarities as 
driving my carriage over the dead, and the still 
bleeding bodies of the wounded, that my troops 
would have fought for me with an enthusiasm and 
affection without a parallel ? No, no, I never 
should have done so a second time. Some would 
have shot me in passing. Even some of the 
wounded, who had sufficient strength left to pull 
a trigger, would have despatched me.** 

** I never,** continued Napoleon, " committed 
a crime in all my political career. At my last 


hour I can assert that. Had I done so^ I should 
not have been here now. I should have despatched 
the Bourbons. It only rested with me to give my 
consent, and they would have ceased to live." 

" I have been accused in like manner/* con* 
tinned the emperor, " of having committed such 
unnecessary crimes as causing Pichegru, Wright, 
and others to be assassinated. Instead of desiring 
the death of Wright, I was anxious to bring to 
light by his testimony, that Pitt had caused as- 
sassins to be lauded in France, purposely and 
knowingly to murder me. Wright killed himself, 
probably that he might not compromise his go- 
vernment. What motive could I have in assassi- 
nating Pichegru ? A man who was evidently 
guilty ; against whom every proof was ready. No 
evidence was wanting against him. His condem- 
nation was certain. Perhaps I should have par- 
doned him. If indeed Moreau had been put to 
death, then people might have said that I had 
caused his assassination, and with great apparent 
justice, for he was the only man I had much rea- 
son to fear ; and until then, he was judged inno- 
cent. He was ' blue^ like me ; Pichegru was 
' white, known to be in the pay of England, and 
his death certain.'* Here Napoleon described the 
way in which he had been found, and observed, 
that the very uncommon mode of his death was a 
proof that he had not been murdered. ''There 


never has been^** continued he, '' a man who has 
arrived to the pitch of power to which I have done, 
without having been sullied by crimes, except 
myself. An English lord, a relation of the Duke 
of Bedford, who dined with me at Elba, told me 
that it was generally believed in England that the 
Duke d'Enghien had not been tried, but assassi- 
nated in prison in the night ; and was surprised 
when I told him that he had had a regular trial, 
and that the sentence had been published before 

I now asked if it were true that Talleyrand had 
retained a letter written by the Duke d'Enghien to 
him until two days after the duke*s execution ? 
Napoleon*s reply was, '^ It is true ; the duke had 
written a letter, offering his services, and asking a 
command in the army from me, which that scele^ 
rato* Talleyrand, did not make known until two 
days after his execution/* I observed that Tal- 
leyrand, by his culpable concealment of the letter, 
was virtually guilty of the death of the duke. 
" Talleyrand,'* replied Napoleon, " is a briccone, 
capable of any crime. I,** continued he, " caused 
the Duke d*£nghien to be arrested in consequence 
of the Bourbons having landed assassins in 
France to murder me. I was resolved to let 
them see that the blood of one of their princes 
should pay for their attempts, and he was accord- 

* Miscreant. 

886 A- TDiex FROM m. kbiana; 

ingly tried for having borne arms against the re^ 
publici found guilty, and shot, according to the 
existing laws against such a crime. 

^ You will never,"* added Napoleon, '^ see the 
truth represented by your ministers, where France 
is concerned. Your great Lord Chatham said, 
speaking of your nation, ^ if we deal £Eurly or justly 
with France, England will not exist for four-atid- 
twenty hours/ " 

After this, I informed the emperor of the mes« 
sage which Sir Hudson Lowe had directed me to 
deliver. He replied, ^ I certainly was very much 
vexed at the refusal to allow Las Cases to come 
up, as it was an unnecessary cruelty, a vexatious 
foolery, particularly when he permitted the French 
generals to go down and converse with him as long 
as they liked ; and I may say without a witness 
having been present ; but I never intended to de- 
cline the accommodation, on the contrary. As 
to the observations upon his restrictions, in the 
last letter he wrote to Bertrand, he mentioned 
that he should wish to learn any observations we 
might have to oflfer on the subject of the restric- 
tions ; and, in consequence, those remarks were 
sent to let him know what we thought of his con- 
duct, he having pretended that nothing had been 
changed. But he never intended to avail himself 
of the intermediation of the admiral. What can 
be expected from a man who gives false orders ? 


A man who tells you that he has given directions 
to sentinels and guards which they deny ever hav- 
ing received; who says, that we have liberty to 
pass in certain directions ; and at the same time 
orders the sentinels to stop all suspicious per- 
sons. N0W9 in the name of God, who can be 
more suspicious to an English sentinel than a 
Frenchman, and above all, myself? to guard whom 
is his only business here ; and if he does his duty 
he will assuredly stop every Frenchman he sees." 
I could not help laughing heartily at the emperor s 
manner, in which he joined himself, and repeated. 
** Un noma incapace che non ha nessuna fede^ 
After which he desired me to endeavour to pro- 
cure him a catalogue of the books that were in the 
public library of James Town, and to bring him 
as many accounts relative to Egypt and the expe- 
ditions there, as I could procure. 

Saw Sir Hudson Lowe in town, to whom I 
repeated Napoleon's reply. When I came to that 
part of it which urged, that in his last letter to 
Bertrand he had stated, that he would be glad to 
learn any observations, he interrupted me with 
*' Ay, that I would be glad to enter into any fur- 
ther explanation. Yes, I recollect that,** but he 
did not seem to like to dwell on the subject, and 
observed, that it appeared General Bonaparte's 
answer was the same as before ; and desired me 

VOL. I. 2 X 


to be sure to tell him that Las Cases knew just 
as much of England as Pillet. 

24th. — Cipriani in town, employed as usual, 
endeavouring to procure some good articles of 

26th. — ^Napoleon went out of the house, (being 
the first time since the 20th of November last,) to 
pay a visit to Countess Bertrand, whom he com- 
plimented much upon her beautiful child. " Sire,* 
said the countess, " I have the honour to present 
to your majesty le premier Franpais who, since 
your arrival, has entered Longwood without Lord 
Bathurst's permission." 

27th. — ^Napoleon in his bath. Complained of 
headach and loss of sleep, which I imputed to his 
want of exercise ; and concluded by strongly re- 
commending him to practise it. He acknowledged 
the justice of my advice, but did not seem to think 
that he could follow it. 

Informed him that I had a book contcdning an 
account of a society named *^ Philadelphi,'* which 
had been formed against him, and expressed my 
surprise that he had never fallen by the hands 
of some conspirators. He replied, ^ No person 
knew five minutes before I put it into execution, 
that I intended to go out, or where I should go. 
For this reason the conspirators were baffled, as 
they were ignorant where to lay the scene of their 


enteiprize. Shortly after I was made consul^ there 
was a conspiracy formed a;gainst me by about fifty 
persons^ the greatest number of whom had once 
been very much attached to me^ and consisted of 
officers of the army^ men of science, planters, and 
sculptors. They were all stem republicans, their 
minds were heated ; each fancied himself a Brutus, 
and me a tyrant and another Caesar. Amongst 
them was Arena, a countryman of mine, a repub- 
lican, and a man who had been much attached to 
me before ; but thinking me a tyrant, he deter- 
mined to get rid of me, imagining that by doing 
so he should render a service to France. There 
was also one Ceracchi, another Corsican, and a 
&mous sculptor, who, when I was at Milan, had 
made a statue of me. He too had been greatly 
attached to me, but being a fanatical republi- 
can, determined to kill me, for which purpose he 
came to Paris, and begged to have the honour of 
making another statue for me, alleging, that the 
first was not sufficiently well executed for so 
great a man. Though I then knew nothing of 
the conspiracy which had been formed, I re- 
fused to give my consent, as I did not like the 
trouble of sitting for two or three hours in the 
same posture for some days, especially as I had 
sat before to him. This saved my life, his in- 
tention being to poniard me whilst I was sitting. 
In the mean time, they had arranged their plans. 


Amongst them there was a captain^ who had 
been a great admirer of me. This man agreed 
^th the rest that it was necessary to overtom the 
tyrant, bat he would not consent that I should 
be killed, although he strenuously joined in every 
thing else. All the others, however, differed with 
him in opinion, and insisted that it was absolutely 
necessary to despatch me, as the only means of 
preventing France from being enslaved. That 
while I lived there would be no chance of free- 
dom. This captain, finding that they were de- 
termined to shed my blood, notwithstanding all his 
arguments and entreaties, gave information of their 
names and plans. They were to assassinate me 
on the first night that I went to the theatre, in the 
passage as I was returning. Every thing was ar- 
ranged with the police — ^I went the same evening 
to the theatre, and actually passed through the 
conspirators j some of whom I knew by person, 
and who were armed with poniards under their 
cloaks in order to despatch me when I was going 
out. Shortly after my arrival the police seized them 
all. They were searched and the poniards found 
upon them. In France a person cannot be found 
guilty of a conspiracy to murder, unless the instru- 
ments of death are found upon him. They were 
afterwards tried, and some were executed.* 

I asked several questions about the infernal-ma- 
chine transaction. Napoleon replied in the fdUiow- 


ing maaner. ^ It was about Christmas time3 and 
great festivities were going on. I was much 
pressed to go to the opera. I had been greatly 
occupied with business all the day, and in the 
^Teniog found naiyself sleepy and tired. I threw 
myself on a sofa in my wife^s saloon and fell asleepu 
Josephine came dowp some time after^ awoke me^ 
and insisted that I should go to the theatre* She 
was an excellent woman, and wished me to do 
every thing to ingratiate myself with the people. 
You know that when women take a thing into 
their heads, they will go through with it, and you 
must gratify them. Well, I got up, much against 
my inclination^ and went in my carriage, accom- 
panied by Lasnes and Bessii^res. I was so drowsy 
that I fell asleep in the coach. I was a^eep when 
the explosion took place, and I recollect, when I 
awoke, experiencing a sensation as if the vehicle 
had been raised up, and was passing through a 
great body of water. The contrivers of this were a 
man named St. Regent, Iinolan, a, religious man^ 
who has sinee gone to America and turned priest, 
and some others. They procured a cart and a bar- 
rel resembling that with which water is supplied 
through the streets of Paris, with this exception^ 
that the barrel was put eross-ways. This he 
filled with gunpowder^ and placed it and himself 
nearly in the turning of the street through which 
I was to pass. What saved me was, that ray 


wife^s carriage was the same in appearance as 
mine, and there was a guard of fifteen men to 
each. Imolan did not know which I was ii^ 
and indeed was not certain that I should be in 
either of them. In order to ascertain this, he 
stepped forward to look into the carriage, and as- 
sure himself of my presence. One of my guards, 
a great tall strong fellow, impatient and angry at 
seeing a man stopping up the way and staring into 
the carriage, rode up, and gave him a kfck with 
his great boot, crying, 'get out of the way, pekin^ 
which knocked him down. Before he could get 
up, the carriage had passed a little on. Imolan 
being confused I suppose by his fall, and by his 
intentions, not perceiving that the carriage had 
passed, ran to the cart and exploded his machine 
between the two carriages. It killed the horse of 
one of my guards and wounded the rider, knocked 
down several houses^ and killed and wounded 
about forty or fifty hadauds^ who were gazing to 
see n>e pass. The police collected together all 
the remnants of the cart and the machine, and in- 
vited all the workmen in Paris to come and look 
at them. The pieces were recognised by several. 
One said, I made this, another that, and all agreed 
that they had sold them to two men, who by their 
accent were Bas Bretons ; but nothing more 
could be ascertained. Shortly after, the hackney 
coachmen and others of that description gave a 


great dinner in the Champs Elys^s to Cesar, my 
coachman, thinking that he had saved my life by 
his skill and activity at the moment of the explo- 
sion, which was not the case, for he was drunk at 
the time. It was the guardsman who saved it by 
knocking the fellow down. Possibly, my coach- 
man may have assisted by driving furiously round 
the comer, as he was drunk and not afraid of any 
thing. He was so far gone, that he thought the 
report of the explosion was that of a salute fired 
in honour of my visit to the theatre. At this din- 
ner they all took their bottle freely, and dmnk to 
Cesar's health. One of them, when he was drunk, 
said, ' Cesar, I know the men who tried to blow 
the first consul up the other day. In such a street 
and such a house (naming them), I saw on that 
day a cart like a water-cart coming out of a pas- 
sage, which attracted my attention, as I had never 
seen one there before. I observed the men and 
the horse, and should know them again.* The 
minister of police was sent for, he was interro- 
gated, and brought them to the house which he 
had mentioned, where they found the measure 
with which the conspirators had put the powder 
into the barrel, with some of the powder still ad- 
hering to it. A little also was found scattered 
about. The master of the house, on being ques- 
tioned, said that there had been people there for 
some time, whom he took to be smugglers; that 


on the day in question they had gone out with tbe 
cart, which he supposed to contain « a loading of 
smuggled goods. He added, that they were Bos 
BrStonSf and that one of them had the appearance 
of behig master over the other two. Having now 
a description of their persons, every search was 
made for them, and St. Regent and Carbon were 
taken, tried, and executed. It was a singular cir- 
cumstance, that an inspector of police had noticed 
the cart standing at the comer of the street for a 
long time, and had ordered the person who was 
with it to drive it away; but he made some excuse^ 
and said that there was plenty of room, and the 
other seeing what he thought to be a water-cart, 
with a miserable horse, not worth twenty francs, 
did not suspect any mischief.'* 

"At Schoenbrunn,** continued the emperor, "I 
had a narrow escape. Shortly after the capture 
of Vienna, I reviewed my troops at Schoenbrunn. 
A young man about eighteen years of age pre* 
sented himself to me. He came so close at one 
time as to touch me, and said that he wanted 
to speak to me. Berthier, who did not like to see 
me disturbed then, pushed him to one side, say* 
ing, ' if you want to say any thing to the emperor, 
you cannot do it now.* He then called Rapp, 
who was a German, and said, here is a young 
man who wishes to speak to the emperor, see what 
he wants and do not let him annoy the emperor;* 


a^er which he called the yoang man^ and told him 
thatilapp spoke German, and would answer hira. 
Rapp went up to him, and asked him what he 
wuflted ? He replied, that he had a memorial to 
give to the emperor. Rapp told him that I was 
busy, and that be could not speak to me then. He 
had his hand in his breast all this time, as if he 
had some paper la it to give to me. Finding that 
notwithstanding his refusal, he insisted upon seeing 
me, and was pushing on, Rapp, who is a violent 
man, gave him a blow of his fist, and knocked 
him down, or shoved him away to some distance. 
He came again afterwards, when the troops were 
passing. Rapp, who watched him, ordered some 
of the guards to seize and keep him in custody 
until after the review, and then bring him to his 
quarters, that he might learn what he com- 
plained of. The guards observing that he always 
kept his right hand in his breast, made him draw 
it out, and examined him. Under his Coat they 
found a knife as long as my arm. When asked 
what he intended to do with it, he replied instant- 
ly, * to kill the emperor.' Some short time after- 
wards he was brought before me. I asked him 
what he wanted ? He replied, ' to kill yoii.* I 
asked him what I had done to him to make him 
desu'e to take away my life ? He answered, that I 
had done a great deal of mischief to his country i 
that I had desolated and ruined it by the war 
VOL. I. 2 y 


which I had waged agsdnst it. I inquired of him 
why he did not kill the Emperor of Austria instead 
of me^ as he was the cause of the war and not I ? 
He replied^ ' Oh, he is a blockhead, and if he were 
killed, another like him would be put upon the 
throne ; but if you were dead, it would not be 
easy to find such another.* He said that he had 
been called upon by God to kill me, and quoted 
Judith and Holofemes. Spoke much about re- 
ligion, and fancied that he was another Judith and 
I a Holofemes. He cited several parts of the 
Testament, which he thought appropriate to his 
projects. He was the son of a Protestant clergy- 
man at Erfurth. He had not made his father 
privy to his design, and had left his house with- 
out money. I believe that he had sold his watch 
to purchase the knife with which he intended to 
kill me. He said that he trusted in God to find 
him the means to effect it. I called Corvisart, 
ordered him to feel his pulse, and see if he were 
mad. He did so, and every thing was calm. I 
desired him to be taken away and locked up in a 
room with a gendarme^ to have no sort of food 
for twenty-four hours, but as much cold water as 
he liked. I wished to give him time to cool and 
reflect, and then to examine him when his stomach 
was empty, and at a time when he might not be 
supposed to be under the influence of any thing 
that vould heat or exalt his imagination. After 


the twenty-four hours were expired, I sent for him 
and asked, ' if I were to pardon you, would you 
make another attempt upon my life?* He hesi- 
tated for a long time, and at last, but with great 
difficulty, said that he would not, as then it would 
not appear to be the intention of God that he 
should kill me, otherwise he would have allowed 
him to have done it at first. I ordered him to be 
taken away. It was my intention at first to have 
pardoned him ; but it was represented to me, that 
his hesitation after twenty-four hours fasting, was 
a certain sign that his intentions were bad, and that 
he still intended to assassinate ; that he was an 
enthusiast, a fanatic, and that it would set a very 
bad example. Nothing,** continued he, *^ is more 
dangerous than one of those religious enthusiasts. 
They always aim either at God or the King. He 
was left to his fate.** 

" Another time,** proceeded the emperor, *' a 
letter was sent to me by the King of Saxony, con- 
taining information that a certain person was to 
leave Stutgard on a particular day for Paris,, 
where he would probably arrive on a day that was 
pointed out. That his intentions were to murder 
me. A minute description of his person was also 
given. The police took its measures ; and on the 
day pointed out he arrived. They had him 
watched. He was seen to enter my chapel, to 
which I had gone on the celebration of some fes- 


tival. He was arrested and exammed. He oon« 
fessed his intentions, and said, that when the peo- 
ple knelt down, on the elevation of the host, he 
saw me gazing at the fine women ; at first he in- 
tended to advance and .fire at me (in fact he had 
advanced near to me at the moment); but upon a 
little reflection, thought that would not be sure 
enough, and he determined to stab me with a 
knife which he had brought for that purpose. I* 
did not like to have him executed, and ordered 
that he should be kept in prison. When I was no 
longer at the head of affairs, this man, who had 
been detained in prison for seven months after I 
left Paris, and ill-treated, I believe, got his liberty., 
Soon after, he said that his designs were no longer 
to kill me ; but that he would murder the King 
of Prussia for having ill-treated the Saxons and 
Saxony. On my return from Elba I was to be 
present at the opening of the legislative body, 
which was to be done with great state and cere^ 
mony. When I went to open the chamber, this 
jsame man, who had got in, fell down by some ai> 
cident, and a parcel, containing some chemical 
preparation, exploded in his pocket, and wouncled 
him severely. It never has been clearly ascer- 
tained what his intentions were at this time. Jt 
caused great alarm amongst the legislative hudf, 
and he was arrested. I have «ince heard tbfttilO 
tlirew himself into the Seine.** 

A./¥(HaB IFROM 8T; HBLBltA.- 349 

I tlten wked Napoleon if he bad really intended 
to invade Englsmd, and if so, what were his plans ? 
He replied, '^ I would have headed it myself. I 
had given orders for two fleets to proceed to the 
West Indies. Instead of remaining there, they 
were merely to shew themselves amongst the 
islands, and return directly to Europe, raise the 
blockade of Ferrol, take the ships out, proceed to 
Brest, where there were about forty sail of the 
line, unite and sail to the channel, where they 
would not have met with any thing strong enough 
to engage them, and clear it of all English men- 
of-war. By false intelligence, adroitly managed, 
I calculated that you would have sent squadrons 
to the East and West Indies and Mediterranean 
in search of my fleets. Before they could return, 
I would have had the command of the channel for 
two months, as I should have had about seventy 
sail of the line, besides frigates. I would have 
hastened over my flotilla with two hundred thou- 
sand men, landed as near Chatham as possible, 
and proceeded direct to London, where I calcu- 
lated to arrive in four days from the time of my 
landing. I would have proclaimed a republic, (I 
was first consul then) the abolition of the nobility 
and house of peers, the distribution of the pro- 
perty of such of the latter as opposed me amongst 
my partizans, liberty, equality, and the sove- 
v^igDty of the people* I would have allowed the 


House of Commons to remain; but would have 
introduced a great reform. I would have pub^ 
lished a proclamation, declaring that we came as 
friends to the English, and to free the nation from 
a corrupt and flagitious aristocracy^ and restore 
a popular form of government, a democracy ; all 
which would have been confirmed by the conduct 
of my army, as I would not have allowed the 
slightest outrage to be committed by my troops. 
Marauding or ill-treating the inhabitants, or the 
most trifling infringement of my orders, I would 
have punished with instant death. I think,** con- 
tinued he, " that with my promises, together with 
what I would actually have effected, I should have 
had the support of a great many. In a large city 
like London, where there are so many canaille and 
so many disaffected, I should have been joined by 
a formidable body. I would at the same time have 
excited an insurrection in Ireland.** I observed 
that his army would have been destroyed piece- 
meal, that he would have had a million of men in 
arms against him in a short time ; and moreover, 
that the English would have burnt London, rather 
than have suffered it to fall into his hands. ** No, 
no,** S2ud Napoleon, "I do not believe it. You 
are too rich and too fond of money. A nation 
will not so readily bum its capital. How often 
have the Parisians sworn to bury themselves un- 
der the ruins of their capital, rather than suffer it 


to fall into the hands of the enemies of France^ 
and yet twice it has been taken. There is no 
knowing what would have happened, Mr. Doctor. 
Neither Pitt, nor you, nor I, could have foretold 
what would have been the result. The hope of a 
change for the better, and of a division of property, 
would have operated wonderfully amongst the 
canaille^ especially that of Liondon. The canaille 
of all rich nations are nearly alike. I would have 
made such promises as would have had a great 
effect. What resistance could an undisciplined 
army make against mine in a country like Eng- 
land, abounding in plains ? I considered all you 
have said; but I calculated on the effect that 
would be produced by the possession of a great 
and rich capital, the bank and all your riches, 
the ships in the river and at Chatham. I ex- 
pected that I should have had the command of the 
Channel for two months, by which I should have 
had supplies of troops ; and when your fleet came 
back, they would have found their capital in the 
hands of an enemy, and their country overwhelmed 
by my armies. I would have abolished flogging, 
and promised your seamen every thing ; which 
would have made a great impression upon their 
minds. The proclamations stating that we came 
only as friends, to relieve the English from an ob- 
noxious and despotic aristocracy, whose object was 
to keep the nation eternally at war, in order to en- 

352 A VOICE FBOM ST, ||B|4E^A. 

rich themselves and their families with the blood of 
the people, together with the proclaiming a repub 
lie, the abolition of the monarchical govemmenti 
and the nobility ; the declaration of the forfdture 
of the property of such of the latter as should le- 
sist, and its division amongst the partizans of the 
revolution, with a general equalization of property^ 
would have gained me the support of the canaille^ 
and of all the idle, the profligate, and the disa^ 
fected in the kingdom.** 

I took the liberty of stating, that on £|ccount of 
France having been lately revolutionized, there 
was a great division of opinion amongst the French, 
and consequently not so strong a national spirit^ 
as was to be found amongst the English. That 
from the late frequent vicissitudes in France, the 
people contemplated a change of government with 
less concern than the English would do ; that if 
the English "were not to bum the capital^ as the 
Russians had done, in all probability they would 
have defended it street by street, and his army 
would have met the fate that our*s had experi- 
enced at Rosetta and Buenos Ay res. '^ I be- 
lieve," repUed the emperor, "that there is more 
national spirit in England than in France ; but 
still, I do not think that you would have burned 
the capital. If, indeed, you had had some weeks* 
notice given to you, to enable you to remove your 
riches, then it is possible that it .might have been 
effected ; but you must consider that you would 


not have had time sufficient to organize a plan ; 
besides^ Moscow was built of wood, and it was 
not the inhabitants who set it on fire. They had 
also time to take their measures. As to defend- 
ing the town, in the first place I would not have 
been bite enough to have acted as you did at Ro- 
setta ; for, before you would have had time to 
arrange your defence, I should have been at your 
doors, and the terror of such an army would 
have paralyzed your exertions. I tell you, signor 
dottore^ continued the emperor, " that much can 
be said on both sides. Having the capital, the 
capital," repeated he, " in my hands, would have 
produced a wonderful effect.'* 

*' After the treaty of Amiens," said Napoleon, 
^ I would also have made a good peace with 
England. Whatever your ministers may say, I 
was always ready to conclude a peace upon terms 
equally advantageous to both. I proposed to 
form a commercial treaty, by which, for a million 
of English manufactured or colonial produce taken 
by France, England should take the value of a 
million of French goods in return. This was 
thought a heinous crime by your ministers, who 
reprobated in the most violent manner my pre- 
sumption in having made such a proposal. I 
would both have made and have kept a fair peace ; 
but your ministers always refused to make one on 
equal terms, and then wished to persuade the 

YOU I. * 2 z 


world that I was the violator of the treaty of 

I asked who were the persons that had em- 
ployed the contrivers of the infernal machine. ^ It 
is certain,** replied Napoleon, *^ that they were em^ 
ployed by the Count d* * * * *, and sent over by 
Pitt in English ships, and famished with Eng- 
lish money. Although your * * * did not actually 
suborn them, they knew what they were going to 
execute, and furnished them with the means. I 
do not believe,** continued he, ^*that Liouis was 
privy to it.** 

I ventured to ask if he had aimed at universal 
dominion. ^* No,** replied Napoleon ; " my inten- 
tion was to make France greater than any other 
nation ; but universal dominion I did not aim at. 
For example, it was not my intention to have 
passed the Alps. I purposed, when I had a se- 
cond son, which I had reason to hope for, to have 
made him king of Italy, with Rome for his capital^ 
uniting all Italy, Naples, and Sicily into one king* 
dom^ and putting Murat out of Naples.** I asked 
if he would have given another kingdom to Murat. 
** Oh,** replied he, " that would have been easily 

" If,** said he, " I were at the head of affairs in 
England, I would devise some means of paying 
off the national debt. I would appropriate to that 
purpose the whole of the church livings, except^ a 

J. » 1 » ■ * 


tenth, (always excepting tihtose whose incomes 
were moderate) in a manner that the salary of the 
highest amongst the clergy should not exceed 
eight hundred or a thousand a year. What bu- 
siness have those priests with such enormous 
incomeis? They should follow the directions of 
Jesus Christ) who ordered that, as pastors to the 
people, they should set an example of moderation,: 
humanity, virtue, and poverty, instead of wallow- 
ing in riches, luxury, and sloth. In Cambn^y, be-^ 
fpre the revolution, two thirds of all lands beloag- 
ed to the church, and a fourth inmost other pro- 
vinces of France. I would appropriate to a simi-^ 
lar purpose all sinecures, except those enjoyed by 
men who had rendered most eminent services to 
the state ; and, indeed, even those might be re- 
warded by giving them some office, in which they 
would be obliged to do something. If you eman- 
cipated the Catholics, they would readily pay an 
immense sum towards liquidating the nation^s 
debt. I cannot conceive,'* continued he, "why 
your ministers have not emancipated them. At 
the time that all nations are emerging from illibe- 
rality and intolerance, you retain your disgraceful 
laws which are only worthy of two or three cen- 
turies ba^ck. When the Catholic question was 
first seriously agitated, I would have given^ fifty 
millions to be assured that it would not be grant* 
ed ; for it would have entirely ruined my projects 


upon Ireland ; as the CathoKcs^ if you eIltancq)a^ 
ed them^ would become as loyal subjects as the 
Protestants. I would/* continued he, "impose a 
tax of fifty per cent, upon absentees, and perhaps 
diminish the interest upon the debt.** 

I made some observations u^pon the intolerance 
which had been mamfested on some occasions by 
the Catholics. 

^ The inability to rise above a certain rank, and 
to be members of parliament, and other persecu- 
tions, once removed from your Catholic brethren.** 
replied he, '^ you will find that they will be no 
longer intolerant or fanatical. Fanaticism is al* 
ways the child of persecution. That intolerance 
which you complain of, is also the result of your 
oppressive laws. Remove them once, and put 
them on a similar footing with the Protestants, 
and in a few years you will find the spirit of into^ 
krance disappear. Do as I did in France with 
the Protestants." 

^*I observed,** continued the emperor, "a cir- 
cumstance in a paper two or three days ago^ 
which I cannot believe, viz. that there was a pro- 
ject in France to make a contract with some 
English company to furnish iron pipes to supply 
Paris with water, which had met with the appro- 
bation of the French government. This, imheciUe& 
as I know the Bourbons to be, appears to me not 
to be credible, as there are so many thoasand 

▲ Y01CB FROM 6T. HELENA. 357 

Riannfoctupers in France who could execute it 
equally weH. A project so unpopular^ and of so 
destructive a tendency to Hiemselves, could be 
entertained by none but insane persons. Why, it 
would excite the rage and hatrcd of the nation 
against the Bourbons more than any plan their 
greatest enemies could suggest, to cause their 
own rain, and their expulsion a lliird time from 
France. If it takes place and be not f<^lowed by 
some tenibie consequences to them,** said Napo- 
leon with energy, "I am a blockhead, and wiH 
fiay th£^ I have always been one. Fiftj^ years 
1^0, it would have produced terrible commotion 
in France.'* 

-QStfu — Oipriani in town purchasing necessaries. 

30tk. — Saw Napoleon in the bilKard room. 
After some expressions of his sentiments tipon the 
hypocrisy of the governor, he directed me to bear 
the following message to him : ^ Tell him that in 
consequence of his conduct in having accepted 
the proposed intermediation of the admiral, de- 
claring that he would ehai^e the admiral with it, 
and afterwards doing nothing, I conceive him to 
be a man senza parola € senzafede.* That he has 
broken his word with me, broken a compact which 
is held sacred by robbers and Bedouin Arabs^ 
bot not by the agents of the British ministers. 
Tell him that when a man has lost his word^ he 

* Without word AXid vithoui bMh* 


has lost every thing which distinguishes the man 
' from the brute. Tell him that he has forfeited 
that distiaction^ and tliat I hold lum to be kife* 
rior to the robber of the desert. Independeoit/* 
continued he, ^^ of his conduct with respect to 
the admiral, he has broken his word about the 
Umits. He charged you to inform ine that we 
were permitted to ride any where through the old 
bounds, and specifically named the path by Mis& 
Mason*s. Now Gourgaud went a few days .ago 
and asked the question from tlie tuajior at Hut*s 
Gate, who told him that he could not pass^ ^id 
that no change had been made in the orders by the 

I now informed the emperor, ^ that since the 
time 1^ alluded to^ i^r Hudson Lowe had given 
directions to allow him^ (Napoleon,) and any of 
bis suite, to pass by the road leading to Miss Ma- 
son s> but that thqy could not pass, unless accom-.- 
panied by him.'* Napoleon replied^ ^ then it is an 
unjtust order, and beyond his power to give. For 
by the paper which those generals have signed^ 
by order of his government, they bind themselves 
to undergo siich restrictions as it may be thought 
necessary to impose upon me^ and not any more. 
Now this is a restriction not imposed upon me^ 
and consequently cannot be inflicted upon thei% 
and is illegal.** 

Napoleon directed me to say in addition^ that 


he had foreseen all along, that the governor's hav' 
mg accepted of the offer for an intermediation by 
means of the admiral, was a mere trick to gain 
time, and to prevent a complaint from being sent 
home by the Orontes frigate. That in consequence 
of the oflfer having been accepted by Sir Hudson 
liowe, Count Bertrand had discontinued writing 
a complaint, intended to have been submitted to 
the Prince Regent and the government. That al- 
though it might have failed in producing any re- 
dress, still it would be satisfactory to know that 
the present ill treatment suffered by him, was the 
act and order of the government, and not that of 
an inferior officer. 

Went to town to deliver this message. On my 
arrival found that Sir Hudson Lowe had left it. 
Conceiving that Napoleon might alter his mind, 
and finding that the Julia had arrived, bringing 
news from England, I did not proceed to Planta- 
tion House. Got some newspapers and returned 
to Longwood. Found Napoleon in a warm bath. 
His legs were swelled. On my recommending 
exercise, he said that he had some idea of asking 
the admiral to ride out with him, but was afraid 
that it might get him into a scrape with the go- 

In one of the papers, there was a report that 
the sovei^eignty of Spanish South America had 
been offered to his brother Joseph. '^Joseph,** 


S£dd he^ ^^ although he has heaucoup de talent^ ei 
JT esprit^ is too good a man^ and too fond of amuse- 
ments and literature, to be a king. However, it 
would be of great advantage to England, as yoa 
would have all the commerce of Spanish America* 
Joseph would not, and indeed could not trade 
with either France or Spain, for evident reasons ; 
and South America cannot do without importing 
immense quantities of European goods. By hav- 
ing me in your hands, you could always make 
advantageous terms with Joseph, who loves me 
sincerely, and would do any thing for me.** 

31^/. — ^Went to Plantation House, and made 
known to Sir Hudson Liowe the message I was 
charged with, in as moderate language as circum* 
stances would admit. His excellency replied^ 
that he did not care what complaints General Bo 
naparte sent to England, and that he had already 
forwarded his observations upon the restrictions 
That he had no objection to receive the admiral 
upon the business, but he expected that he should 
come to him first and break the matter. I re 
marked, that Sir Pulteney Malcolm would cer 
tainly not undertake the business, unless first 
spoken to and authorized by him, (Sir Hudson,) 
and reminded him, that in the first proposition 
which had been made for the intervention of the 
admiral, it was expressly mentioned that the latter 
should be authorized by the governor to undertake 


it. Sir Hudson Lowe denied this. I demanded 
that a reference should be made to my letter on 
the subject. On its being produced^ Sir Hudson 
Lowe acknowledged with some expression of dis- 
content that I was right. I then reminded him 
that he had also said^ on the proposition's having 
been made to him, that he would speak to the 
admiml himself about it, previous to his attempt- 
ing to undertake it. The governor at first denied 
this, and after a long discussion, determined upon 
giving the following reply : '* The governor is 
employed in writing an answer to the observa- 
tions of Count Bertrand, and to the paper con- 
taining the remarks on his answer to the proposi- 
tion for the intervention of the admiral ; and also 
in arranging how far his instructions will permit 
him to accede to General Bonaparte's wishes. 
When these are finished, he will send them to. 
Count Bertrand^ and then, if any other arrange- 
ment is deemed necessary, the governor will have 
no objection to authorize the admii'al, or any other 
person Greneral Bonaparte may think proper, to 
act as an intermediator, although the intermedia- 
tion of any person will have no influence whatso- 
ever in inducing the governor to grant more or less 
than he would do of his own free will and judg- 
ment. ThiSj with the alterations already made 
in the restrictions, and the general tenor of the 
observations and remarks received from Ixmg- 

TOL. I. 3 ▲ 


wood* since the governor expressed his rea^ness 
to employ an intermediator, and the expectation 
of an arrival irom England, has been the cause of 
the delay in authorizing the admiral to undertake 
the office.** 

Sir Hudson desired me to shew this to Napo* 
leon, and at the same time gave me a copy of his 
own answer to the original proposition, and one of 
the remarks that had been made upon it by Na- 
poleon, which, together with the tenor of the ob- 
servations, he desired me to explain, "were of a 
nature to induce a belief that a refusal had been 
intended by General Bonaparte.** 

I then repeated to Sir Hudson Liowe the ob« 
servations made by Napoleon, on the illegality of 
his attempting to subject the persons of his suite 
to more restrictions than what were imposed upon 
himself ; as well as what he had said about <jen. 
Gourgaud. Sir Hudson replied, ^ that as gover- 
nor he had power to grant a favour, and take it 
away when he pleased; that if he conceded one 
to General Bonaparte, it did not follow that he 
was obliged to grant the same to the rest ; that 
they had liberty to go away whenever they pleased^ 
if they did not like their treatment^ &c.** He also 
desired me to repeat, that the prohibition to speak 
was an act of civility, or a friendly sort of warn- 
ing. I remarked, that I did not think Napdeon 
would avail faitnseU of the indulgence, tinl^ tfeJCf 

. t 



flame were granted to all. His excellency replied, 
^ that he could not think of allowing General Bo- 
naparte's officers to run about the country, telling 
lies of him (Sir Hudson) as Las Cases and Mon- 
tholon had done^ by having shewn letters to divers 
persons. That General Bonaparte would be much 
better, if he had not such liars as Montholon, and 
stich a blubbering, whining son of a b— h as Ber- 
toand about him.** 

^wlrsaid, that Napoleon had also remarked, that 
itfWas impossible that all the restrictions could 
buve been imposed in obedience to specific in- 
structions from the ministers, as he had of his 
own power taken some of them off, which, had 
they been ordered by ministers, he could not have 
done without having first obtained their sanction^ 
for which there had not been yet sufficient time. 
His excellency appeared to be taken unawares, as 
he inkmediately replied, " They were not ordered 
by ministers ; there were no minute details given^ 
either to me, or to Sir George Cockburn. In facl^ 
it is left entirely to my judgment, and I may take 
what measures I think proper, and, indeed, do as 
I like. I have been ordered to take particular 
care that he does not escape, and to prevent cor- 
respondence of any kind with him^ except through 
me. The rest is left to myself.** 

Admiral and Lady Malcolm, with Captain 
Itfeynel^ had an interview at Longwood. .it u .^ 


letter to Captain Poppleton^ directed to Sir Tho* 
mas Reade. As Captain Poppleton had orders 
to forward all sealed letters to the governor, he 
sent it to Plantation House, where it was opened 
by Sir Hudson Lowe, and found to contain an 
open letter addressed to Bertrand*s father, an* 
Bouncing the accouchement of Countess Bertrand, 
and a note to Sir Thomas, requesting that it might 
be forwarded to Europe through the usual chan- 
nels. In the letter were the words, nous dcrivons 
d M. de la Touche, &c., to give further information, 
&c. Sir Hudson Lowe conceived that this meant 
that they had turitten, and immediately wrote a 
letter of reprimand to Count Bertrand, which was 
despatched in haste by an orderly dragoon. 

Saw Sir Hudson Lowe on the hill above Hut*s 
Gate, to whom I communicated Napoleon*s reply. 
His excellency repeated, that the prohibition to 
speak, which had been so much complained of, 
was not an order, but rather a request, and an in- 
stance of civility on his (Sir Hudson's) part, in 
order to prevent the necessity which would other* 
wise exist, of the interference of a British officer. 
** Did you tell him that ?** said Sir Hudson Lowe. 
I answered that I had. ^^Well, what reply did 
he make ?** I gave his reply, which did not ap- 
pear to please the governor. I subsequently ac- 
quainted him that water was so scarce at Long- 
wood^ as to make it sometimes impossible to pro* 


tion of doing what has not yet been executed. He 
might be excused for not having known the deli-* 
cacies of a language not his own, if he did not pre^ 
tend to offer remarks upon them. In his situation^ 
he ought to be like a confessor, forget the contents 
of letters after haying perused them" 

^ What else but la rage to write and to find 
fault, could have produced such an epistle to Ber<- 
trand.* I am told that there is a cook here who 
had formerly served him, who relates, that he was 
in the habit of going into the kitchen of Plantation 
House, and telling the cook, ^ you shall cut off so 
much of this meat and stew it, so much more and 
roast it,' and in a similar manner with every other 
dish ; and that he was quite at home when he got 
into the kitchen. Montholon tells me, that a short 
time ago, when debating about the expenses of the 
house, he observed that we soiled too many shirts, 
and that we must not in future shift ourselves so 

3rd. — Had some conversation with Napoleon 
relative to the governor's attempt to explain away 
the prohibition to speak. '' I would,** said he, 

* Count and Countess Bertrand informed me afterwards^ that Sir 
Thomas Reade had offered his services to the countess for the purpose 
of forwarding their letters to their friends in Europe through the 
channel of Lord Bathurstj and had assured them^ that sending them 
to him was precisely the same aa if they were transmitted dirwt to 



^ give two millions that those restrictions were 
signed by the English ministry, in order to shew 
to Europe, what base, tyrannical, and dishonour- 
able acts they were capable of, and the manner in 
which they had fulfilled the promises they had 
made of ti*eating me well. According to law, this 
governor has no right to impose any restrictions 
upon me. The bill, illegal and iniquitous as it is^ 
says that I shall be subject to such restrictions as 
the ministers think fit and necessary, but it does 
not say that they shall have the power to delegate 
that authority to any other person. Therefore, 
every restriction laid upon me, ought not only to 
be signed by a minister, but, properly speaking, by 
all the ministers assembled.** 

** It is possible," continued Napoleon, " that part 
of his bad treatment arises from his imbecility and 
his fear, for he is a man who has no morale. Un 
poco di scaltrezza e molto imbecillita* It is an 
injury to his nation, and an indignity and insult 
to the emperor of Austria, to the emperor of Rus- 
sia, and to all those sovereigns whom I have con- 
quered and treated with." 

'* I told MiUdi^ continued the emperor, " that 
I had paid your nation a great compliment, and 
shewed what a high sense I entertained of the 
English honour, by giving myself up to them, 
after so many years* war, in preference to my 

* A little oQimiflig and modi Imbedlitf. 


fether-in-law^ or to my old friend. I told her also 
that the English would have been my greatest 
friends, had I remained in France. United, we 
could have conquered the world. Tlie confidence 
which I placed in the English shews what an opi- 
nion I entertained of them, and what steps I would 
have taken to have rendered such a nation my 
friends: and I should have succeeded. There 
is nothing that I would not have sacrificed to 
have been in friendship with them. They were 
the only nation I esteemed. As to the Russians, 
Austrians, and others,** said he, with an expres- 
sion of contempt^ ^^ I had no esteem for them. 
Now I am sorry to see that I erred in opinion. 
For had I given myself up tb the Emperor of 
Austria, he, however he might differ with me in 
politics, and think it necessary to dethrone me, 
would have embraced me closely as a friend, and 
have treated me with every kindness. So also 
would my old friend, the Emperor of Russia. 
This I told Milddi ; also that the treatment of the 
Calabrese to Murat was humanity compared to 
it, as the Calabrese soon finished Murat's misery, 
but here, ils me tuent h coup d'^pmgles. I think 
that your own nation will feel very little obliged 
to this governor for having conferred upon it a 
dishonour, which will be recorded in history. 
For you are proud ; and have the honour of your 
nation more at heart than even your money. Wit- 
VOL. I. 3 b 


ness the thousands that your Milords throw away 
annually in France and in other parts of the con^ 
tinent, to raise and exalt the English name. Many 
of your nobility and others would voluntarily 
have subscribed thousands, to have prevented the 
stigma which this imbecille has brought upon your 

Ath. — ^The scarcity of water at Longwood has 
daily increased, and the greatest part of what haa 
been brought up, sour, turbid, and of a very dis- 
agreeable taste, in consequence of having been 
conveyed in old wine and rum casks, which ne^ 
cessarily communicate a sour and unpleasant taste 
to the water. 

6th. — ^A complaint made officially by Captain 
Poppleton to Colonel Wynyard of the state of the 
water. Cipriani in town employed as usual. 

&th. — Lady Lowe paid a visit to Countess 

Sir Hudson Lowe had a long conversation with 
me relative to Napoleon; the purport of which 
was, that if he put the limits on their old footing. 
Napoleon should not make a practice of visiting 
the houses that were situated in them, and at the 
same time that he (Napoleon) should not know 
that any restriction existed to prevent him. In- 
formed him of some of the sentiments which had 
been expressed yesterday by Napoleon. His ex- 
cellency said, that there was a great diflference 


between limits for exercise and limits for corre- 
spondence and communication ; that if he gave 
lai^er limits, they must be subject to the restric- 
tion of not entering a house^ unless accompanied 
by a British officer. I observed that there were 
only four houses within the limits of Woody 
Range. Sir Hudson said, that perhaps it might 
be settled by his giving General Bonaparte a list 
of such houses as he would permit him to enter. 
I informed him that Napoleon had said that 
if be had a mind to intrigue with the commis- 
sioners, or with others, he might easily do so by 
instructing them to meet him within the limits of 
the alarm-house, which was always in his power 
to effect ; but that he (Napoleon) would never do 
any thing which had the appearance of an intrigue. 
Sir Hudson replied, that " General Bonaparte had 
never been without intriguing, and never would.** 
He then desired me to say, that he daily expected 
a ship with fresh orders, and permission to grant 
an extension of limits. That he should have no 
objection to allow general Bonaparte to enter 
into certain houses which he (Sir H.) would point 
out, nor indeed to send a list of them to Count 

7th. — Communicated Sir Hudson Lowe's ideas 
to Napoleon. " If he were to give me the whole 
of the island, on condition that I would pledge 
my word not to attempt an escape," replied he, 


*' I would not accept of it, because it would be 
equivalent to the acknowledging myself a prisoner, 
although at the same time, I would not make the 
attempt. I am here by force and not by right. If 
I had been taken at Waterioo, pertiaps I might 
have had no hesitation in accepting it, although 
even in that case, it would be contrary to the law 
of nations, as now there is no war. If they were 
to oflFer me permission to reside in England on si- 
milar conditions^ I would refuse it. I do not under- 
stand what he means by correspondence. What 
is he afraid of? Perhaps the commissioners. The 
admiral never was afraid of his conduct being 
published. I hope,** continued Napoleon, "that 
you told him I said that he had not the right to 
impose any restrictions, unless they were signed 
by the ministers." I replied, that I had, and that 
the governor had said that he had it in his power 
to impose whatever restrictions he thought neces- 
sary. "By the bill,"" replied Napoleon, "he has 
not the right. By the law of force he can do what 
he likes, in the same manner as the English parli- 
ament have passed a bill to legalize illegality, and 
to authorize a proscription contrary to the laws of 
nations, to good faith, and to their own honour. 
But even in that, it is not allowed to delegate the 

After some further observations. Napoleon desir- 
ed me to communicate to the governor, "that, if he 


sent a Kst to Count Bertrand^ or told him that 
within the limits there were two or more houses 
which he either suspected or was unwilling that I 
should visits I shall not enter either them^ or those 
of the commissioners. If he arranges it in this 
manner^ it will be understood^ but if he sent a 
list of all the houses in the island except one, and 
i^ecified that I might enter all but that one, I 
would not accept of it. Whereas, on the con- 
trary, if he made another list of every house in the 
island exeept one, and said that he did not wish 
me to go into any of those mentioned in that list, 
and made no observation about the remaining one, I 
would sooner accept of it than of the first, although 
I could go only ini;o one house, whereas by the 
other, I could enter all on the island excepting one. 
By availing myself of the first, it would appear 
like visiting by his permission, whereas the other 
would seem to be voluntary, as in consequence 
of nothing having been mentioned^ it would be 
left at my option to go in or. not. It would be 
like a free wilL Tell him this," continued he; 
^ although I am sure that it is merely some shuf- 
fling trick on his part^ and will come to nothing.** 
" I think," added Napoleon, ^ that it is owing 
to some small remains of the influence of my stavy 
that the English have treated me so ill ; at least 
ihaX this man whom they have sent out as gorer- 


nor, has conducted himself in sach an * * * man- 
ner. At least posterity will revenge me.'' 

The meat has been of so bad a quality for some 
days, that the orderly officer has thought it in- 
cumbent upon him to return it, accompanied with 
official complaints. 

8M. — ^Went to Plantation House, and commu- 
nicated to Sir Hudson Lowe the purport of th€^ 
above * mentioned conversation. His excellency 
replied, that by the proposed arrangement^ the 
principal difficulties were removed, and that he 
would speak to Count Bertrand about it. Cipri- 
ani in town endeavouring to procure some good 

9th. — Scott, the servant, to whom Count Las 
Cases had given the letter, released from prison 
under the following conditions, viz. his father to 
go security for him, and to forfeit 100/. if his son 
ever went beyond the inclosure of the father** 
little property. 

\Oth. — ^Acquainted Napoleon that X had com- 
municated his desires to Sir Hudson Lowe, who 
had promised to talk the matter over with Count 
Bertrand. Napoleon replied, ''you may depend 
upon it that it will end in nothing. It is merely 
to deceive you. He will act as he has done in that 
affair with the admiral.** 

*• Gourgaud," added Napoleon^ " is stopped 


at Hiit*s Gate every day. The sentinel cries 
* haU; then the Serjeant comes out, and after a sort 
of consultation together, says ^pass' " 
. Had some conversation about Alexandria. — 
'•' Your ministers," said he, " acted most unwise- 
ly in not having retained possession of Alexan- 
dria. For if you had kept it then, it would 
now be an old robbery like Malta, and would 
have remained with you quietly. Five thousand 
men would be sufficient to garrison it, and it 
would pay itself by the great trade you would 
have in Egypt. You could prohibit the intro- 
duction of all manufactures except English, and 
consequently you would have all the commerce 
of Egypt, as there is no other sea-port town 
in the country. In my opinion, it would be to 
you an acquisition far preferable to Gibraltar, or 
Malta. Egypt once in possession of the French, 
farewell India to the English. This was one of 
the grand projects I aimed at. I know not why 
you set so great a value upon Gibraltar ; it is a 
bad harbour, and costs an enormous sum of mo- 
ney. From it you cannot prevent a fleet from 
passing into the Mediterranean. When I was so- 
vereign of France, I would much rather have seen 
Gibraltar in your hands, than in those of the 
Spaniards ; because your having possession of it 
always fed the hatred of the Spaniards against 
you." I observed that it had been reported he 


had intended to besiege it, and for that purpose 
had marched a great army into Spain ; although 
others said that his object was merely to get his 
troops a footing in that country. He laughed^ 
and said, ^^(Test vrai Turkey,** added he, '^must 
soon fall, and it will be impossible to divide it 
without allotting some portion to France^ which 
will be Egypt. But, if you had kept Alexandria^ 
you would have prevented the French from ob- 
taining it, and of ultimately gaining possession 
of India, which will certainly follow their posses- 
sion of Egypt." 

I2th. — Found Sir Hudson Lowe at Plantation 
House closeted with Sir Thomas Reade. Had 
a conversation with him afterwards in the library 
relative to the proposition which had been made 
to him on the 8th. His excellency, however, 
would not understand that the visiting of only 
such houses into which entrance had not been 
prohibited by him, and abstaining from entering 
all which were marked as objectionable in a list 
made by himself, was in the end precisely the 
same as the mode which he had suggested of only 
visiting certain houses that were specifically named 
in a list. He said, with considerable ill-humour, 
that General Bonaparte had some design in it, 
and that he would not grant his consent. I ob- 
served that it was rather unfortunate that he had 
desired me to make any proposition on the sub- 


ject, as it might afford a foundation for another 
charge of shuffling. His excellency replied by 
desiring me to tell General Bonaparte, as he had 
done on former occasions, that he might consider 
himself very fortunate in having so good a man to 
deal with, &c. 

Mrs. and Misses Balcombe arrived at Long- 
wood. I dined with Napoleon in company with 
them. He was extremely lively and chatty, and 
displayed a fund of causerie rarely to be met with. 
He instructed Miss Eliza how to play at Billiards. 

In the evening, Napoleon directed me for the 
future not to bring him any more communications 
or propositions from Sir Hudson Lowe, without 
having first asked the latter what the result would 
be, provided he, (Napoleon,) agreed to them. 
^ (Test un menteur^ said he, " un homme dHnsinua- 
tions comme les petits tyrans d'ltalie, qui na rien 
d* Anglais, et qui a la rage de tourmenter et de tra- 
casser les gensT 

Application made on the 10th to Sir Hudson 
Lowe to allow Cipriani to go down into the valley 
(guarded by a soldier,) to purchase sheep and ve- 
getables from the farmers, as the meat sent by the 
government was not eatable. . Refused by Sir 
Hudson Lowe. The daily allowance of meat, ve- 
getables, wines, &c. being carted up in the sun to 
Longwood, many of the articles are rendered unfit 
for use on the road. 

VOL. I. 3 c 


\4th. — ^Breakfasted with Napoleon^ with whonii 
I had a conversation about Russia* " If Paul be^d 
lived," said he, " there would have been a peace 
with England in a short time, as you would not 
have been long able to contend with the united 
northern powers. I wrote to Paul to continue, 
building ships, and to endeavour to unite the i^orth 
against you; not to hazard any battles^ as the.E^og^ 
lish would gain them, but allow you to.exbausjb 
yourselves, and by all means to get a large fle^t 
into the Mediterranean." ; 

Some conversation then took place relative to 
the manner in which the British ministers had 
treated him, which he asserted to be much worse 
than that which had been practised towards Queen! 

"Mary," said he, '^was better treated. She 
was permitted to write to whom she pleased, and 
she was confined in England, which of itself waa 
every thing ; it appears that she was persecuted 
more on account of her religion by the Puritans, 
than from any other cause." I observed that 
Mary was accused of having been an accomplice 
in the murder of her husband. He replied, "of 
that there is not the smallest doubt. She even 
married his murderer afterwards. ♦ * * ♦ em- 
ploys the murderers of his father. One of them 
O ♦ ♦ ♦ is now his aid-de-camp. I must, however, 
do him the justice to say, that at T»» » he ob- 


served to me that I paid a great deal of atten- 
tion to B • * ♦ *, and begged to know my rear- 
sons for it ? I answered, because he is your ge- 
neral. ' Cependant,* said ♦ ♦ ♦, * c'est un vilain 
coquin. (Test lui qui a assassin^ man pere, and 
policy alone has obliged, and obliges me to em- 
ploy him, although I wish him dead, and in a 
short time will send him about his business.* 
Alexander and the king of Prussia,'' continued 


he, " dined with me every day, and in order to 
pay a compliment to * * ♦, I had intended, on the 
day that this conversation took place, to have 
asked B ♦ ♦ ♦ * to dinner, as being the commander- 
in-chief of his army. This displeased ♦ * * who, 
although he asked B * * ♦ * to his own table, did 
not wish me to do so, because it would have raised 
him so high in the eyes of the Russians. Paul,** 
continued he, "was muixlered by B****, O****, 
P ♦ * *, and others. There was a Cossac, in whom 
Paul had confidence, stationed at his door. The 
conspirators came up, and demanded entrance. 
P * ♦ ♦ told him who he was, and that he wanted 
to see the emperor upon immediate business. The 
faithful Cossac refused. The conspiratoi*s fell 
upon him, and after a desperate resistance, over- 
powered and cut him to pieces. Paul, who was 
in bed, hearing the noise got out and endeavoured 
to escape to the empress's apartments. Unluckily 
fur himself, he, in his suspicions, a day or two be- 


fore, bad ordered the door of communication to 
be closed up. He then went and concealed him- 
self in a press. Meanwhile the conspirators broke 
open the door, and running to the bed, perceived 
that there was nobody in it. * We are lost,* they 
cried, * he has escaped.' P ♦ ♦ ♦, who had more 
presence of mind than the rest, went to the bed, 
and putting his hands under the bed-clothes said, 
'The nest is warm, the bird cannot be far off/ 
They then began to search, and finally dragged 
Paul out of his hiding-place. They presented 
him a paper containing his abdication, which they 
wanted him to sign. He refused at first, but said 
that he would abdicate, if they would release him. 
They then seized and knocked him down, and 
tried to suffocate him. Paul made a desperate 
resistance, and, fearful that assistance might arrive, 
3 • ♦ ♦ « despatched him by stamping his heel 
into his eyes, and thus beating his brains out, 
while the others held him down. Paul in his 
struggles for life, once got B ♦ ♦ » ♦'s heel into his 
mouth, and bit a piece out of the skin of it.** 

I asked him if he thought that Paul had been 
mad ? " Latterly," said Napoleon, " I believe that 
he was. At first, he was strongly prejudiced 
against the revolution, and every person concerned 
in it ; but afterwards I had rendered him reason- 
able^ and had changed his opinions altogether. If 
Paul bad lived, you would have lost India before 

— • 


Tiow. An agreement was made between Paul 
and myself to invade it. I furnished the plan. I 
was to have sent thirty thousand good troops. 
He was to send a similar number of the best Rus- 
sian soldiers, and forty thousand Cossacs. I was 
to subscribe ten millions, for the purchase of 
.camels and other requisites for crossing the de- 
sert. The King of Prussia was^^to have been ap- 
plied to by both of us to grant a passage for my 
troops through his dominions, which would have 
been immediately granted. I had at the same 
time made a demand to the King of Persia for a 
passage through his country, which would also 
have been granted, although the negotiations were 
not entirely concluded, but would have succeeded, 
as the Persians were desirous of profiting by it 
themselves. My troops were to have gone to 
Warsaw, to be joined by the Russians and Cos- 
sacs, and to have marched from thence to the 
Caspian Sea, where they would have either em- 
barked, or have proceeded by land, according to 
circumstances. I was beforehand with you, in 
sending an ambassador to Persia to make interest 
there. Since that time, your ministers have been 
imbedlles enough to allow the Russians to get 
four provinces, which increase their territories 
beyond the mountains. The first year of war that 
you will have with the Russians they will take 
India from you.** 


resistance to the Russians, who are brave and 
patient. Russia is the more formidable, because 
she can never disarm. In Russia, once a soldier^ 
always a soldier. Barbarians, who, one may say, 
have no country, and to whom every country is 
better than the one which gave them birth. When 
the Cossacs entered France, it was indifferent to 
them what women they violated, old or young 
were alike to them, as any were preferable to those 
they had left behind. Moreover the Russians are 
poor, and it is necessary for them to conquer. 
When I am dead and gone, my memory will be 
esteemed, and I shall be revered in consequence 
of having foreseen, and endeavoured to put a stop 
to, that which will yet take place. It will be re- 
vered when the barbarians of the north will pos- 
sess Europe, which would not have happened, 
had it not been for you, signori Inglesir 

Napoleon expressed great anxiety relative to 
Count Montholon, as the governor had made 
some insinuations that his removal was in contem- 
plation. *^ I should feel," continued he, *^ the 
loss of Montholon most sensibly ; as, independent 
of his attachment to me, he is most useful, and 
endeavours to anticipate all my wants. I know 
that it would grieve him much to leave me, 
though in truth it would render him a great ser- 
vice if he were removed from this desolate place^ 
and restored to the bosom of his friends^ as 


he is not proscribed, and has nothing to fear in 
France. Moreover, being of a noble family, he 
might readily find favour with the Bourbons if he 

Accompanied Countess Montholon to Planta-^ 
tion House, to pay a visit to Lady Lowe. Saw 
Sir Hudson, who said that " he would not place 
any confidence in the assurances of General Bo* 
naparte, and was determined that he should not 
enter any house unaccompanied by a British offi- 
cer." Some discussion then took place relative 
to the passes which his excellency had formerly 
given to persons who were desirous to visit Long- 
wood. Sir Hudson Lowe wished to persuade 
me that he had never given a pass for one day 
only,* and that Major Gorrequer could testify 
to the truth of that. I remarked, that several 
persons to whom he had granted passes, had 
shewn them to Count Bertrand at Hut's Gate, and 
pointed out to him, that on the pass itself the day 
had been specified, and on that account they had 
begged of Bertrand to exert himself, to induce 
Napoleon to see them, as their passes were null 
after that day. Sir Hudson angrily replied, that 
** they were liars^ 

Before my departure. Sir Hudson Lowe told 
me that I might take some of the numbers of 

* This WHS a matter of public notoriety both at St. Helena and 
amongst the paseengert to and from England. 


the Ambigu to Longwood, and shew them to Ge- 
neral Bonaparte. 

On my return informed Napoleon that I had 
received some numbers of a periodical work called 
rJmbigUy which, I added, were extremely abusive 
of him. He laughed, and said, " children only care 
for abuse f and then desired me to bring them to 
him. When he saw them, he said, ^^Ah ! Pelletiei. 
He has been libelling me these twenty years. But 
I am very glad to get them.** 

Countess Montholon, and Mrs. and Miss Bal- 
combe, passed an hour in conversation with Na- 
poleon after dinner yesterday. 

Cipriani in town, employed as customary. 

nth. — ^Napoleon observed that he found Pele- 
tiers Ambigu very interesting, although it con- 
tained many falsehoods and betises. " I have been 
reading,** continued he, " the account of the battle 
of Waterloo contained in it, which is nearly correct. 
I have been considering who could have been the 
author. It must have been some person about me. 
Had it not been for the imbecility of Grouchy,** 
added he, '* I should have gained that day.** 

I asked if he thought that Grouchy had betrayed 
him intentionally. *'No, no,** replied Napoleon, 
"but there was a want of energy on his part. 
There was also treason amongst the staff. I be- 
lieve that some of the staff officers whom I had 
sent to Grouchy^ betrayed me^ and went over to 

VOL. I. 3d 


the enemy. Of this, however, I am not certmn, as 
I have never seen Grouchy since. 

I asked if he had thought Marshal Soult to 
have been in his interest ? Napoleon answered, 
" certainly, I considered so. But Soult did not 
betray Louis, as has been supposed, nor was he 
privy to my return and landing in France. For 
some days, Soult thought that I was mad^ and 
that I must certainly be lost. Notwithstanding 
this, appearances were so much against Soult, and 
without intending it his acts turned out to be so 
favourable to my projects, that, were I on his jury, 
and ignorant of what I know, I should condemn 
him for having betrayed Louis. But he really 
was not privy to it, although Ney in his defence 
stated that I told him so. As to the proclamation 
which Ney said that I had sent to him, it is not 
true. I sent him nothing but orders. I would 
have stopped the proclamation, had it been in 
my power, as it was unworthy of me. Ney was 
deficient in education, or he would have not pub- 
lished it, or indeed have acted as he did. For 
when he promised the king to bring me back ia 
an iron cage, he was sincere, and really meant 
what he said, and continued so until two days 
before he actually joined me. He ought to have 
acted like Oudinot, who asked his troops if they 
might be depended upon, to which they unami- 
mously replied, 'We will not fight against the 


emperor, nor for the Bourbons/ He could not 
prevent the troops from joining me, nor indeed the 
peasants, but he went too far." 

" Mouton Duvernet," said he, " suffered un- 
justly ; at least considering all circumstances, he 
did not deserve it more than another. He hung 
upon the flanks of my little army for two days, 
and his intentions were for the king. But every 
one joined me. The enthusiasm was astonishing. 
I might have entered Paris with four hundred 
thousand men, if I had liked. What is still more 
surprising, and I believe unparalleled in history 
is, that it was effected without any conspiracy. 
There was no plot, no understanding with any of 
the generals in France. Not one of them knew 
my intentions. In my proclamations consisted tlie 
whole of my conspiracy. With them I efTected 
every thing. With them I led the nation. Not 
even Massena knew of my intention. When he 
was informed of my having landed with a few hun- 
dred men he disbelieved it, and pronounced it im- 
possible, thinking that if I had entertained such a 
project I should have made him acquainted with 
it. The Bourbons want to make it appear that 
a conspiracy existed in the army, which is the 
reason they have shot Mouton Duvemet, Ncy, 
and others, because my having effected what I 
did, not by the aid of a conspiracy, or by force, as 


our villi^e : like it, their tijne is past and gone, 
they are no longer of the age.'" 

'' The Bourbons will find," added he, '' that 
their caressing the marshals and generals will not 
answer. They must caress the people. To them 
they must address themselves. Unless they adopt 
some measures to render themselves popular, you 
will see a terrible explosion burst forth in France. 
The nation will never bear to live debased and 
humiliated as it is at present. When I hear of a 
nation living without bread, then I will believe 
that the French will exist witliout glory. 

** At Waterloo not a single soldier betrayed me. 
Whatever treason there was, existed among the 
generals, and not among the soldiers or the regi* 
mental oflicers ; these last were acquainted with 
each other's sentiments, and purged themselves by 
turning out such as they suspected.** 

" Your nation," continued Napoleon, " is chiefly 
guided by interest in all its actions. I have found 
since I have fallen into your hands, that you have 
no more liberty than other countries. I have paid 
dearly for the romantic and chivalrous opinion 
which I had formed of you.** 

Here I repeated nearly what I had said upon 
former occasions. Napoleon shook his head, and 
replied, " I recollect that Paoli, who was a great 
friend to your nation, in fact who was almost an 
Englishman, said, on hearing the English extolled 


as the most generous, the most liberal, and the 
most unprejudiced nation on earth, ^ Softly, you 
go too far; they are not so generous nor so un- 
prejudiced as you imagine; they are very self-in- 
terested ; they are a nation of merchants, and ge- 
nerally have gain in view. Whenever they do any 
thing, they always calculate what profit they shall 
derive from it. They are the most calculating peo- 
ple in existence.' This Paoli said, not without at 
the same time having given you credit for the good 
national qualities which you really possess. Now 
I believe that Paoli was right." 

Napoleon then made some remarks upon Long- 
wood, expressed his surprise that some person had 
not made a contract to bring a supply of water to 
it and to the camp ; stipulating that he should be 
permitted to establish a garden in the valley, by 
means of which a suflSciency of vegetables might 
be produced at a cheap rate, not only for Long- 
wood and the camp, but also for the ships. — 
^ Here,'* continued he, " if water were brought by 
a conduit, Novarre, with the help of two or three 
Chinese, would produce a sufficiency of the vege- 
tables which we so much want. How preferable 
would it be to dispose of the public money in 
conducting water to those poor soldiers in camp^ 
than in digging of ditches and throwing up for- 
tifications round this house, just as if an army 
were coming to attack it. A man who has no 


regard for his soldiers ought never to have a com- 
mand. The greatest necessity of the soldier is 

Sir Thomas Reade made a long harangue this 
day upon the " impropriety of allowing Bonaparte 
any newspapers, unless such as had been previ- 
ously inspected by the governor.'' 

\8th. — Saw Sir Hudson Lowe at Plantation 
House. Found him busied in examining some 
newspapers for Longwood, several of which he 
put aside, as not being, in his opinion, proper to 
be sent to Napoleon, observing to me, at the same 
time " that however strange it might appear, Ge- 
neral Bonaparte ought to be obliged .to him for 
not sending him newspapers indiscriminately, as 
the perusal of articles written in his own favour 
might excite hopes which, when not ultimately 
realized, could not fail to afflict him ; that more- 
over, the British government thought it improper 
to let him know eveiy thing that appeared in the 

I9th. — Sir Thomas Reade very busy in circu- 
lating reports in the town that " General Bona- 
parte was sulky and would see nobody; that the 
governor was too good, and that the villain ought 
to be put in chains." 

21*/. — ^The David transport brought the news 
of the arrival of the Adolphus at the Cape, laden 
chiefly with iron rails, to surround Napoleons 


house, for which the governor had sent to Eng- 

Sir Hudson Lowe came up to Longwood, and 
inspected the works throwing up about the stables, 
and the sentinels that he had placed. Held a 
long conversation with me afterwards about the 
restrictions and limits, without coming to any de- 

After having observed that I was responsible ini 
some degree to ministers for any unfavourable im- 
pressions which might exist upon Napoleon's mind^ 
his excellency proceeded to catechise me relative 
to my conversations with him. I hinted to him 
the peculiar delicacy of my situation, and the im- 
propriety and indeed impossibility that existed of 
my making the disclosures which he required. Sir 
Hudson said, *' that he admitted the peculiar deli- 
cacy of my situation, but at the same time that I 
ought to make a full and ample disclosure to him, 
and to him only, of the language made use of by 
General Bonaparte, especially of any abusive epi- 
thets. That it was necessary for him to know 
every thing that passed. That for a man who had 
so much intercourse with General Bonaparte, he 
thought I was less influenced by him than ninety- 
nine out of a hundred would have been. That my 
situation was of great importance, and one in 
which I could render great services. That abso« 
lute silence as to what was going on, except to 


bim, was imperatively necessary, and indeed the 
chief requisite." 

His excellency then told me, in order, as he 
said, to shew the good opinion that he enter- 
tained of me, that " he had no scruple in inform- 
ing me, that the commissioners were to be looked 
upon with great suspicion ; that they were in fact 
spies upon every body and upon every thing, and 
only wanted to pick something out of me, in order 
to send it to their courts ; that I had better be very 
cautious, as in all probability they would report 
to their employers every thing that I said, as they 
had already done to him ; in proof of which he re- 
peated to me the tenor of the conversation which I 
had held with Baron Sturmer at Plantation House: 
on the 21st of Oct. 1816, adding his satisfaction 
at having found that I had been cautious in my 
remarks. He also said that he had written to 
Lord Bathurst in very favourable terms about me,- 
and had recommended that my salary should be 
augmented to 500/. per annum." 

After this his excellency acquainted me that he 
had received a letter from young Las Cases for me, 
which he would send. 

In the evening I received the above-mentioned 
letter under an inclosure, containing one to Gene- 
ral Gourgaud from his mother, as Sir Hudson de- 
scribed it in his note, which I was directed to de- 
liver to him. r. 

VOL. i» 3 b 


24th. — Mr. Vernon came up to Longwood to 
ondoyer Count Bertrand's child. Napoleon play- 
ed at Billiards in the evening. 

25th. — Cipriani in town, purchasing provisions. 

2Sth. — ^Napoleon had very little rest during the 
night. Got up at five o'clock and walked about 
in the billiard-room for some time. Found him 
lying on his sofa. Looked low, and out of spirits. 
Saluted me with a faint voice. Gave him a Ports- 
mouth paper of the 18th of November last. On 
reading some remarks made about the injury that 
was likely to accrue to the French interest by the 
marriage of the Emperor of Austria and the Prin- 
cess of Bavaria, together with an observation that 
he. Napoleon, had prevented it even when in the 
plenitude of his power ; Napoleon said, •* ceiit vraL 
I was apprehensive of the consequences of the al- 
liance between the two houses. But what signifies 
it now. Under the Bourbons, France will never 
be a first-rate power. There is no occasion to be 
afraid of her, she will always be an inferior power 
under that house of blockheads." 

Adverting to the commercial distress of Eng- 
land, he observed that Lord Castlereagh deserved 
the reprobation of the English nation for the little 
care which he had taken of their interests at the 
time of the general peace. ** The misfortunes which 
befel me,'* said he, " gave such an ascendancy to 
England, that almost any demand made by her 


would have been granted ; independent of the 
right which she had to claim a recompence for 
the vast expence which she had been at. An op- 
portunity offered itself, which probably will never 
occur again, for England to recover and extricate 
herself from all her difficulties in a few years, and 
to relieve her from the immense load of debt 
which weighs her down. Had Castlereagh been 
really attentive to the interests of his own country, 
he would have embraced, at an early period, the 
only opportunity that had been presented to him 
to secure such commercial advantages to England 
as would have relieved her from her embarrass- 
ments. But, instead of this, he only attended to 
paying his court to kings and emperors, who flat- 
tered his vanity by taking notice of him ; well 
knowing that in doing so, they gained the great 
point of making him neglect his country's inte- 
rests, and consequently benefited their own. He 
was completely duped, and will yet be cursed by 
your nation. 

"I see no other way now," continued he, "to 
extricate you from your difficulties, than by re- 
ducing the interest of the national debt, confis- 
cating the greatest part of the revenues of the 
clergy, all the sinecures, diminishing considerably 
the army, and establishing a system of reduction 
altogether. Let those who want priests pay them. 
Your sinking fund is a humbug. Impose a heavr 


tax upon absentees. It is too late now for you to 
make commercial treaties. Wliat would then have 
been considered as only just and reasonable would 
now be thought far different. The opportunity is 
gone, and the nation is indebted to your imbecilles 
of ministers for all the calamities which will befal 
it, and which are solely to be attributed to their 
criminal neglect,** 

" I underetand/ said he, " that the botanist* 
is on the eve of departure, without having seen 
me. In the most barbarous countries, it would 
not be prohibited even to a prisoner under sen- 
tence of death to have the consolation of convers- 
ing with a person who had lately seen his wife and 
child. Even in that worst of courts, the revolu- 
tionary tribunal of Fmnce, such an instance of 
barbarity and of callousness to all feeling was 
never known ; and your nation, which is so much 
cried up for liberality, permits such treatment, 
I am informed that this botanist has made appli- 
cation to see me, which was refused ; and in my 
letter to Las Cases, which was read by the go- 
vernor, I complained of it as a haidship, and 
thereby made application to see him. If I had 
asked it in any other manner, I should have ex- 
posed myself to the insult of a refusal from this 

• Napoleon had been informed, and I believe with truth, that thig 
gentleman had seen and conversed with the empress and her son a 
flhort time before he left Germany for St. Helena. 


hourreau. Cest le comhle dc la cruaut^* He 
must indeed be a barbarian who would deny to a 
husband and a father the consolation of discours- 
ing with a person who had lately seen, spoken to, 
and touched his wife, his child," (here Napoleon's 
voice faltered) ; " from whose embraces he is for 
ever separated by the cruel policy of a few. The 
Anthropophagi of the South Seas would not prac- 
tise it. Previous to devouring their victims, they 
would allow them the consolation of seeing and 
conversing with each other. The cruelties which 
arc practised here would be disavowed by canni- 

Napoleon now walked up and down for some 
time, much agitated. Afterwards he proceeded, 
" You see the manner in which he endeavours to 
impose upon the passengers going to England, 
that he may make them believe he is all goodness 
to me, and that it is all my own fault if I do not 
receive strangers. That he interests himself so 
fer as even to send up his own aid-de-camp to 
effect it, although he well knows this last circum- 
stance would of itself be sufficient to prevent my 
receiving the person whom he accompanied. His 
object now is to impre-ss upon the minds of the 
public that I hate the sight of an Englishman. 
That is the reason he desired you to tell me that 

* It 18 the height of cruelty. 


Las Cases had made me say that I abhorred the 
sight of the English uniform." 

I observed that Sir Hudson Lowe had also 
told me that he conceived it to be an invention of 
Las Cases. " It is an invention of his own,** re- 
plied the emperor, " in order to impose upon you. 
If I had hated the English, should I have given 
myself up to them, instead of going to the empe- 
ror of Russia, or of Austria ? Is it possible that I 
could have given a greater proof of esteem for a 
nation, than that which I have done for the Eng- 
lish, — unfortunately for myself?" 

Napoleon now opened the door, called St. 
Denis, and in my presence asked him if in Las 
Cases' journal it was asserted that he (Napo- 
leon) had ever said that he hated the sight of the 
English uniform, or the English, or words of a 
similar tendency and meaning ? St. Denis replied^ 
that nothing of the kind was contained in the 
journal. ^^ There," said Napoleon, " if Las Cases 
had said so, it would have been in his joumaL 
He must be wicked who would torment me under 
the circumstances in which I am placed. He has 
got nothing here,** continued Napoleon, placing 
his hand over his heart, ^' and- when there is no- 
thing here, the head must be bad : he is a man 
unfit to command, or to act for himself. Nature 
in forming some men intended that they should 


always remain in a subaltern situation. Such 
was Berthier. There was not in the world so 
good a chef d'etat major ; but change his occu- 
pation^ he was not fit to command five hundred 
men. A good scribbler^ like this man, an excel- 
lent comfhis. You may see how unfit for com- 
mand he is, when he allows himself to be led by 
the nose by such a contemptible imhecille as that 
Colonel Reade. Have you ever read Gil Bias T 
I replied that I had. ^^That eternal smile on 
Readers lips,** rejoined Napoleon, *^ is not natural, 
and reminds me of Ambrose de Lamela. Like 
Lamela*s going to church while he was plotting 
to rob his master, it masks his real intentions. I 
have been informed/' continued he, " that the 
Balcombe*s were interrogated and cross-examined 
both by the governor and by his privy councillor, 
B.eade, touching what they had heard and seen at 
Longwood, and that the father replied, that his 
daughters had come here to have the honour of 
visiting us, and not as spies."" 

March 1st. — ^Napoleon conversed with me for 
some time relative to the iron railing said to have 
been brought out in the Adolphus. I told him 
that it was customary in England to put rails 
round the country-houses of gentlemen, at which 
he looked rather incredulous. 

2nd. — Saw Napoleon in his dressing-room, ly- 
ing on his sofa. He was rather low spirited. 


looked pale, and complained of diarrhoea. Of the 
remedies which I advised, he would only consent 
to take freely Of weak chicken-broth, or barley* 

During the course of conversation he observed 
that he saw a change in the system of the Bourbons 
favourable to them, as, instead of employing the 
ultra faction, and other violent characters, they 
had appointed n^en who had been formerly ^m? 
ployed by him, and who had the confidence of the 
nation. Amongst others he mentioned Mol6. 

Asked Napoleon whether the statement conr 
tained in the Observer relative to Clarke*s con- 
duct towards Camot^ in having withheld bis pent 
sion, and the manner in which he himself was ve^ 
ported to have acted, were true. Napoleon rer 
plied, "it is perfectly true. But I was surprised 
to see the papers occupied so much about Clarke, 
who is not of sufficient importance for people to 
trouble themselves about him.** I asked bis opir 
nion of Clarke. He replied, " he is not a man of 
talent, but he is laborious and useful in the bureau. 
He is, moreover, incorruptible, and saving of the 
public money, which he never has appropiiated 
to his own use. He is an excellent redacteur. He 
is not a soldier, however, nor do I believe that he 
ever saw a shot fired in his life. He is infatuated 
with his nobility. He pretends that he is de- 
scended from the ancient kings of Scotland^ or 


Ireland, and constantly vaunts of bis noble de- 
scent. A good clerk. 1 sent him to Florence as 
ambassador^ where he employed himself in no- 
thing but turning over the old musty records of 
the place, in search of proofs of the nobility of 
my family, for you must know that they came 
from Florence. He plagued me with letters upoa 
this subject, which caused me to write to him to 
attend to the business for which he had been sent 
to Florence, and not to trouble his head or mine 
with his nonsense about nobility; that I was the 
^rst of my family. Notwithstanding this, he still 
continued his inquiries. When I returned from 
Elba he offered his services to me, but I sent him 
word that I would not employ any traitors, and 
ordered him to his estates." I asked if he thought 
that Clarke would have served him Mthfully. 
^'Yes,** replied the emperor, '^as long as I tvas the 
strongest, like a great many others." I inquired if 
it were true that he' had written the letter which 
had been attributed to him, announcing to Clarke 
the death of his nephew ? He replied, that he 
had, and that his name was Elliot. 

I remarked that his ancestors were noble. He 
replied, they were senators of Florence. 

Napoleon then observed, *Mn the papers, they 
msJce me serve for all purposes, and say whatever 
suits their views. Lord Castlereagh, on. his re- 
turn to Ireland, publicly asserted a falsehood 

VOL. I. 3 F 


lative to what had been my intentions upon Eng- 
land, and put expressions into my mouth since 
my arrival here, which I never made use of." I 
observed, that in all probability Lord Castle- 
reagh had been informed that he had said so. He 
replied, '* it may be, but your ministers have lit- 
tle scruple in having recourse to falsehood when 
they think it will forward any object they have 
in view. It is,** continued he, ^^ always disho- 
nourable and base to belie the unfortunate, and 
doubly so when in your power, and when you 
hold a padlock upon the mouth to prexrent a re- 

3rd. — Saw Napoleon dressing. Free from any 
complaint. In very high spirits. Laughed and 
quizzed me about some young ladies, and asked 
me to give all the little news of the town. Ap- 
peared to be in better spirits than he had been for 
a long time. 

Had some further conversation relative to the 
governor's declaration that Count Las Cases had, 
in his journal, made Napoleon say, that he ab- 
horred the sight of the British uniform, and his 
excellency's assertion, that Las Cases had endea- 
voured to make him hate the English. " I can- 
not conceive," said Napoleon, *'what object Las 
Cases could have in view by doing so? What 
could he gain by it ? On the contrary. Las Cases 
always spoke well of the English^ said that he 


had been ten years amongst them^ and had been 
always well-treated. It is an invention of this 
man's, whose whole superstructure is built upon 
lies. I said, certainly, that I did not like to see 
officers in uniform, closely attending or watching 
me, because the uniform reminded me that I was 
considered as a prisoner, and gave rise to unplea- 
sant reflections. If even you were to come into 
my apartment every day in your uniform, it would 
^ve me the idea of your being a gendarme. But 
this man has no morale. The admiral had, and 
immediately understood the delicacy of it when it 
was mentioned to him,** 

He then asked some medical questions, went 
into the billiard-room, ordered some bottled por- 
ter, took a glass of it, saying in English, your 
healthy and made me take another. Asked many 
questions about porter, and was much surprised 
at the low price it bore in England. While walk- 
ing about the room, '* TVhat sort of a man did you 
take me to be before you became my surgeon ?" 
smd he, " What did you think of my character, 
and what I was capable of ? Give me your real 
opinion frankly/' I replied, " I thought you to be 
a man, whose stupendous talents were only to be 
equalled by your measureless ambition, and al- 
though I did not give credit to one-tenth part of 
the libels which I had read against you, still, I 
believed that you would not hesitate to commit a 


crime, when you fonnd it to be necessary, or 
thought it might be useful to you."* *' This is just 
the answer that I expected," replied Napoleon, 
** and IS perhaps the opinion of Lord Holland, 
and even of numbers of the French. I have risen 
to too great a pitch of human glory and elevation, 
not to have excited the envy and jealousy of man- 
kind. They will say, * it is true that he has raised 
himself to the highest pinnacle of glory, mats pour 
y arriver, il commit heaucoup de crimes^ (but to at- 
tain it, he has committed many crimes)/ Now the 
feet is, that I not only never committed any 
crimes, but I never even thought of doing so. JTai 
totijoura march^ avec Vopinion de grandes mas^s et 
les ^venemens, (I have always gone with the opi- 
nion of great masses, and with events). I have 
always made pen de cos of the opinion of indivi- 
duals, of that of the public a great deal ; of what 
use, then, would crime have been to me ? I am too 
much a fatalist, and have always despised man- 
kind too much to have had recourse to crime to 
frustrate their attempts. nTai marchi toujours avec 
Vopinion de cinq ou six millions d'hommes, (I have 
always marched with the opinion of five or six 
millions of men) ; of what use, then, would crime 
have been to me ?" 

*" In spite of all the libels,** continued he, * I 
have no fear whatever about my fame. Posterity 
will do me justice. The truth will be known. 


and the good that I have done, with the faults 
that I have committed, wil! be compared. I 
am not uneasy for the result. Had I succeeded, 
I should have died with the reputation of the 
greatest man that ever existed. As it is, although 
I have failed, I shall be coni^dered as an extraor- 
dinary man: my elevation was unparalleled, ie- 
eause unaccompanied by crime. I have fought 
fifty pitched battles, almost all of which I have 
gained. I have framed and carried into effect a 
code of laws that will bear my name to the most 
distant posterity. From nothing I raised myself 
to be ^he most powerful monarch in the world. 
Europe was at my feet. My ambition was great, 
I admit, but it was of a cold nature, ((Tune nature 
froidey) and caused 'par les iv^neitieus^ (by events)^ 
and the opinion of great bodies. I have always 
been of opinion, that the sovei'eignty lay in the 
people. In fact, the imperial government was a 
kind of republic. Called to the head of it by the 
voice of the nation, my maxim was, la carrwre 
ouverte aux talensiy {the career open to talents,) 
without distinction of birth or fortune, and this 
system of equality is the reason that your oligarchy 
bate me so m<f ch/ 

"If eveirpoUcy/' continued be, "authorized a 
man to commit a crime and murder others, it au- 
thorized me to put to death Ferdinand, and the 
other Rourhojos oi bis family when in France. 


Were I a man accustomed to commit ci-imes> 
would I not have effected one which it would have 
been so beneficial to me to put in execution r Fer- 
dinand and his family once out of th€ way, the 
Spaniards would have had nothing to fight for^ 
and would have submitted. No, had I been in- 
clined to commit crimes, I should not be here» 
Would a French Bourbon be in existence now^ 
had I consented to their murder ? Not onty did 
I refuse to consent, but I positively prohibited 
that any attempt of the kind should be made " 

'^ It is not," added Napoleon, " by what the 
Quarterly Review, or Pichon says, or by what I 
could write myself, that posterity will judge of 
me ; it is by the voice of so many millions of inha- 
bitants who have been under my gavernment.** 

'* Those," continued he, " who consented to the 
union of Poland with Russia, will be the execra- 
tion of posterity, while my name will be pro- 
nounced with respect, when the fine southern 
countries of Europe are a prey ta the barbarians 
of the north. Perhaps my greatest fault was, not 
having deprived the King of Prussia of his throne, 
which I might easily have done. After Fried^ 
land, I ought to have taken Silesia and * * * from 
Prussia, and given them to Saxony, as the king 
and the Prussians were too much humiliated not 
to revenge themselves the first opportunity. Had 
I done this^ given them a free constitution^ and 


delivered the peasants from feodal slavery, they 
would have been contented.** 

Napoleon afterwards walked down to Count 
Bertrand's. For two or three days he has taken 
much more exercise than formerly. 

4th. — Saw Napoleon in the billiard-room. He 
was in extremely good spirits. Returned me the 
Ambigu for 1816, and desired me to endeavour to 
obtain the numbers for 1815. 

In answer to a question of mine about p * * *^ 
he said " P ♦ ♦ * is a polisson who would write for 
anybody that would pay him. He made offers 
to me to change his style, and write for me in 
such a manner that the British government would 
not be aware that he was employed by me. One 
time in particular, he sent to the police a MS. copy 
of a book written against me, with an offer that it 
should not be printed provided he were paid a 
certain sum of money. This was made known 
to me. I ordered the police to answer, that if he 
paid the expences of printing, the work should 
be published in Paris for him. He was not the 
only one who made offers of the kind to me when 
I was in power. Some of the editors of the English 
newspapers made similar advances, and declared 
that they could render me most essential ser- 
vices, but I then did not attach sufficient impor- 
tance to their offers, and refused them. Not so the 


Bourbons. In 1814, the editor of The ♦♦*♦♦ 
newspaper was paid about three thousand pounds 
of your money, besides having a great number of 
copies taken.* I told you before that I found his 
receipt amongst Blacas*s papers on my return from 
Elba. I do not know if he is in their pay now. In 
that year also a great number of pamphlets were 
printed in London against the Bourbons, and 
copies of each sent over to them, with a threat of 
publication if they were not paid. The Bourbons 
were greatly frightened, and greedily bought them 
up. There was one pamphlet in particular, a ter- 
rible libel against the late queen of France, which 
it cost them a large sum of money to suppr^s. 

"When I was on the throne," continued he, 
" there were thirty clerks employed in translating 
the English newspapers, and in making extracts 
from English works of merit. Matters which ap- 
peared of importance were extracted from the 
newspapers, and daily submitted to me. But I never 
had it done in my pi-esence, or endeavoured to 
accompany the translator in his progress, as has 
been asserted. I did not even know the English 
article ' the * at that time. Indeed, to me it was 
not of suflScient importance to learn the language 
purposely to read the papers, especially as I had 

• " Now, though no one Journal is mentioned more than another 
in this passage, it is impossible not to suppose THE TIMES to be the 
Journal meant." — Times ycwspapevj July IStfi, 1822. 


letters and intelligence constantly from the spies 
in Engird. The papers, however, served to cor- 
roborate their information relative to ' the move- 
ments of troops, assembling and sailing of men of 
war, and other measures of government," 

The governor at Longwood. Explained his in- 
tentions of putting the iron railing round the house, 
the, doors of which he said he should cause to be 
locked at seven or eight o'clock at night, and the 
keys sent to Plantation House, where they should 
remain until day-break the next morning. 

5th. — The Tortoise store-ship. Captain Cook, 
arrived direct from England, which she had left 
on the 18th of December, 1816. Went to town, 
and learned that Warden had published a book 
about Napoleon which had excited considerable 
interest, and was supposed to have produced a fa- 
vourable impression towards him. Received some 
newspapers containing extracts from the work, 

Qn my return to Longwood I found Napoleon 
in quite different spirits from yesterday. He was 
reclining on his sofa, in a very pensive attitude 
I^is head resting upon one of his hands, aiul appa? 
rently melancholy. His morning gown was on^ a 
9^dras round his head, and his beard unshaved. 
In rather a desponding manner, he asked me 
" What news r" and if the ship had arrived from 
England ? I replied that she had arrived di* 
rect from that country. After having related 

VOL. I. 3 o 


something of what I heard and conceived to be 
most interesting, I mentioned that a book had been 
published respecting him by Warden, which had 
excited great interest. At the name of Warden 
he raised his head and said, ^^ What, Warden of 
the Northumberland T I replied in the affirma- 
tive. " What is the nature of the work ? Is it for 
or against me ? Is it well written ? What is the 
subject ?** I replied, that it was a description of 
what had passed on board of the Northumberland 
and here ; that it was in his favour, and contained 
many curious statements, and also refutations of 
some accusations that had been made against him, 
an explanation about the affair of the Duke d*£ng- 
hien, and that it was well written, &c. ^ Have 
you seen it?** I replied, " No." " Then how do you 
know that it is in my favour, or that it is well 
written ?" I replied that I had seen some extracts 
from it in the newspapers, which I gave to him. 
He sat down to read the papers, asked the expla- 
nation of a few passages, said they were true ; in- 
quired what Warden had said of the affair of the 
Duke d*£nghien ? I replied that he asserted that 
Talleyrand had detained a letter from the Duke 
for a considerable time after his execution, and 
that he had attributed his death to Talleyrand. 
^ Di questo non cV dubbio"^ (of this there is no 
doubt), replied Napoleon. 
Napoleon then asked how the work had been 


received in England ? I replied. " I had heard 
that it had succeeded very well." He asked 
** whether the ministers were pleased with it." I 
answered, *^ that they had not as yet shewn any 
displeasure, as Warden had been recently ap- 
pointed to a ship." " I suppose," said Napoleon, 
" that he has arranged it so as to please the minis- 
ters 5" I replied that from what I had been able 
to learn, he had endeavoured to state the truth. 

I then assisted him in reading over some ex- 
tracts which were in the Observer, the correctness 
of which he admitted. He perused very atten- 
tively and made me explain to him three times an 
article which stated that the Empress Marie 
Louise had fallen from her horse into the Po, and 
with difficulty had been saved from a watery 
grave. He appeared considerably affected by the 

Subsequently he conversed about the tumults 
in England, and the distress of the poorer clas- 
ses. " Your ministers," said he, *^ are answerable 
for all the misery and the- distress of England, 
by their having neglected to take advantage 
of favourable circumstances to secure to the 
country great commercial advantages. In con- 
sequence of my misfortunes in Russia, successes 
unparalleled in the history of the world attended 
her, and by the force of circumstances an op- 
portunity was afforded her of rendering herself 


the most flourishing and powerful nation in the 
worid. I have always considered England to be 
in a dangerous state^ in an unnatural state of over- 
exertion^ and that if some unforeseen circumstance 
did not arise to succour her, she must sinlc under 
the pressure of the exertions she has made, and 
the load of taxation. Such an opportunity has oo 
curred^ but your ministers^ like blockheads, have 
not taken advantage of it, but preferred paying 
their couit to those kings to consulting the inte- 
rests of their country. Every sovereign or mi- 
nister ought to hold the interests and welfare of 
his own country paramount to all other considera- 
tions, and ought never to fail to take advantage of 
existing circumstances to benefit it, particularly 
when it can be done by means of a treaty. Those 
who neglect it, are traitors to their country. You 
have already the hatred of all nations, in conse« 
quence of your maritime laws, and your preten- 
sions to be mistress of the seas, which you say 
belongs to you by right. Then why not take ad- 
vantage of it ? You have made a most unprofit- 
able bargain ; you have the hatred of all other 
nations, on account of your maritime pretensions, 
without enjoying any benefit from them. Your 
ministers do not know the situation of their own 

« It appears to me,** continued he, " to be cleariy 
the intention of your ministers to subject Eng- 


land to a military yoke, to put down by degrees 
the Hberty which prevails there, and to render 
their own power unlimited. All those honours 
conferred upon the military, and the tenor of seve- 
t^ other steps lately adopted, are only so many 
prelhninaries towahis it. I can discern their 
bbjedt.' Assistance, if necessary, will probably 
be rendered by the other sovereigns of Europe, 
Trho are jealous, and caiiiiot bear the idea that 
England should be the only free nation in Eu- 
rope. They will all assist in putting you down.'* 
r dbserved that the English would never submit 
to be made a nation of slaves. He replied, " there 
is M^very appearance that the Jittempt will be 

Some broken numbers of the Times and a few 
letters sent up by the governor. General Gour* 
gaud received a letter from his sister, which in- 
formed him that Sir George Cockbum had called 
twice to see his mother in Paris. This mark of 
attention on the part of the admiral quite en- 
chanted General Gourgaud. Count and Countess 
Bertrand in raptures, as the same letter stated 
that Madame Dillon, the Countess's mother, was 
doing well. Though for many yeare a wanderer, 
I never observed so forcibly before the satisfaction 
and consolati'on afforded by a letter from distant 
relations or friends, to those who are separated 
from their home. By the joy in the countenances 


of some at Longwood^ it was easy to distinguish 
those who had received intelligence, as the melan- 
choly and dissatisfaction pourtrayed in the others 
denoted the contrary. There was no necessity for 
asking any questions. A line of writing from Eu- 
rope is, at Longwood, a treasure above all price. 

6tk. — Some French newspapers sent up to Nar- 
poleon by the admiral^ through the governor. 
Napoleon very anxious to hear some further intel- 
ligence of Marie Louise. The circumstance he 
observed yesterday appeared to have excited some 
apprehensions for her safety in his mind^ which 
was not much relieved when he perceived that 
only broken numbers of the newspapers had been 
sent up by the governor. On coming afterwards 
to an article in the French papers, which stated 
that the project for supplying Paris with water by 
an English company had been abandoned, he 
called out to me : ^^ Have I not told you so, and 
that the people would not suffer it?"* Informed 
him that the governor had sent up Mr. Warden's 
book to me, with instructions to deliver it to him. 
He looked at the fac-simile of his own hand-writ- 
ing and laughed heartily. 

At night Napoleon sent for me. Said that he 
was convinced the governor had kept back some 
letters and newspapers. That he had no doubt 
that Sir Hudson Lowe had himself received a com- 
plete series of papers, but that he had kept back 


some according to his usual brutal custom, because 
there might have been an article which would 
prove agreeable to him. " At first,*" said he, " I 
thought that there might have been some bad 
news of my wife, but a moment's reflection taught 
me, that if so, this man would not have failed to 
send it directly, in order to afflict me. Perhaps 
there may be some news of my son ; when you go 
to town to-morrow, endeavour to see a complete 
series of papers, and look attentively at them. 
You can find out ten articles in your papers, 
while I am searching for one. Try and get some 
more of the Portsmouth papers, as the news is 
more condensed in them, and I do not lose myself 
as in looking over a number of the Times.** 

7th. — Cipriani in town making purchases of 

8/A. — Mrs. and Misses Balcombe at Longwood. 
Napoleon sent for and conversed with them for a 
few minutes Sir Hudson Lowe, when informed 
of this, said, *^ that they had no business to have 
spoken to General Bonaparte, as their pass had 
only specified Count Bertrand's family." 

10/A. — Napoleon in good spirits. Had some 
conversation relative to Warden's book. I asked 
him about that part which treats of the governor s 
physiognomy ; and Warden's reply, that he liked 
Lady Lowe's better. He laughed, and replied, 
<<as well as I recollect, it is true. But I said 


much worse than what Warden has stated there, 
which I believe is to be found in Las Casies* 
journal, where the governor must have seen my 

I then asked his opinion of Warden^s book. 
He replied^ ^^ the foundation of it is true, but he 
has badly understood what was ssdd to him ; as in 
the work there are many mistakes, which must 
have arisen from bad explanation ; Warden does 
not understand French. He has acted wrong in 
making me speak in the manner he has done. 
For, instead of having stated that it had been con • 
veyed through an interpreter, he puts down al- 
most every thing, as if I had been speaking to 
him all the time, and as if he could have under- 
stood me ; consequently he has put into my mouth 
expressions unworthy of me, and not in my style. 
Any person who knows me, will readily see (Jiiat 
it is not my style. In fact, most of what he has 
received through interpretation, and that composes 
a large portion of the work, is more or less incor- 
rect. He has said that Massena had stormed the 
village of Esling thirteen times^ which, if the work 
is translated into French, will make every French 
officer acquainted with the battle laugh, as Mas- 
sena was not at that particular spot during the 
whole of the action. What he says about the pri- 
soners that had been made at Jaffa, is also incor- 
rect| as they were marched on twelve leagues in 


the direction of Bagdat, and not to Nazareth. 
They were Maugrabins from near Algiers, and 
not natives of the country that he mentions: he 
is incorrect in stating that I proposed to give the 
sick opium ; I did not propose it. It was first 
made by one of the medical officers. He is wrong 
in the explanation which he has given of the rea- 
son why I wished Wright to live. My principal 
reason was, to be able to prove, as I told you be- 
fore, by Wright's evidence, that * * * had caused 
assassins, hired by the Count d'* ♦ ♦ ♦ to be landed 
in France, to murder me. This I thought I 
should have effected by Wright's own evidence 
at a trial in presence of the ambassadors of the 
powers in friendship with me. Now there was 
something glorious in Wright's death. He pre- 
ferred taking away his own life, to compromising 
his government.^ 

"The Duke d'Enghien was to have come to Paris 
to assist the assassins. The Duke de Berri also 
was to have landed at a certain place in Picardy, 
to have excited insurrection and assassination. 
I received information of this, and Savary was 
despatched to the spot to arrest him. If he had 
been taken, he would have been instantly shot. 
He was on board of an Engh'sh vessel which 
came in close to the coast, but a certain signal 
which had been previously agreed upon, not hav- 
ing been made from Seville, he became afraid 

VOL. I. S H 


and stood off. The place where they were to 
have landed was called the falaise de Beville, 
near Dieppe, at the foot of a steep precipice, up 
which people are obliged to climb by the help of 
ropes. It was chosen by them on this account, 
as they were not likely to be interrupted by the 
custom-house officers. The Count d* * ♦ ♦ and 
the Duke de B** were always endeavouring to 
procure my assassination. Louis, I believe, was 
not privy to it. They thought, I suppose, that 
they were at liberty to make as many attempts to 
assassinate me as they chose, with impunity. As 
head of the French government, by the laws of 
politics, and by the laws of nature, I should have 
been justified in causing assassination in return : 
which it would have been most easy for me to 
have effected." 

" Shortly after Marengo,** continued Napoleon, 
" Louis wrote a letter to me, which was delivered 
by the Abb6 Montesquieu, in which he said, that 
I delayed for a long time to restore him to his 
throne ; that the happiness of France could never 
be complete without him ; neither could the glory 
of the country be complete without me ; that one 
was as necessary to it as the other; and con- 
cluded by desiring me to chuse whatever I thought 
proper, which would be granted under him, pro- 
vided I restored to him his throne. I sent him 
back a very handsome answer, in which I stated 


tfeat I was extremely sorry for the misfortunes of 
himself^ and his family; that I was ready to do 
every thing in my power to relieve them^ and 
would interest myself about providing a suitable 
income for them, but that he might abandon the 
thought of ever returning to France as a sovereign, 
as that could not be effected without his having 
passed over the bodies of five hundred thousand 

" Warden has been incorrectly informed that 
Maret was privy to my return to France, He 
knew nothing about it, and such a statement may 
injure his relations in France. He has acted also 
unguardedly in asserting matters upon the autho- 
rity of Count and Countess Bertrand, as it may 
cause them many enemies. He ought to have 
said, * I have been told at Longwood,' As to his 
saying that the information came from me. I care 
not, as I fear nobody^ but he ought to have been 
cautious about the others. 

" Warden," added he, " is a man of good in- 
tentions, and the foundation of his work is true ; 
but many of the circumstances are incorrectly 
stated, in consequence of misconception, and bad 
interpretation. Gourgaud was very angry yes- 
terday about what was said of him. I told him 
that he ought to take example by me, and ob- 
serve with what patience I bore the libels on me^ 
with which the press was overwhelmed ; that 


tbey bad made me a poisoner, an assassin, a via* 
lator ; a monster who was guilty of incest, and of 
every horrid crime, &c. That be ought to reflect 
upon this, and be silent.** 

** I see,** continued be, ** by some answers in 
the Times, that the Morning Chronicle appears to 
defend me. 'What harm could it possibly be to 
let me see that paper. To let me read something 
favourable of myself. It is very seldom that I 
now see any thing of the kind, but it is a cruelty 
to withhold so slender a consolation. 

"You recollect I told you that the English 
would change their opinion of me, and that from 
the great intercourse they bad with France and 
Italy, they would soon discover that I was not 
the horrid character they had believed me to be ; 
and also that the English travellers in returning 
from the countries which had been under my do- 
minion, would bring back with them sentiments 
quite different from those with which they had 
set out. This is now beginning to take place, and 
will increase every day. Those people will say, 
* We have been deceived. On the continent we 
have heard none of those horrid stories. On the 
contrary, wherever there was a fine road, or a 
noble bridge, and we asked, who made this? 
the answer has been, Napoleon, or Bonaparte/ 
They will naturally say, at least this nian encour- 
aged the arts and the sciences during bis reign. 

Jl.TOICX prom ST. HELENA. 421 

aud endeavoui*ed to facilitate and to increase the 
commerce of the countries under him. 

" XiOi'd Castlereagli,'* continued he, " has been 
guilty of a base tibel by having declared that I 
hud said, since I came here, that ^ in peace, or in 
war^ I aimed at the destruction of England/ It 
is wboUf false, and I shall make it a subject of 
complaint to his master, the Prince Regent, and 
expose to him the unworthy conduct of his minis- 
ter; £H>nduct degrading to the chai*actex' of a man. 
It is always dishonourable and base to publicly 
insult and belie the unfortunate; especially when 
in your power, and at such a distance as to pre- 
clude the possibility of a rcply.^ 

He then made some observatLons respecting 
T^leyrand . "As to TiiUeyrand,'' said he, '^ Cent 
un coquin, un honwie coironijm^ Dials Iiomme d'es- 
priL A man who seeks every opportunity to 
betray. After the marriage of Priuee Eugene, I 
was obliged to turn him out of office, on account 
of complaints made against him by the kings of 
Bavaria and Wirtemberg, Nothing was to be got, 
no treaty to be made, or arrangement for com- 
merce, withcMit first having bribed him. There 
were some commercial treaties on foot at the time, 
to conclude which he demanded enormous sums. 
The Bourbons have done right to get rid of him, 
as he would have betrayed them the first oppoxw 
tunity, if he jsaw that Ihere was any probabllitj of 


success, as l>e had offered to do after my retnra 

from Elba. 

" Yo»r ministers/* said be, *' reason thus for 
sending roe to St. Helena. This Bonaparte is a 
maa of taknt, and has always been an enemy to 
England. The Bourbons are a set of imbecilles, 
and it is better for the English to have imbeciUes 
on the throne of France, than pei-sons of talent ; 
for the former will not have the ability, though 
they may have the inclination to do as much mis- 
chief to England as the latter. We must do every 
thing we can to keep down the Fi*ench^ who are 
our natural enemies ; and the best mode of effect 
ing it, is to place a set of fools upon the throng 
who will occupy themselves in restoring the old 
superstition^ ignorance, and prejudices of the na- 
tion, and consequei>tly weaken, instead of strength- 
ening it. They would have done better," conti^ 
uued he,, ^^to have left me upon the throne. I 
would have given the English great commercial 
advantages, which the Bourbons dare not offer. 
Besides, it would have kept up the importance of 
the English on the ccmtinent. For the other 
powers bei»g afraid of me, would have madie 
sacnfices to keep on good terms with them, m 
order to have them on their side, well know- 
ing that without their aid, they could do nothin^^ 
against me ; whereas now, as they are not afraicJ 
of the Bourbons^ they will set hut little vahie upoD 


the friendship of a power that they are jealous of, 
and want to humble. Moreover, your ministers 
could always have held me up in terrorem to the 
people of England, whenever they wanted to com- 
mand the exertions of the nation. 

*^ I see," added Napoleon, " no feasible mea- 
sure to remedy the distresses of your manu- 
facturers, except endeavouring by all means in 
your power to promote the separation of the 
Spanish South American colonies from the mo- 
ther-country. By means of this, you would have 
an opportunity of opening a most extensive and 
lucrative commerce with the South Americans, 
which would be productive of great advantages to 
you. If you do not adopt some steps of the kind, 
the Americans will be before-hand with you. If 
you act as I have said, they could trade with no 
other nation than you. Both Spain and France 
must be shut to them.*" 

" If the war with England had lasted two or 
three years longer," added he, " France would not 
have had any further occasion for colonies. In 
consequence of the great encouragement I gave, 
and the premiums I paid to those who devoted 
their chemical labours to the making of sugar, 
especially from the beet-root, it was sold so low 
as fifteen sous a pound, and when the process 
should have been a little more matured, sugar 
would have been made in France as cheap as it 


could have been imported from the West Indies*** 
I remarked that the French could with difficulty^ 
have done without coffee. "They could very 
well have contented themselves with several kinds 
of herbs, as tea," replied the emperor. " Moreover, 
it would have been possible to have grown coffee 
in some of the southern parts of France, and an 
inferior kind of coffee of grain might have been 

A few moments afterwards Napoleon observed, 
that it was true, as had been stated in the papers, 
that the Belgians were sorry that the English had 
gained the battle of Waterloo. ** They considered 
themselves as Frenchmen,** said he, ^ and in truth 
they were such. The greatest part of the nation 
loved me, and wished that I might succeed. The 
stories that your ministers have taken such pains 
to circulate respecting the nations that I had 
united to France having hated me and detested 
my tyranny, are all falsehoods. The Italians, 
Piedmontese, Belgians, and others, are an exam* 
pie of what I say. You will receive hereafter the 
opinions of those English who have visited the 
continent. You will find that what I tell you is 
correct, and that millions in Europe now weep for 
me. The Piedmontese preferred being as a pro- 
vince of France, to being an independent kingdom 
under the King of Sardinia." 

Count Bertrand*s cook went to camp and got 


SO drunk as to be totally incapable of cooking 
the dinner for the family. Napoleon^ when in- 
formed of this at dinner^ sent some dishes off the 
table down to Countess Bertrand^ with his com- 

11 /A.— The Griffon sloop of war arrived from 
the Cape with a mail, in which were some letters 
fpr the French. Count Bertrand received the plea&» 
ing intelligence that his brother was no longer in 
exile, but had been permitted to return to his home, 
and to remain there under surveillance. 

Informed by one of the partners, that last week 
an official letter had been sent to the house of Bal-i* 
combe and Co., to demand an explanation why 
fourteen shillings more than the sum that had 
been allowed by government, had been expended 
for fish for the establishment of Longwood, in the 
preceding fortnight. Also a demand to know 
why two shillings and sixpence more than the 
allowance had been expended for twine. More- 
over, that forty pounds of barley had been sent up 
to Longwood by order of the surgeon, for the use 
of Countess Bertrand, a repetition of which in 
future was prohibited, unless the order was first 
approved of at Plantation House. 

Last Sunday Mr. Balcombe and myself had a 
conversation with Sir Hudson Lowe, in the library 
at Plantation House, relative to the affairs of 
Longwood. Mr. Balcombe presented two sets of 

VOL. I. 3 I 


bills drawn by Count Bertrand for his approval. 
His excellency professed himself to be greatly 
surprised at the large sums of money laid ont 
by the French^ and said that twelve thousand 
a year ought to cover all expenses. He was 
informed by Mr. Balcombe and myself^ that it 
was chiefly expended in the purchase of provi* 
sions^ and various necessaries of life, as the allow- 
ance granted by government was not sufficient. 
Amongst many other articles, I mentioned that 
only seventy-two pounds of beef was allowed. Sir 
Hudson said, that he would increase the quantity 
to one hondi'ed, and would confer with Count 
Bertrand on the subject. He was apparently in a 
very bad humour, and railed at what he termed 
the impudence of Las Cases, in having presumed 
to send from the Cape to Longwood, some wine^ 
Florence oil, and other articles of a similar nature, 
for the use of the French, which he said was an 
insult to the British government, and concluded 
by refusing to approve of more than one set of 

I2th. — Saw the emperor at eleven, a. m. in a 
very good humour. He made some remarks again 
about the disturbances in England. Observed, 
that he thought the Prince Regent must adopt 

* Sir Hudson Lowe would not allow any bill of exchange dntwn by 
imy of the inhabitants of Longwood to be cashed, unless it had been 
premusiy approved of^ and indorsed by himself. 


some measures in order to pacify the people, such 
as reducing the taxes. ^ It is impossible,** said 
he, '^ that a nation in cold blood will consent to 
pay in time of peace^ taxes nearly equal to the 
amount of those paid by them in war, when there 
is no longer that stimulus, that irritation of mind 
which made them consider such drainings of their 
purses absolutely necessary to prevent their coun- 
try from being devoured by a foreign nation. 
England,** continued he, ^'is in an unnatural state,, 
and some change must take place.** 

I said, that although great distress existed in 
England, the disturbances were confined to the 
lower classes, and that it would end by a few of 
them being hanged. Napoleon replied, ^^it may 
be so, Mr. Doctor, but you must consider that 
the canaille, as you call them, are the bulk of the 
people. They, and not the nobles, form the na- 
tion. When the canaille gains the day, it ceases 
to be any longer canaille. It is then called the 
nation. If it does not, why then some are exe* 
cuted, and they are called canaille, rebels, rob* 
bers, &c. Thus goes the world.** 

I then asked Napoleon if it were true, as had 
been stated, that he was once in danger of being 
taken by the Cossacs ? " At the battle of Brienne,** 
replied he, " I recollect, that about twenty or 
twenty-five Uhlans, not Cossacs, got round one 
of the wings of my army, and endeavoured to fall 


upon a part of the artillery. It was at the close 
of the day, and just beginning to be dark. 
They stumbled some how or other upon me and 
my ^tat-msyor. When they saw us, they were 
quite lost, and did not know how to act. They 
did not however know who I was, neither was 
I myself for some time aware of who they were. 
I thought they were some of my own troops* 
Caulaincourt, however, perceived who they wwe, 
and called out to me that we were amongst «Eie» 
mies. Just at this moment, those Uhlans being 
frightened, and not knowing what to do, b^;ait to 
fly, and tried to escape in all directions. My stc^BT 
began to fire upon them. One of them galloped 
up so close to me (without knowing me) as ta 
touch my knee violently with his hand. He had 
a spear in his hand at the charge, but it was with 
the opposite one that he touched me. At first I 
thought that it was one of my own staff who was 
riding roughly by me, but looking round, I per- 
ceived that he was an enemy. I put my hand 
down to draw out one of my pistols to fire at 
him, but he was gone. Whether he was killed 
or escaped I know not. That day I drew my 
sword, which was a circumstance that rarely had 
occurred, as I gained battles with my eye and 
not with my arms. Those Uhlans were after- 
wards, I believe, cut to pieces." I asked if he 
had considered himself to have been in any great 


peril <m that day r " No,** said he, '^ it was an ac- 
cident. My cavalry wus in another part of the 
field at the time. It was possible certainly, that I 
might have been killed, but they were more intent 
upon rtinning away themselves, than upon killing 
anfy of ys."* 

I aisked, if during the retreat from Moscow, he 
had ever been in danger of being taken by the 
Cossaes ? ^ Never," replied Napoleon, " I had 
always with me a guard suflScient to repel any at- 

* It .has been said^ that on the same night, when the French had 
ftitMr turn stormed the village of Brienne, Blacher and his staff 
hXLin vilh a ynij of their eavaky, and were prevented from hav* 
ingi heea taken by two Cossacs who had seen them, and who stopped 
Bluc)ier at the fpot of a flight of stairs when on the point of goin^ 
out, who otherwise would have been killed or made prisioner. That 
thef had drawn their swords, and were prepared to fall upon the 
focnch, but after having made a ritannaiittautt, thej were found to 
ba^ SQ numerousi aa not to ^ulnlkit of a probability of success. This;, 
if true, forms a singular coincidence with what I have related above^ 
but as I had it from Sir Hudson Lowe, I cannot of course be respon- 
sible for the correctness of the statement. Sir Hudson Lowe also 
informed me of what, according to his ideas, was a praiseworthy spe* 
cimenof the utter contempt in which Blucherheld the French na- 
tion, in the following terms : ''At the time when Blueher made hia 
first hostile entrance into France, the mayor of the town he occu- 
pied waited upon him to offer his services to procure whatever ha 
might want, as is customary under similar circumstances. When 
the Pruseian general had heard his business, his reply was * Bring 
me a wench I"* 


tack, or even to admit of any apprehension as to 
the result in case one was made*** 

13th. — ^Napoleon in his bath. In very good 
spirits. After some conversation on the subject 
of what had been lately published respecting him, 
" I suppose,** said he, ** that when you go to Eng- 
land, you will publish j/our book. You certainly 
have a better right to publish about me than 
Warden, and you can say, that you have heard me 
say many things, and have had long conversations 
with me. You would gain a great deal of money^ 
and every body would believe you. Truly, no 
French physician has ever been so much about 
me as you have been. I saw them only for a few 
minutes. The world is anxious to know every lit- 
tle circumstance of a man that has happened to 
make any figure in it, such as all the little trifles 
about how he eats, drinks, sleeps, bis general ha* 
bits, and manners. People are more anxious to 
learn those sottises than to know what good or bad 
qualities he may possess. Pour moi, il mffU de 
dire la veritdr 

Napoleon walked out about five, and paid a 
visit to Countess Montholon. He remained a few 
minutes looking at Captain Poppleton, who was 
busily employed in digging some potatoes out of 
a little garden that we had endeavoured to culti- 
vate in front of the house. 


1 4th. — ^Napoleon in very good humour. Told 
him that a letter had appeared in the French 
papers^ which was attributed to Marquis Mont- 
chenu^ stating that upon his arrival, he (Napo- 
leon) had given him an invitation to dine, to which 
he had replied, that he had been sent to St. He- 
lena to guard, and not to dine with him. '^ Ces 
messieurs sont toujours les mimesP replied the em- 
peror, **it is very likely that he has been hite 
enough to write it. Those old French noblesse 
are capable of any bSlise. He is worthy of being 
one of the grande naissance* of France.** 

Mentioned to him that in one of the papers it 
had been stated, that Sir George Cockbum had 
gone to Paris, impressed with a poor opinion of 
his (Napoleon's) abilities, and had said, that on 
the score of talent, he was an ordinary charac- 
ter, and by no means to be feared. Napoleon 
replied, ^^ probably and with reason he does not 
suppose me to be a God, or to be endowed with 
supernatural talents ; but I will venture to say 
that he gives me credit for posssesing some. If 
he has really expressed the opinion attributed to 
him, it pays a poor compliment to the discernment 
of the greatest part of the world." 

* The contemptuous manner in which the marquis generally 
expressed himself of any person who was not able to count some 
bnndred years of nobility in his family, was notorious in 8t He- 


' He then desired me to get him the paper which 
contained the report of Sir George Cockburn's 
opinion, adding that he wbs now so much accns- 
toiiied to read libels, that he cared but little what 
M-as said, or what calumnies were published about 

" The people of England with difficulty will 
bt'llfve," iidded he, "that I not only read those 
lil)t'ls witliont anger, but even laugh at them. 
From ti.c violence of temper which has been at- 
tributed to nie, I suppose they think that I must 
be worked up by rage to fits of madness. TTiey 
are iiiistahen ; fliey only excite my laughter. La 
firite seule hli's.s<'" 

I iislicd liiin about the affair of Palm, and said, 
I had been informed that he had given a satisfac- 
tory explanation of every sanguinary act, except- 
ing tliat, that lie had been accused of having com- 
mitted. Napoleon replied, "I never have been 


with a fair trial. I should like,"* continued he, 
^^ to read the principal libels which have been 
published against me in England, if I could have 
them in French. There is Pelletier,"* added he^ 
laughing, ^^ who 'proves that I was myself the con- 
triver of the infernal machine.** 
, Mm'or Hodson paid a visit to Countess Bertrand. 
Informed her that both himself and his wife would 
be most happy to call frequently upon her ; but 
that insinuations had been made to him that it 
would not be liked at Plantation House. 
M \5th.-T-Six Hudson .Lowe gave directions to 
•Captain Foppleton^ that General Bonaparte, or 
any of his i suite might go unaccompanied along 
4he . road to Woody Range, and to Miss Mason*s; 
but that they were not permitted to quit the path, 
And. that they might, re-enter Longwood at the 
■bottom of the wood« That the two sentinels at 
the end of the wood were still to remain. He 
.then > asked what were the orders of those sen* 
tinds ? Captain Poppleton replied, ^^ to let no 
person in or out of Longwood.** Sir Hudson de- 
aired that those orders should still he continued in 
forces adding, that he did not think that the path 
by which the French were to be permitted to 
enter was near enough to the sentinels to allow 
them to interfere with them. He desired also that 
]the sentinels should be posted a little before 

VOL. I. 3 k 


Cipriani in town^ making the usual purchases 
of provisions. 

16/A. — Saw the emperor in the drawing-room. 
He was in extremely good spirits, laughed repeat- 
edly, joked with me on a supposed attachment to 
a fair damsel, and endeavoured to speak some 
English. Said that he had seen Lady Bingham 
the day before, but that she could not speak 
French ; that she *' looked good tempered." 

'^ Bertrand,** said Napoleon, ^* has told me that 
the governor has at last sent up his answers. 
They are full of imbecility. I have not read them 
myself, but from what Bertrand tells me^ they are 
a very poor production, and would make one pity 
the writer who covers over so many pages with- 
out arriving at any conclusion. He asserts that 
he never has signed a pass for one day only, when 
the fact is, that numbers of persons have shewn 
the passes signed by him to Bertrand, and pointed 
out to him that the day was specifically marked^ 
and consequently begged of him to interest him- 
self to induce me to see them on that day, as they 
could not enter Longwood upon any other. Si 
fa pietd di luir* 

Napoleon then spoke at length about Talley- 
rand. '' The triumph of Talleyrand," said he, •'is 
the triumph of immorality. A priest united to an- 
other man's wife, and who has paid her husband 

• MeaQing, that it makes one pit7 him. 


a large sum of money to leave her with him. A 
man who has sold every thing, betrayed every 
body and every side. I forbade Madame Talley- 
rand the court, first, because she was a disrepu- 
table character, and because I found out that 
some Genoese merchants had paid her four hun^ 
dred thousand francs, in hopes of gaining some 
commercial favours by means of her husband. She 
was a very fine woman, English or East Indian, 
but sotte and grossly ignorant. I sometimes asked 
Denon, whose works I suppose you have read, 
to breakfetst with me, as I took pleasure in his 
conversation, and conversed very freely with him. 
Now all the intriguers and speculators paid their 
court to Denon, with a view of inducing him to 
mention their projects or themselves in the course 
of his conversations with me, thinking that even 
being mentioned by ^ch a man as Denon, for 
whom I had a great esteem, might materially serve 
them. Talleyrand, who was a great speculator^, 
invited Denon to dinner. When he went home to 
his wife he said, ' my dear, I have invited Denon 
to dine. He is a great traveller, and you must 
say something handsome to him about his travels, 
as he may be useful to us with the emperor.* His 
wife being extremely ignorant, and probably never 
having read any other book of travels than that of 
Robinson Crusoe, concluded that Denon could 
be nobody else than Robinson. Wishing to be 


▼ery civil to him, -she, before a large companyi 
asked him divers questions about bis man Friday! 
Denon, astonished^ did not knoir what to think 
at first, but at length discovered by her questions 
that she really imagined him to be Robinson 
Crusoe. His astonishment and that of the com* 
pany cannot be described, nor the peals of laughter 
which it excited in Paris, as the story flew like 
wildfire through tlie city> and even Talleyrand him- 
self was ashamed of it. 

"The doctor has smd,** continued he, "that I 
turned Mahometan in E^pt. Now it is not the 
case. I never followed any of the tenets of that 
religion. I never prayed in the mosques. I never 
abstiuned from wine, or was circumcised, neither 
did I ever prc^ess it^ I said merely that we were 
the friendsl of the Mos^lmen, and that I respected 
Mahomet their ^propfaet^ which was true ; I respect 
bim now. I wanted, to make the Imans cause 
prayers to be offered up in the< mosques for rae, in 
order to make the people respect me still more 
than they actually did, and obey me more readily. 
The Imans replied, that there was a great ob* 
stacle, because their pn^het in the Koran had 
inculcated to them that they were not. to obey, 
respect, or hold fiEuth with infidels> smd that I 
came under that denomination. I then* desired 
them to hold a consultation^ and -see what was 
necessary to be done in^^erder-lo be^ome'^a Ma»* 

^ VOIC& FKOM «T. HBLEN.V* 437 

snlman^ as some of their teaets could not be prac- 
tised by us. That as to eircumcision, God bad 
made vs unfit for that. That with respect to 
drinking wine, we were poor cold people, inhabi- 
tants of the north, who could not exist without iL 
Therefiore that we could neither circumcise nor 
abstain from wine« Thejr consulted together ac- 
* cordingly, and in about three weeks issued a Fe- 
tbam, declaring that circuiBGision might be omitted, 
because it was merely a profession ; that as to 
drinking wine, it might be drunk by Mussulmen, 
but that those who drajak it would not go to pa- 
radise, but to hell* I replied that this would not 
do; that we had no occasion to make ourselves 
M ussulmen in order to go to hell, that there were 
many ways of getting there ; without coming to 
Egypt, and desired them to hold another consul- 
tation. Well, after deliberating and battling toge- 
ther for I believe three months^ they finally decided 
that a man might become a Mus»ilman, and nei- 
ther circumcise, nor abstain hoiu wine ; but that 
an proportion to the wine drunk, some good works 
must be done. I then told them that we were all 
MussiUmen and friends of the prophet, which 
they readily believed, as the French soldiers never 
went to church, and had no furiests with them. 
For you nmst know . that during the revoluticm 
there was no religion whatever in the French army, 
Menou/ continned JNapoleoq, <f'jreaUj turned Ma^ 


whelmed you. If I had been there myself, I would 
have brought the troops down in seven days, and 
have been on the coast before you had disem- 
barked. I had done so before, when the Turks 
landed with Sydney Smith .*• 

I asked if he had not saved Menou*s life after the 
13th of Vend6miare ? He replied, *' I certainly 
,was the means of saving his life. The convention 
ordered him to be tried, and he would have been 
guillotined ; I was then commander-in-chief of 
Paris. Thinking it very unjust that Menou only 
should suffer, while three commissaires of the con- 
vention, under whose orders he acted, were left 
untried and unpunished ; but not venturing to say 
openly that he ought to be acquitted, (for,"* conti- 
nued he, '^ in those terrible times a man who told 
the truth lost his head,) I had recourse to a stra- 
tagem. I invited the members who were trying 
him to breakfast, and turned the conversation 
upon Menou. I said, that he had acted very 
wrong, and deserved to be condemned to death ; 
but that firsts the commissioners of the conven- 
tion must be tried and condemned, as he had 
acted by their orders^ and all must suffer. This 
had the desired effect. The members of the court 
said, 'We will not allow those civilians to bathe 
themselves in our blood, vehile they allow their 
own commissioners^ who are more culpable, to 
escape with impunity.* Menou was immediately 


Therefore, when it is necessary to fire at all, it 
ought to be done with ball at first. It is a mis- 
taken instance of humanity to use powder only at 
that moment, and instead of saving the lives of 
men^ ultimately causes an unnecessary waste of 
human blood " 

1 Tth. — ^Napoleon walked round the house for a 
short time. 

A letter written by Captain Poppleton to Sir 
Hudson Lowe, informing his excellency that the 
horses of the establishment had been three days 
without receiving any hay, and that for a length 
of time they had had no litter. Also, that the stuff 
sent as hay, was grass recently cut, with occa- 
sionally a large portion of cow-grass* mixed ^ith 
it. That upon allowing fifty pounds of the said 
miscalled hay to dry for two days, it only weighed, 
with the rope which bound it, twenty pounds, ac- 
cording to a very accurate trial made by himself. 
That in consequence, he had directed the grooms 
to go and cut some grass if they could find any, 
as the horses were starving. 

18/A. — Napoleon in very good humour. Joked 
with me for some time about St. Patrick, and 
endeavoured to speak some English, in which he 
succeeded better than I had ever observed be- 
fore. I said, that I had remarked divers of his 

* A gpecies of inferior coarse f:rasg« which horses will not eat. 
VOL. I. 3 L 



expressions in some of the French bulletins. That 
from having had the honour of being accustomed 
to speak to him, I had recognized some of them, 
and took the liberty of asking him if he had not 
occasionally written them? He replied, "Where 
liiive you seen them?" I answered, at the gover- 
nor's, and that I had particularly remarked his 
foicible expressions in the bulletin announcing 
the burning of Moscow. He laughed, gave me a 
gfiitle pull by the ear, and said, "You are right, 
8oine of them are mine." 

Napoleon then observed, "Your ministers will 
not be able to impose always upon the nation. 
ISccaiisc they are afraid of me, and think that I 
have some talent, and because I have been always 
at war with them, and that 1 have made France 
jjicater tlian ever she was before, they fear that 
I might do so again, and as any thing for the ad- 
vantage of France would be disadvantageous to 



recollect that this is not the first time that I have 
told you so." 

*'I am told," added he, "that there is twenty 
thousand pounds worth of iron railing sent out. It 
is money thrown into the sea. Before this railing 
can be fixed up here, I shall be under ground, for 

I am sure that I shall not hold out more than two 
years under the treatment that I experience." 

*' If," continued Napoleon, *' my greatest ene- 
mies knew the way in which I am treated, they 
would compassionate me. Millions in Europe 
will weep for my lot when it is known, and 
known it will be, in spite of the endeavours of 
this governor to envelope every thing in secrecy 
and mystery. He shews how little he knows of 
England by thinking to effect this. A man who 
has always been accustomed to be amongst a set 
of low, vagabond deserters and brigands, where 
his word was a law. On a band of poor ignorant 
wretches like those, who trembled at the sight of 
him, and whom he could threaten to send back to 
their own country to be shot, he might impose se- 
crecy. Like a man putting his hat over a candle, 
he could then conceal the light, but now his en- 
deavours resemble those of one who would at- 
tempt to obscure and hide the light of the sun by 
holding his hat before it. He has nothing English 
about him, either within or without. He badly 
serves bis government, who are desirous that as 


little as possible should be said about me, but he 
takes the most certain method of effecting the con* 


Sir Hudson Lowe very busy inspecting the 
ditches and other works he had ordered to be 
thrown up about Longwood House and the 


igth. — Saw Napoleon in his bath. He was 
reading a little book, which I perceived to be a 
French New Testament. I could not help ob- 
serving to him, that many people would not be- 
lieve that he would read such a book, as it had 
been asserted and credited by some that he was 
an unbeliever. Napoleon laughed and replied, 
*' Cependant ee nest pM vrai. Je suis loin ditre 
Ath^e. (Nevertheless, it is not true. I am far 
from being an Atheist.) In spite of all the iniqui- 
ties and frauds of the teachers of religion, who are 
eternally preaching up that their kingdom is not 
of this world, and yet seize every thing which they 
can lay their hands upon, from the time that I ar- 
rived at the head of the government, I did every 
thing in my power to re-establish religion. But I 
wished to render it the foundation and prop of 
morality and good principles, and not h prendre 
Vessor of the human laws. Man has need of some- 
thing wonderful. It is better for him to seek it 
in religion than in M"« le Normand.* Moreover, 

* A celebrated fortnne-taller at Pari^ oonaolted by iuipeBQCiaiid 


religion is a great consolation and resource to 
those who possess it, and no man can pronounce 
what he will do in his last moments."* 

Napoleon then made some remarks upon the 
conduct of the governor, whom he declared to be 
a man totally unfit for bis situation. ^' If he were," 
said he, ^* he might make it pleasant and interest- 
iii^. He might spend much of his time with me, 
and get great information with respect to past oc- 
currences, with which no other person could be so 
well acquainted or so satisfactorily account for. 
You see what I am, dottore. Even unknown to 
myself, he would imperceptibly have opportuni- 
ties of getting information from me, which would 
be very desirable to his ministers, and which I am 
certain they have ordered him to obtain, and that 
he bums to know. If I had really any intention 
of effecting my escape from this place, instead of 
disagreeing with him I would caress and flatter 
him, endeavour to be on the best terms, go to 
Plantation House, call on his wife, and try to 
make him believe that I was contented, and 
thereby lull his suspicions asleep. In fact, this 
governor d un imhecille che sa scrivere (he is an im- 
becile who knows how to write). Every person, 
however imhecille^ has some kind of talent : one for 
music, another for drawing, another for some me- 
chanical art| and this imbecile for writing (per lo 


ganize the best method of accomplishing the sepa- 
ration of Poland from Russia. He had several 
conferences with me respecting this mission^ which 
was a great surprise to the ministers^ as Talley- 
rand had no official character at the time. Hav- 
ing married one of his relations to the Duchess of 
Courland, Talleyrand was very anxious to receive 
the appointment^ that he might revive the claims 
of the Duchess's family. However, some money 
transactions of his were discovered at Vienna, 
which convinced me that he was carrying on his 
old game of corruption, and determined me not 
to employ him on the intended mission. I had 
designed at one time to have made him a cardi- 
nal, with which he refused to comply. Madame 
Grant threw herself twice upon her knees before 
me, in order to obtain permission to marry him, 
which I refused; but through the intreaties of Jo- 
sephine, she succeeded on the second application. 
I afterwards forbade her the court, when I disco- 
vered the Genoa affair, of which I told you before. 
Latterly,** continued he, " Talleyrand sunk into 

" Ney," said he, *' never made use of haughty 
language at Fontainbleau in my presence ; on the 
contrary, he was always submissive before me, 
although in my absence he sometimes broke out 
into violence^ as he was a man without education. 
If he had made use of unbecoming language to- 


I said that I could not deny that Sir Hudson 
Lowe was hasty, and allowed the fear of his (Napo- 
leon s) making his escape to get the better of his un- 
derstanding, but that he was not devoid of talent. 
Tliat he had said his situation was one of great 
delicacy, his responsibility great, and his orders 
rigid. That he had desired me to say, that Las 
Cases had ccnfessed that the French about his 
person had made him see every thing par un voile 
de sang. *^Les bites mime ont leurs talens^ re- 
plied the emperor. " As to his saying, that I was 
made to see every thing h travers d\m voile de 
sangy ma foi^ partonl oA Von voit le bourreaUy on 
voit du sang. Las Cases certainly was greatly ir- 
ritated against him, and contributed materially to- 
wards forming the impression existing upon my 
mind, because Las Cases is a man of a feeling 
mind, and extremely sensible to the ill treatment 
which has been put in practice towards me and 
himself. But I had no occasion for the assistance 
of Las Cases towards giving me that opinion, as 
the treatment I experienced was fully suflScient in 
itself to create it, and Montholon has merely writ- 
ten according to my orders,** 

20th. — Saw Napoleon in his bed-room in his 
morning gown. He spoke at length about some 
statements in Warden's book. "At one time I had 
appointed Talleyrand," said he, "to proceed on 
a mission to Warsaw, in order to arrange and or- 


ganize the best method of accomplishing the sepa- 
ration of Poland from Russia. He had several 
conferences with me respecting this mission^ which 
was a great surprise to the ministers^ as Talley- 
rand had no official character at the time* Hav- 
ing married one of his relations to the Duchess of 
Courland, Talleyrand was very anxious to receive 
the appointment^ that he might revive the claims 
of the Duchess's family. However, some money 
transactions of his were discovered at Vienna, 
which convinced me that he was carrying on his 
old game of corruption, and determined me not 
to employ him on the intended mission. I had 
designed at one time to have made him a cardi- 
nal, with which he refused to comply. Madame 
Grant threw herself twice upon her knees before 
me, in order to obtain permission to marry him, 
which I refused ; but through the intreaties of Jo- 
sephine, she succeeded on the second application. 
I afterwards forbade her the court, when I disco- 
vered the Genoa affair, of which I told you before. 
Latterly,** continued he, ** Talleyrand sunk into 

" Ney,** said he, *' never made use of haughty 
language at Fontainbleau in my presence ; on the 
contrary, he was always submissive before me, 
although in my absence he sometimes broke out 
into violence as he was a man without education. 
If he had made use of unbecoming language to- 


wards me at Fontainbleau, the troops would have 
torn him to pieces.'* 

" Lavalette,** added Napoleon, "knew nothing 
of my intended return from Elba, or of what was 
hatching there. Madame Lavalette was of the fa- 
mily of Beauharnais. She was a very fine woman. 
Louis my brother fell in love with and wanted to 
marry her ; to prevent which I caused her to es- 
pouse Lavalette to whom she was attached.** 

" When Lavalette was director of posts,** con- 
tinued Napoleon, "I was desirous to be made 
acquainted with the sentiments of the nation rela- 
tive to my administration. I appointed twelve 
persons, all of different ways of thinking, some 
jacobins, others royalists, some republicans, impe- 
rialists, &c. with a salary of a thousand francs a 
month, whose business it was to make monthly 
reports to Lavalette of the opinions which they 
had heard expressed and their own, relative to 
the public acts. These reports were brought to 
me unopened by Lavalette. After reading, and 
making extracts when necessary, I burned them. 
This was conducted so secretly, that even the mi- 
nisters did not know of it.** 

Napoleon added, that he had never told Ney 
that he had entered France with the privity and 
support of England ; that on the contrary he had 
always disclaimed and reprobated the idea of re- 
turning by the aid of foreign bayonets, and had 

^ofaie JiWrpcisely to bverturii »'4fimty upheld by 
then^.' That Idl he^ooked for was the support ^ 
the French iilatioiij to^v^h all to proclamations 
would bear tvitnests. He afterwards delivered the 
followiag history of Kohegra^s conspiracy. 

"The doctor has giv^en a very imperfect ac- 
count of the part taken by Captain Wright in 
the conspiracy against me^ In different nights 
of August/ September, and December, 1803, and 
January, 1804, Wright landed Georges, Pichegni, 
Rivifere, Coster, St. Victor, La Haye, St. Hilair^ 
and othera, at Beville. The four last named had 
been accomplices in the former attempt to assas- 
sinate me by means of the infernal machine, and 
most of the rest were well known to be chiefs of 
the Chouans. They remained during the day in 
a little fiarm-house near to where they had landed^ 
the proprietor of which had been bribed to assist 
them. They travelled only by night, pretending 
to be smugglers, concealing themselves in the day- 
time in lodgings which had been previously procur* 
ed for them. They had plenty of money, and>6^ 
mained at Paris for some time without being disco- 
vered, although the police had some intimation that 
a plot was going on, through Meh^ de la Touche, 
who although paid as a spy by your ministers,* 

* Napdeon informed me that Meh^ had received from Mr. Pn^e 
■ad other ottiekl penoiu tteaily 2^0^000 francs. . -; 

VOL. I. 3 M 


disclosed every thing to the French police. He 
had several conferences with Drake^ yonr charge 
d'affaires at Munich^ from whom he received large 
sums of money. Some of the brigands who 
had been landed were arrested and interrogated 
By their answers it appeared that a man named 
Mussey, who lived at Offembourg, along with the 
Dnke d*£nghien^ was very active in corresponding 
with and sending money to those who had been se* 
cretly landed on the coasts ; and most of whom 
could give no good reason why they had ventured 
to return to Paris at the imminent hazard of their 
lives^ as they had not been included in the am- 
nesty. The list of the prisoners and their answers 
on examination were, submitted to me. I was 
very anxious^ and on looking over it one nighty I 
remarked that one of the number named Querela 
was stated to be a surgeon. It immediately struck 
me that this man was not actuated by enthusiasm^ 
or by a spirit of party, but by the hope of gain^ 
He will therefoi*e be more likely to confess tlian any 
of the others ; and the fear of death will probably 
induce him to betray his accomplices. I ordered 
him to be tried as a Cbouan ; and according to 
the laws, he was condemned to death. It was 
not a mock trial, as Warden thought : on the con- 
trary, while leading to execution, he demanded 
to be heard, and promised to make important 
disclosures. Information of this was brou^t to 


mc by Lauristan, and Querel was conducted 
back to prison, where he was interrogated by the 
grand judge R^al. He confessed that he had 
come from England, and had been landed in Au- 
gust, 1803, from Wright's ship, along with Georges 
and several others. That Georges was then in 
F^ris, planning the assassination of the first consul. 
He also pointed out the houses where the other 
conspirators and himself had stopped on their 
way to Paria. Police officers were immediately 
sent to the place he had designated ; and from 
the result of their inquiries it appeared that he 
had told the truth, and that since the time he had 
described, two other landings of similar gentry 
bad been effected by Wright^ with the last of 
whom there had been some person of consequence 
whose name they could not discover^ and that 
they soon expected another cargo. The Duke of 
Rovigo, as I told you once before, was imme-- 
diately sent to Beville with a party of the police, 
in the hope of being able to seize them. An emi- 
grant, named Bouvet de Lozier, who has since 
been employed at the Isle of France, was also ar- 
rested. After he had been confined for some 
weeks he became desperate and hung himself in 
the prison one morning. The gaoler, who heard 
an uncommon noise in his room, went in and cut 
him down before life had departed. While he was 
recovering his senses be burst out into incoherent 


exclamations^ that Moreau had brought Pichegni 
from London. That he was a traitor^ and had per* 
suaded them that all the army were for him, and 
that he would proye the cause of their destruction. 
Those expressions excited an alarm. The police 
knew that a brother of Fichegru's who had once 
been a monk^ lived in P^ris. He was arrested 
and examined. He avowed that he had seen his 
brother a day or two before^ and asked if it were 
a crime? Moreau was immediately arrested^ and 
large rewards were oflTered by the police for the 
apprehension of Georges and Pichegni. Ficbegni 
was betrayed by one of his old friends^ who came 
to the police and offered to deliver him into their 
hands for a hundred thousand francs paid on the 
Spot. Georges still continued to elude the vigi« 
lance of the police. I proclaimed the city of Paris 
to be in a state of siege^ and no persim was al- 
lowed to quit it unless by day, and through cer- 
tain barriers, where were stationed people to whom 
the persons of the conspirators were familiar. 
About three weeks afterwards, Georges was be^ 
trayed and taken, after having shot one of the men 
who tried to arrest him. All his accomplices 
were subsequently taken. Rchegru did not deny 
having been employed by the Bourbons and be- 
haved with great audacity. Afterwards finding 
his case desperate, he strangled himself in the 
prison. The rest of the conspirators were publicly 



tried in the EK»itli of Mayb^tore the tribunal of 
the depctrtmett ^ theSdne, and in the presence 
of all the foreigi^ amna^dadoriHi IVuis* Georges^ 
Pdlignac, Rivi^re^ CQ6ter> tod gixteea or seyen- 
Iteenothens wecefoand g^lty.c^ having, conspired 
against the life of th^ 6hief i magistrate of the 
Fjpen<^h;nalMn, and eondemiDeed td deaths jGneorgesi 
Coster,, and jstiirea .^ eight more; wei* cswouted* 
jRivi^re was -pardosed^ pwitfihyiAh^ praj^^srs of 
Mfirat. .1 pardoned some of the others also. Mo- 
t^eaiivWas. poademoed to two yeai^ Unprisonmenti 
5Fhi^h.;l9^:<)On)iiiHited into hanishpient to Ame- 
ripiL . Jmlea :de Polignac^ confidant Qf the Count 
d^Artoijs, I and many others, were also condemned 

to j«^risp|iinent« 

^ It was discovered," continued Napoleon, ^bjr 
the confession of some of the conspirators, that 
the Duke d'Enghien was an accomplice, ^nd that 
he If as only waiting on the frontiers of France 
for the news of my assassination^ upon receiving 
which he was to have entered France as the king*s 
lieutenant. Was I to suffer that ibe Count d'Ar« 
tois should send a parcel of miscreants to murder 
me, and that a prince of his house should hover on 
the borders of the country that I governed to pro* 
fit by my assassination^ According to the laws 
of nature, I was authorized to cause him to be as- 
sassinated in retaliation for the numerous attenu)ts 
of th$ kind that he had before caused tp b? made 


against me. I gave orders to hare him seized. 
He was tried and condemned by a law made long 
before I had any power m France. He was tried 
by a military commisi^on formed of all the colo- 
nels of the regiments then in garrison at Paris. 
He was accused of haying borne arms against the 
republic^ which he did not deny. When before 
the tribunal^ he behayed with great brayery. When 
he arriyed at Strasbnrg, he wrote a letter ta me^ 
in which he offered to discoyer erery thing if par- 
don were granted to him^ said that his family had 
lost their claims for a long time^ and concluded 
by offering his sendees to me. This letter was 
deliyered to Talleyrand, who concealed it until 
after his execution. Had the Count d'Artois bee& 
in his place he would haye suffered the same fate ; 
and were I now placed under similar circum- 
stances^ I would act in a similar manner. As the 
police," added Napoleon, ^ did not Uke to trust 
to the eyidence of Meh^ de la Touche alone, they 
sent Captain Rosey, (a man in whose integrity 
they had eyery confidence,) to Drake at Munich, 
with a letter from Meh6e, which procured him an 
intenriew, the result of which confirmed Meh^*k 
statement^ that he was concerned in a plot to ter^ 
rasser le premier consul, no matter by what means.*^ 

^ While the Duke d'Enghien was on his trial, Madame la Mar^ 
chal Beaai^re aaid to Colonel Ord^er, who had arrested him, **An 
tkereaopecsiUemeaaatQaavethatMttfivttsrf Hfea hin goflt Iwii 


Q3rd. — Napoleon dressed and in the billiard- 
room. In very good hnmonr. Grave him some 
libels upon himself. They were all in French^ 
and amongst others was ^M^moires secrets^ *^Bo^ 
naparte pemt par lui mhnty and which excited his 

Napoleon then asked several questions about the 
governor. I said that Sir Hudson had desired me 
to say^ a few days ago^ that he had every wish to 
accommodate, and that he thought that Las Cases, 
Warden, and Mrs. Skelton,* and some others, had 
been the means of producing much ill-blood, and 
a great deal of misunderstanding. Napoleon re- 
plied, *^S'inganna (he is deceived). In the first 
place, it was the badness of his physiognomy (era 
sua cattiva /accia) ; next his wanting to force me 
to receive the visit of an officer twice in the twenty- 

atUbliahed beyond a doubt ?" '' Madame/ rqdied Colonel Qrd^ner, 
^ I found in hia house lacka of papers sufficient to compromise the 
half of France." — ^The duke was executed in the mornings and not by 
torch-light as has been represented. 

* Mrs. Skelton was accused by the goremor of having told Napo« 
leon one day at dinner, that from experience she knew he would not 
always find Longwood pleasant. That at certain times of the year 
it was a damp, disagreeable, bleak, and unhealthy residence; as a 
pioof of which, she mentioned that she nerer could anooeed in rear- 
ing poultry there; while down in the compan/s garden, iitnated in 
A sheltered valley, about four hundred yards distant^ aha had no dif« 
ionlty in bringing them up. Mrs. Skelton and hnSfy had redded 
it Longwood a few months in eaoh year for firar or Are yeazf before 
Kflpoleon airived. 

45& xwmem. wbou bt. hslbka; 

fbnr Iknint ;^i;lvai kbe letter to Bertrand ; his Wish- 
ing that li shonld send yoa away^ and to give me 
9. sui^geon of His own choice ; the manner m whiob 
be spolce to me about the wooden house; his let^ 
ters ' ftiU of sdftniess^ accompanying the train of 
vexations which followed ; and his always leaving 
something doubtful which he could liflerwards in- 
tierpret as best suited his views. In fact^ he wanted 
by shewing that he could render things disagree* 
able^ to compel us to bend^ and submissively de^ 
mand pardon of lum^ go to Plantation House, and 
be his very humble servants.** 

^^ It appears that Warden has been informed/* 
added Napoleon, ^ that I applied some lines of 
Shakespeare to Madame Montholon. You well 
know that I could not then, nor can I now, quote 
English verse, nor have I ever intended to convey 
a reflection on Madame Montholon. On the con- 
trary, I think that she possesses more firmness and 
caracUre than most of her sex.** 

24/A. — ^Napoleon complained of swellings in hig 
legs, for which I recommended some simple reme- 
dies, which he put in practice. 

He afterwards observed that he had been^ readf 
ing all yesterday the Secret Memoirs of himself 
Pichon*s work, &t. ^ These libels," said he, 
'^ havfc done me more good than harm in France^ 
because they irritated tl^e nation both against the 
writers, and the Bourbons who paid them, by re- 


presenting me as a monster, and by the impro- 
bable and scandalous falsehoods they contained 
against me, and the government under me, which 
were degrading to them as a nation. Even Cha- 
teaubriand has done me good by his work. Pichon, 
the author of the state of France under Bona- 
parte, had been consul in America, and was dis- 
graced by me for having embezzled three millions, 
part of which he was obliged to refund, as I was 
very particular with consuls and other agents, and 
always examined their accounts myself. This 
Pichon, after he had published his libel, was sent 
by me to London as a spy after my return from 
Elba ; at least, he was so far sent by me, that I 
suffered it> because, although he was tut coquin, he 
had some esprit, and on account of the nature of 
bis writings, would not be suspected. You see 
what dependance is to be placed upon writers of 
libels. This man, who in 1814 had written such 
a libel against me, went in 1815 as a spy for the 
police of the very person whom he had so grossly 

2Sth. — Napoleon in his bath. His legs much 
better. In very good spirits. ** It appears, Mr. 
Doctor,"* said he,, ^^p^^ ^e books you lent me, 
that at a very early agb I, poisoned a girl; that I 
poisoned others for the mere pleasure of poison* 
ing ; that I assassinated Desaix, Kleber, the Duka 
of Abrantes, and I know not how many others i 

VOL. I. 3 N 


that I went to the array of Italy, consisting of 
some thousand galley-slaves, who were extremely 
happy to see me, as being one of their fraternity. 
It is surprising what things are believed on both 
sides, in consequence of not having had communis 
cation with each other. In France, if a house was 
burnt down, the vulgar attributed it to the English. 
Pitt, Pitt, was the cry directly. Nothing could 
persuade the French canaille that the conflagra- 
tion at Lyon had not been eflfected by the English. 
In like manner, you English believed every thing 
bad of me, which belief was always encouraged 
by your ministers. Your **** also, with the 
exception of Fox, who was sincere in his desire 
for peace, encouraged • • * against me.** Here I 
made some observations in disbelief of the asser- 
tion, to which Napoleon replied, •'When they 
furnished ships to land, and money to support, 
men whose professed object was to assassinate 
me, was not that being privy to it ?"* I said that 
they had furnished ships and money to assist in 
accomplishing a revolution, but without having 
known that assassination formed part of their 
plans. ** Doctor,** replied Napoleon, ^ you are 
a child. They knew it well. Fifty or sixty bri- 
gands, the most of them notorious for assassina- 
tion, could have no other mode of effecting a revo- 
lution. They had republished in London at the 
fame time a book called, ^Killing no Murder* 


which had been originally printed in Cromwell's 
time ; for the purpose of inculcating a belief that 
assassinating me was not only not a crimCj but 
that it would be a praisewoi*thy and meritorious 
action. Fox indeed was of a contrary opinion. 
That great man wrote to Talleyrand, and informed 
him that a coquin had come that morning to him 


with a proposal to assassinate me.** 

" When I was at Elba,** added Nopoleon, ** I 
was visited by an English nobleman, a Catholic, 
about thirty years old, and from Northumberland^ 
I believe. He had dined a few weeks before with 
the Duke de Fleury, with whom he had a conver- 
sation relative to the sum of money to be allowed 
me annually by France, according to the agree- 
ment that had been signed by the ministers of the 
allied powers. The duke laughed at him for sup- 
posing for a moment that it would be complied 
with^ and s^d, that they were not such fools. 
This was one of the reasons which induced me to 
quit Elba. I do not believe that Castlereagh 
thought I would have ventured to leave it, as 
otherwise some frigates would have been stationed 
about the island. If they had kept a frigate in 
the harbour, and another outside, it would have 
been impossible for me to have gone to France, 
except alone, which I never would have attempted. 
If even the king of France had ordered a frigate 
with a picked crew to cruise off the island, it 

4fi0 A vote B FROM ST. IIKLBHIl. 

would have prevented me." I asked if lie tliouglit 
that it had been the intention of the allies to have 
sent him to St. Helena ? " Why," replied the em- 
peror, "it was much spoken of. However, Co- 
lonel Campbell denied it. They must have sent 
an army to take me, I could have held out for 
some months. But there were many violations 
of the treaty of Fontainbleau by the allies^ which 
authorized and obliged me to take the step I did. 
Independent of what I have told you, it was stU 
pulated and agreed to, that all the members of 
my family should be allowed to follow me to 
Elba ; but iu violation of tbaty my wife and child 
were seized, detained, and never permitted to jbin 
a husband imd a £ither. They were also to have 
had the duchies of Pbrma, Placentia, and Guas^ 
talla, which th^ were deprived of. By the treaty 
Prince Eugene was to have had a principality in 
Italy, which was never given. My mother ai;id 
brothers were to receive pensions, which were alsv 
refused to them. My own private property, and 
the savings which I had made on the civil Ust. 
were ]to have been preserved for me. Instead of 
that, they were seized in the hands of Labouillerii^ 
the treasurer, contrary to the treaty, and all claims 
made by me rejected. The private property, of 
my jEamily was to be held sacred ; it was confis^ 
cated. The dotations assigned to the army on the 
Mont Napoleon, were to be preserved, they were 


Suppressed; nor wt»re tlieliiindred thousand franes, 
*whicli were to be given as pensions to persons 
pointed out by nie, ever paid. Moreover, assas- 
4nns were sent to Elba to murder me. Never,** 
eontinued Napoleon^ -* have the terms of a treaty 
4)een more evidently violated, and, indeed, openly 
scoffed at, than those irere by the allies, and yet 
your ministers had the impudence to tell the na- 
tion, that I was the first violator of the treaty of 

I observed that the allies had given as a reason 
for their conduct towards him, that he had aimed 
at universal dominion. " No," replied the empe- 
lor, " I certainly wished to render France tlie 
most powerful nation in the world, but no further. 
I did not aim at universal dominion. It was my 
intention to have made Italy an independent king* 
dom. There are natural bounds for France, which 
I did not intend to pass. It was my object to 
prevent England from being able to go to war 
with France, without assistance from some of the 
great continental powers, without which, indeed, 
she ought never to venture.** 

Had some <x>nversation about Ferdinand of 
Spam. **When Ferdinand was at Valengay,** 
said Napoleon, ^' he always expressed great hatred 
of the English, a^d . declared^ that the first thing 
he would dp, on bis return to Spain, would be to 


re-establish the Inquisition. Yon English will 
find one day, that by restoring him, you have 
done yourselves a great national injury. While 
at Valengay, he said that he would prefer remain- 
ing in France to returning to Spain, and wrote 8e» 
veral times to me, begging of me to adopt and give 
him a Frenchwoman in marriage.** 

'^ I observe now,** added he, ^ that as your mi- 
nisters and the Bourbonists cannot any longer 
deny that I have done some good to France, they 
endeavour to turn it, by saying, that whatever 
good I effected was done through the persuasions 
of Josephine. For example, they say that it was 
Josephine who induced me to recall the emigrants. 
Now the fact is, that Josephine was the most ami- 
able and the best of women, but she never inter- 
fered with politics. Their object is to persuade 
the world that I am incapable of a good action. 
But your English travellers will produce a great 
change in the opinion of their nation.** 

Sir Pulteney and Lady Malcolm, Captains 
Stanfell and Festing, of the navy, came up and 
had an interview with Napoleon. When they 
came out, Captain * * expressed his astonishment 
at finding Napoleon so different a person to what 
he was reported. ^ Instead of bdng a roughs im- 
patient, and imperious character/ said h^ ^ I 
found him to be mild^ gentle in hfa manner, and 


one of the pleasantest men I ever saw. I shall 
never forget him, nor how different he is from the 
idea I had been led to form of him." 

Sir Palteney Malcolm expressed to me his 
ardent wish that matters might be accommodated 
between Napoleon and the governor, adding, that 
two opportunities of effecting it would soon pre- 
sent themselves, viz. the arrival of Lord Amherst, 
and of Admiral Plampin ; that he much wished 
that both should be introduced by Sir Hudson 
Lowe, and, indeed, thought that Lord Amherst 

could not be introduced by any other person. 
Napoleon, accompanied by Countesses Bertrand 

and Montholon, and their husbands, walked down 
into the wood. On their return, chairs were brought 
out and placed in front of the billiard-room, where 
they remained for some time after sun-set. 

26th. — ^Napoleon conversed a good deal about 
the battle of Waterloo. '' The plan of the battle,** 
said he, ^' will not in the eyes of the historian re- 
flect any credit on Lord Wellington as a general. 
In the first place^ he ought not to have given bat- 
tle with the armies divided. They ought to have 
been united and encamped before the 15th. In 
the next, the choice of ground was bad ; because 
if he had been beaten he could not have retreated, 
as there was only one road leading to the forest 
in his rear. He also committed a fault which 
might have proved the destruction of all his army, 


however, I only reckoned the English as being 
able to cope with my own. llie others I thought 
little of. I believe that of English there were 
flx>m thirty-five to forty thousand. These I es- 
teemed to be as brave and as good as my own 
troops; the English army was well known lat- 
terly on the continent; and besides, your nation 
possesses courage and energy. As to the Prus- 
rians, Belgians, and others, half the number of 
xny troops were sufficient to beat them. I only 
left thirty-four thousand men to take care of the 
Fhissians. The chief causes of the loss of that 
battle were, first of all, Grouchy^s great tardiness 
and neglect in executing his orders ; next, the gre- 
nadiers d cheval and the cavalry under General 
Gnyot, which I had in reserve, and which were 
never to leave me, engaged without orders and 
without my knowledge ; so that after the last 
charge, when the troops were beaten, and the 
English cavalry advanced, I had not a single 
corps of cavalry in reserve to resist them ; instead 
of one which I esteemed to be equal to double 
their own number. In consequence of this, the 
English attack succeeded, and all was lost. There 
was no means of rallying. The youngest general 
would not have committed the fault of leaving an 
army entirely without reserve, which however oc- 
curred her^ whether in consequence of treason^ 
YOU 1. So 


or tidty I cannot say. These were the two princi* 
pal causes of the loss of the battle of Waterloo.** 

^ If Lord Wellmgton had entrenched himself," 
continued he, ^ I would not have attacked him* 
As a general, his plan did not shew talent. He 
certiunly displayed great courage and obstinacy; 
but a little must be taken away even from that 
when you consider that he had no means of re* 
treat, and that, had he made the attempt, not a 
man of his army would have escaped, first, to 
the firmness and bravery of his troops, for the 
English fought with the greatest obstinacy Mid 
courage, he is principally indebted for the vie* 
tory, and not to his own conduct as a general ; 
and next, to the arrival of Blucher, to whom the 
victory is more to be attributed than to Welling* 
ton, and more credit due as a general ; because 
he, although beaten the day before, assembled bis 
troops, and brought them into action in the evea* 
ing. I believe, however,** continued Napole<Mi, 
^ that Wellington is a man of great firmness. The 
glory of such a victory is a great thing ; but in 
the eye of the histoiian, his military reputatioii 
will gain nothing by it.** 

Napoleon then spoke about the libeb upon 
himself which I had collected for him. ^ As y^** 
said he, you have not procured me one that is 
worthy of an answer. Would yon have ment 


down and reply to Goldsmith, Pichon, or the 
Quarterly Review? They are so contemptible 
and so absurdly false, that they do not merit any 
other notice than to wntefaHx^/auXy in every page, 
llie only truth I have seen in them is, that one 
day I met an officer, Rapp, I believe, in the field 
of battle, with his face covered with blood, and 
that I cried, ohj comme ii est beau I This is true 
enough ; and of it they have made a crime. My 
admiration of the gallantry of a brave soldier is 
construed into a crime, and a proof of my delight- 
ing in blood. But posterity will do me that jus- 
tice which is denied to me now. If I were that 
tyrant^ that monster, would the people and the 
army have flown to join me with the enthusiasm 
they shewed when I landed from Elba with a 
handful of men ? Could I have marched to P^ris, 
and have seated myself upon the throne without a 
musquet having been fired ? Ask the French na- 
tion ? Ask the Italian r 

" I have,"* continued he, ^^ been twice married. 
Political motives induced me to divorce my first 
wife, whom I tenderly loved. She, poor woman, 
fortunately for herself, died in time to prevent her 
witnessing the last of my misfortunes. Let Marie 
Louise be asked with what tenderness and affec- 
tion I always treated her. After her forcible se 
pai ation from me, she avowed in the most feeling 
terms to * * ^ her ardent desire to join me, ex- 


tolled with many tears both myself and my con- 
duct to her« and bitterly lamented her cruel sepa- 
ration, avowing her ardent desrre to join me in my 
exile. Is this the result of the conduct of a mer« 
dless, unfeeling tyrant ? A man is known by his 
conduct to his wife^ ta his family, and to those 
under him. I have doubtless erred more or less 
in politics, but a crime I have never committed. 
The doctor in his book makes me say that I never 
committed an useless crime, which is equivalent to 
saying that I have not scrupled to commit one when 
I had any object in view, which I deny altogether. 
I have never wished but the glory and the good of 
France. All my faculties were consecrated to that 
object, but I never employed crime or assassina* 
tion to forward it.'' 

" The Duke d'Enghien, who was engaged upof^ 
the frontiers of my territories in a plot to assassi- 
Bate roe, I caused to be seized and given up to 
justice which condemned him. He bad a fair 
trial. Let your ministers and the Bourbons do 
their utmost to calumniate me, the truth will be 
discovered. Le mensonge passe^ la virit^ reste. 
Let them employ all dishonourable means like 
Lord C * ♦ ♦ *, who, not content with sending me 
here, has had the baseness to make me speak and 
to put such words into my mouth as he thinks will 
best answer his views. Cest un hamme ignoble- 
Perhaps they wish me to live for a short time, and 


<lo not put me to death, in order to make me say 
whatever will suit their purposes. The ruin of 
England was never my intention. We were ene- 
mies and I did my utmost to gain the upper hand. 
Gngiand did the same. After the treaty of Amiens 
I would always have made a peace, placing the 
two countries upon equal terms as to commercial 

I mentioned that f tiad conceived he had once 
expressed to me that his intentions had been to 
have united England to France, if he had found 
liimself sufficiently powerful. He replied, ^^ I said 
that I could not unite two nations so dissimilar. I 
intended, if I had succeeded in my projected de- 
scent, to have abolished the monarchy, and esta- 
blished a republic instead of the oligarchy by which 
you are governed. I would have separated ire- 
land from England; the formei* of Which I would 
have made an independent republic. No, no; I 
would have left them to themselves after having 
iSown the «eeds of republicanism in their morale. 

I told the emperor then, that Lord Amherst, 
{the late British ambassador to China,) was ex- 
pected bere in a few days. He said, be thought 
the English ministers bad acted wrong in not 
having ordered him to comply with the customs 
of the place he was sent to, or otherwise not to 
have sent him at all. I observed, that the English 
would consider it as debasing to the nation, if 


Lord Amherst had consented to prostrate him- 
self in the manner required. That if such a point 
was conceded, the Chinese would probably not be 
contented, and would require similar ceremonies 
to be performed as those insisted upon by the 
Japanese, and complied with so disgracefully by 
the Dutch. That, besides. Lord Amherst was 
willing to pay the same obeisance to the empemr 
as he would do to his own king. Napoleon re- 
plied, '^ It is quite a diflTerent thing. One is a 
mere ceremony, performed by all the great men of 
the nation to their chief, and the other is a national 
degradation required of strangers, and of strainers 
only. It is my opinioa, that whatever is the cus- 
tom of a nation, and is practised by the first cha- 
racters of that nation towards their elue^ cannot 
degrade strangers who perform the same. Diffei^- 
ent nations have different customs. In England, 
yon kiss the king^s hand at court. Such a tlung 
in France would be considered ridiculous, and 
the person who did it would be held up to public 
scorn ; but still the French ambassador wiio per- 
formed it in England, would not be considered to 
have degraded himself. In England, some hun- 
dred years back, the king was served kneeling^ 
the same ceremony now takes place in Sptnn. In 
Italy, you kiss the pope*s toe, yet it is not consi- 
dered as a degradation. A man who goes into a 
country must comply with the ceremonies in hm 


there^ and it would have been no degradation what- 
ever for Lord Amherst to have submitted to such 
ceremonies before the emperor of China, as are 
performed by the first mandarins of that empire. 
You say that he was willing to render such re- 
spect as was paid to his own king. You have no 
right to send a man to China to tell them that they 
must perform certiun ceremonies, because such 
are practised in England. Suppose now, for the 
sake of example, that it were the custom in £ng« 
land, instead of kissing the king*s hand, that he 
should offer his breech to be kissed by those who 
were presented to him ; why then, forsooth, the 
Emperor of China must let down his breeches^ 

^ because it was the practice in Eng- 

These observations were delivered with such 
suitable action, and significant gestures, that I 
could not help, for some moments, giving vent 
very freely to laughter, in which the emperor good 
humouredly joined. 

If I,** continued he, ^'had sent an ambassador 
to China, I would have ordered him to make him- 
self acquainted with the ceremonies performed be- 
fore the emperor, by the first mandarins ; and, if 
required^ to do the same himself, and no more. 
Now, perhaps, you will lose the friendship of the 
nation, and great commercial advantages, through 
this piece of nonsense.* I said, that we could 


easily compel the Chinese to grant good terms by 
means of a few ships of war ; that, for example, 
we could deprive them altogether of salt, by a few 
crnizers properly stationed. Napoleon replied, 
" It would be the worst thing you have done for 
a number of years, to go to war with an immense 
empire like China, and possessing so many re- 
sources. You would doubtless, at first, succeed, 
take what vessels they have, and destroy their 
trade ; but you would teach them their own 
strength. They would be compelled to adopt 
measures to defend themselves against you ; they 
would consider, and say, ^ we must try to make 
ourselves equal to this nation. Why should we 
suffer a people, so br away, to do as they please 
to us ? We must build ships, we must put guns 
into them, we must render ourselves equal to them.* 
. They would,* continued the emperor, ^'get arti- 
ficers and ship-builders from France and Ame- 
rica, and even from London ; they would build a 
fleet, and, in the course of time, defeat you.** 

I observed that it was likely Lord Amherst 
would wait upon him. Napoleon replied, " if he 
IS to be presented by the governor, or if the latter 
sends one of his staff with him, I will not receive 
him ; if he comes with the admiral, I shall. Neither 
will I receive the new admiral if he is to be intro* 
duced hy the governor. In his last letter there is 
an insult to us. He says, that we may go round by 


Miss Mason's, bat that we mast not go off the 
main road.* Where is this main road ? I never 
could find any. If I were obliged to step aside a 
few yards for any occasion I should be exposed to 
be shot at by a sentinel. The admiral^ when he 
was here last^ spoke like his advocate^ and wanted 
me to receive him with Lord Amherst. I would 
not receive my own son if he were to be presented 
by him !" 

27th. — ^Napoleon in his bath. Gave me some 
explanations touching what had been said of his 
having kept secret from his soldiers in Egypt for 
a long time that the plague had got into the army. 
" I,** said he, " once touched a soldier in the hos- 
pital who was infected, with a view to convince 
the troops that the disease was not the plague ; 
and I believe that I succeeded for fifteen days in 
persuading them that it was only a fever, with 
buboes. I rarely practised visiting the hospital,"* 
continued he, *• as the extreme sensibility of my 
nose was such, that the smell always made me ill, 
on which account I was advised by Corvisart and 
my other physicians not to attempt it. Even dur- 
ing my campaigns in Europe I seldom visited 

29th. — ^The emperor again in his bath. Con- 
versed about the English manufacturers, blamed 

* The flkitft road is a path impassable by wheel-carriages. 
VOL.1. 3 P 


as they could, and oonsequently would not find 
purchasers* In Germany and Switzerland, for 
example, there were a great number of machines.** 

He spoke again about Liord Amherst, and ob- 
served, that it would be an insult to ask a Chinese 
ambassador if there were one in London, to per«- 
form nmilar ceremonies tb^vey aa were required of 
the English ambassadcnr at Pekin, because it was 
not the custom of the country ihoinros in. ^ >^Far 
example,** said he^ ^ if the king 4>f Ermica w^ere to. 
require the EngUsb^ ambassador ta kiss his^ hand^ 
it would be an insult teliim^ becauseit is not the 
custom in France, eithaaghihis ambasamlm did it 
in Lond<m. In liket maimer te ask a mandarin to 
perform a similar .ceremM>ny. before king Gtorge*s 
picture is tibStise and an insult to Ghinar; because 
it is not the custom of the place. Aa ambassador 
is for the affairs, and not for the ceremmiesoi the 
country he belongs to. Me becomes the same as 
one of the first nobles of the country he is in, and 
should conform to the same ceremonies. If any 
thing more were required of him, then indeed he 
ought to refuse his consent.** 

Sist. — ^Dined at IHantation House in company 
with Count Balmaine, Baron and, Baroneas Stor* 
mer. Captain Gor^^ &c. T|ie commissiouen very 
anuous to know something about. Napoleon, 
Told Baron Stunnei« with whom I had a long con* 
T^rsatioiv.that J(>Ifipoleon had said when be read 


a letter in the newspapers which was attributed to 
the Marqnis Montchenu, that it was another proof 
of the imbecility of Vancienne noblesse de France^ 
que ces messieurs Id sont toujaurs les mimes. 

April 2nd. — Saw Napoleon, who was in tolera* 
ble spirits. I asked if it were tme that he had 
been induced to quit Egypt by his having received 
private information that the directory purposed to 
get him assassinated there? ^No/ replied the 
emperor, ^ I never heard, or thought so ; neither 
had the directory any intention of causing it to 
be done. They were jealous of me certainly, but 
they had no idea of the kind ; and in the actual 
situation of France I do not think that they 
wished it. I returned from Egypt because my 
presence was necessary to the republici and be- 
cause the first object of the expedition had been 
gained by the conquest of Egypt.** I asked if the 
project had originated with him, or with the dU 
rectory. " With both one and the other * replied 
Napoleon, ^ We both thought of it at the same 

Told him what I had said to Baron Sturmer 
about Montchenu. ^ For the credit of France,*' 
said he, ^ they ought to have sent out amongst the 
English some person possessed of a little talent^ 
instead of an old Imbecile.** 

Mr. and Misses Churchill from Indm came up 
yesterday to see Madame Beitrand for die nutw 


pose of having an interview with Napoleon. His 
excellency, however, took an effectual mode of pre- 
venting it, by sending up Sir Thomas Reade to 
accompany them. It is probable that Napoleon^ 
who is very partial to female society, and was in- 
formed that the young ladies were highly accom- 
plished, and spoke French fluently, would have 
managed to have met them accidentally, had not 
Sir lliomas been an attentive listener close to 
their sides during the whole time. 

Captain Cook, of the Tortoise, and Mr. Macv 
kenzie, midshipman of the same ship, came up to 
Longwood. Mr. Mackenzie had been midship- 
man on board of the Undaunted, Captain Usher^ 
when the emperor took a passage in that ship to 
Elba. Capt. Cook told me, that after waiting some 
time on the look out, they saw Napoleon walking 
in the garden, who sent for and asked them many 
questions. He recollected Mr. Mackenzie, ob- 
served that he had grown much since he had seen 
him before, and made some inquiries about Capt. 
Usher. He asked Captain Cook how long he 
had been in the servicer to which he replied, 
" Thirty years.** He seemed surprised at this, and 
aslied what actions? Cook mentioned, amongst 
others, Trafalgar. Napoleon asked the name of 
the ship he belonged to, and divers questions 
about the battle, where he came from, and con- 
cluded by asking him where he was g(nng to 


ffine? **At camp,** was the reply; "at camp^ 
then take care,** said Napoleon, ^^that you do 
not get drank.** 

Cipriani in town, making the usual purchases. 

9rd. — ^Napoleon observed, that he had seen yes- 
terday an old seaman, which he expressed in Eng* 
lish. '^ He looks,** said he, '^ like a seaman e part 
un brav^uamo. There was with him a midship- 
man who was on board of the frigate with Usher, 
when I took a passage in her to Elba. He is 
much grown,** continued he, ''but I recollected 
him.** I told him that the midshipman had said, 
the ship*s company of the Undaunted had liked 
him, (Napoleon,) very much. " Yes,** replied Na- 
poleon, '' I believe they did ; I used to go amcmgst 
them, speak to them kindly, and ask different 
questions. My freedom in this respect quite as- 
tonished them, as it was so different from that 
which they had been accustomed to receive from 
their own officers. You English are aristocrats. 
You keep a great distance between yourselves 
and the papoloJ"^ I observed that on board of a 
man-of-war, it was necessary to keep the seamen 
at a great distance in order to maintain a proper 
respect for the officers. '' I do not think,** replied 
the emperor, '' that it is necessary to keep up so 
much as you practise. When the officers do not 
eat or drink, or make too many freedoms with 
them^ I see no necessity for any greater distino- 


tfoos. Nature formed all men equal. It was al« 
ways my custom to go amongst the soldiers and 
the canaille^ to converse with them^ ask their little 
histories, and speak kindly to them. This I found 
to be of the greatest benefit to me. On the con* 
trary, the generals and officers, ti irattdi poeo 
bene^ and kept them at a greal distance. 

^I asked,** continued he, ^^the old seaman 
where he was to dine, and cautioned him not to 
get drunk. He told me he was marriedt, and had 
no children. I asked him what he intended to do 
with his money. He said that he would leari it 
to an hospital. I then aiked him if he had «(f 
nephews or nieces^ and reconmiended Um^ to letfi 
his riches to thenii instead of to aa hoipitaL '^ ^ 

^ You brought a book,* said hcv ^damtfia 
battle of Waterloo^ to Gourgand; Tht antlMr 
says that I am an imbeeiUe, that myaravf WM'4 
set of robbers, and that I oomndttttl one^of 'tta 
greatest blunders of wfaidi a mifitary nmn MaM 
be guilty, by engaghig Lord WeHii^g;toii with a 
forest in his rear. Now the great ftult in Lord 
Wellington was having engaged me in a position 
with a forest in his rear, with only one road lead^ 
ing to it ; for in case of a defisat he could not liave 
retreated. To effect a retreat wdlt it is necessary 
to have several roads by which your army can re- 
tire in large bodies^ and with celerity;' and also 
be able to defisad themselvea if attaokad. * 'It weoid 


than in France. You are islanders. C'd lo spirito 
isolare. Andy besides, you have not had a revo- 
lution so lately as in France. To form a correct 
judgment of the two nations, it would be neces- 
sary to see both immediately after a revolution. 
Moreover, your ministers have many Frenchmen 
in pay to write whatever is pointed out to them, 
against their own country." 

Napoleon then asked if we kept Good Friday 
sacred, if we fasted, and what was our mode 
of doing so ? I replied that we did observe it ; 
that protestants seldom fasted ; but that when we 
practised it, we abstained altogether from food. 
That we did not consider avoiding animal food, 
and gorging with turbot, or with any other deli- 
cate fish, as fasting : " You are right," said the 
emperor, " You are perfectly right. If one fasts 
at all it ought to be from every thing, or else it 
does not deserve the name. Oh come gli uomini 
son hestie^ to believe that abstaining from flesh, and 
eating fish, which is so much more delicate and 
delicious, constitutes fasting. Povero uomor 

" Before my reign," said he, " the oath taken 
by the French kings was to exterminate all here- 
tics I At my coronation, / swore to protect all 
worships I Louis has not yet sworn, because he 
nas not been crowned, and in all probability, 
through fear of you and of the Prussians, will not 
take the oath of extermination ; not that he has 

VOL. I. 3 Q 


^ If the Irish,'* added he, " had sent over hrt- 
iiest men to me, I would have certainly made an 
attempt upon Ireland. But I had no confidence 
in either the integrity or the talents of the Irish 
leaders that were in France. They could offer 
no plan, were divided in opinion, and continually 
quarrelling with one another. I had but a poor 
opinion of the integrity of that O'Conner who was 
so much spoken of amongst you." 

Ath. — ^Napoleon dressed and in the billiard- 
room. In very good spirits. Spoke about the 
Admiralty ; asked who signed the commissions of 
naval officers? Was surprised when I informed 
him that none were signed by the king. " What, 
was not Nelson's commission signed by King 
George ?" I replied in the negative, and said that 
none but officers of the army and marines had 
commissions signed by the king ; that his ma- 
jesty had nothing to do with naval promotions. 
**Who appoints the Admiralty?" said Napoleon* 
I replied, " the sovereign." " Then," said he, " it 
is a humbug ; for if the king wishes to give a com- 
mand to an admiral, or to promote an officer, h^ 
has nothing more to do than to signify his desire 
to the Admiralty, who would not dai'e to refuse 
him, through fear of losing their own places." I ob- 
served in reply, that it had been said that the sove* 
reign had at times caused the appointment of an ad« 
miral and commander in chief not exactly agreeabte 


to observe that in France there was neither Hbertv 
of speech^ nor of the press, and that a man might 
be thrown into prison for opposing the measures 
of government, and drained there for an indefinite 
period. Napoleon replied, "There certainly was 
not in France that freedom of discussion which 
prevails in England ; although sometimes there was 
a very strong opposition in the senate ; nor was 
there so much freedom of speech or liberty of the 
press; but what could I have done to a banker^ 
or to other independent persons who opposed my 
measures i Put them in prison, vex and aunoy 
them by arrestations ? They could appeal to the 
senate and to the laws. Besides, it would have 
been an unworthy mode of acting. I do not deny 
that the old constitution of France was a very bad 
one, and required to be newly modified ; but that 
constitution which I gave them when I returned 
from Elba was excellent ; indeed its only fault 
was that it left too little power in my hands, 
and perhaps too much in those of the senate. I 
could not imprison a man without a decree, order 
a fine, impose taxes, or levy them by conscription; 
and there was a law for the liberty of the press* 
I said that his enemies had asserted that the 
constitution he had given was only for the mo- 
ment ; and that when firmly seated on the throne^ 
be would have brought back things to the old 
system. ^^ No, no," replied the emperor, 'SI 


would have continued the last constitution; I 
was well convinced that the old one required a 
great change. I suppose that it was Lord Castle- 
reagh who made the assertion^ but you must not 
believe Lord Castlereagh. You know what false- 
hoods he publicly asserted about me since I came 
nere. I should not be surprised if they were to 
falsify all the of&cial papers, as they have already 
done those concerning Murat and myself. When 
I returned from Elba, I found all the appara- 
tus. They bad falsified a number of the state 
papers, with the intention of publishing them. M. 
Blacas had the direction of the whole ; but it was 
a priest who managed and executed it. The same 
had been done before to Murat*s papers. The 
fabrications were shewn to some Englishmen. 
Blacas in like manner falsified a letter from a 
fenime de chambre of my sister Pauline, ccmtaining 
seven or eight pages of bavardage. He had it 
interpolated so as to make it appear that I had 
slept with my sister! This Blacas is a wicked 
man, and a blockhead withal. He was base 
enough to leave behind him at Paris letters signed 
by the writers themselves, containing the offers of 
all those in France who had betrayed me before, by 
which, if I had pleased, I could have executed 
thousands. I did not however make any use of 
them further than remembering their names. Now 
a greater proof of imbecility and of treachery could 


not have been given than this conduct of Blacas : 
those letters ought to have been the very first things 
put into a state of security, or destroyed ; as they 
compromised the lives of so many persons. But M. 
Blacas was only intent upon saving his quattrini ;♦ 
and gave himself but little concern about the lives 
of those who had been the means of bringing him- 
self and his master back. He was then minister 
of the king's household. Every thing was trusted 
to him by Louis, who is himself incapable, and 
whose chief qualities are dissimulation and hypo- 
crisy. His legs are covered with ulcers, which 
are dressed for him by the Duchess of Angoul^me. 
He gorges to that degree every day, that they are 
obliged to give him God knows what to enable 
him to disencumber himself of his load. Some 
morning he will be found dead in his bed. He 
has some ignorant imbecilles of physicians about 
him. They wanted Corvisart to attend him, but 
he refused, saying, that if any accident happened 
he might be accused of having contributed to his 
end. When I returned to the Thuilleries I found 
my apartments poisoned with the smell of his legs, 
and of divers sulphureous baths which he was in 
the habit of using." 

"These Bourbons are the most timorous race 
imaginable/ continued Napoleon; "put them in 
fear, and you may obtain any thing. While I was 

488 A VOICE fhom st. bbuehm 

at Elba, an actress named Mademoiselle Rancour 
died. iShe was greatly beloved by the public, and 
an immense concourse of people went to tier fiuie* 
ral. When they arrived at the Church of St* 
Roch to have the funeral service performed over 
the corpse, they found the doors shut^ and admit-* 
tance was refused to it. Nor would they allow 
it to be buried in consecrated ground, foe. by the 
old regulations of those priests people of her 
profession were excluded from Chrtetiati ^burial. 
The populace broke open the doors with sledges^ 
and perceiving that there was no priest to per- 
form the funeral service, they became clamorous, 
their rage knew no bounds. They cried, au 
chdteauy au chdteau des Thuilleries. We will see 
what right these priests have to refuse interment to 
a Christian corpse. Their fury was heightened 
still more by learning tliat the very coguiny the 
curate of St. Roch, who had refused Christian 
burial to the corpse of Mademoiselle Rancour, 
had been in the constant habit of receiving pre* 
sents from her, both for himself and for the poor, 
(for she was extremely charitable) and had dined 
and supped with her repeatedly. Moreover, that 
he had actually administered the sacrament to 
her a few days before her demise. The popu- 
lace cried out, here is a canaille of a priest, who 
administers the sacrament to a woman, and after- 
wards denies her body Christian burial. If she 


was worthy of the sacrament, she surely is worthy 
of burial. He receives her benefactions, eats her 
dinners, and refuses her body interment. About 
fifty thousand of them went to the Thuilleries to 
seek redress from the king. An architect, who was 
in the inner apartments at the time, told me that 
he was present when Louis was first informed of it. 
Not being then aware that the mob was so nu- 
merous, Louis said, ' the curate is right. Those 
players are ungodly gentry, they are excommuni- 
cated, and have no right to Christian burial.' A 
few minutes afterwards Blacas entered in great 
fright, and said, that there were above seventy 
thousand furious people about the palace, and 
that he was afraid they would pull it down about 
them.. Louis, almost out of his senses with fear, 
cried out to give immediate orders to have the 
body buried according to the rites of the churohy 
and actually hurried some persons away to see it 
instantly carried into execution. He was not clear 
of his terror for some days. Those priests tried 
an experiment of a similar nature with me respect- 
ing the body of a beautiful dancer, but per Dio, 
(said he with emotion) they had not Louis to 
deal with. I soon settled the affair." 

" I," continued Napoleon, ** rendered all the 
burying places independent of the priests. I 
hated friars, (fratijy and was the annihilator of 
them and of their receptacles of crime, the monas- 

VOL. I, 3 R 


I took the liberty to observe, that it might na- 
turally be supposed that he would not have ad- 
sire which I had to see peace restored to my country^ it would 
be unjust to leave France and history ignorant of the motives of 
national interest and honour which induced the emperor to refuse 
signing the conditions which the allies desired to impose upon us. 

I fulfil, therefore, the first of duties, that of equity and truth, in 
making known those motives, by the following extract from the or- 
ders of the emperor. 

Paris, January 19M, 1814. " That which the emperor insists on 
the most, is the necessity of France preserving her limits. This is 
a tine qua non condition. All the powers, even England, have recog- 
nized these limits at Francfort. France reduced to her ancient li- 
mits, would not have to-day two thirds of the relative power which 
she possessed twenty years ago. What she has acquired on the side 
of the Alps and of the Rhine, does not compensate what Russia, 
Austria, and Pmssia, have acquired by the solo dismemberment of 
Poland. All these states are aggrandized. To wish to bring back 
France to its ancient state^ would be to bring it to decay and degra- 
dation. France, without the departments of the Rhine, without 
Belgium, without Ostend, without Antwerp, would be nothing. The 
system of bringing back France to her ancient frontiers is insepa- 
rable from the re-establishment of the Bourbons, because they alone 
could offer a guarantee for the maintenance of this system ; England 
feels this well. In all other respects peace upon such a basis would 
be impossible, and could not last. Neither the emperor nor the re-, 
public, if some political commotion should revive it, would ever 
subscribe to such a condition. For the emperor's part, his reso- 
lution is taken ; he is unchangeable ; he will not leave France les^ 
great than he has received her. If then the allies wish to change 
the basis proposed and accepted, the natural limits, he can see but 
three courses : either to fight and conquer, or to fight and die glo- 
riously ; or finally, if the nation would not support him, to abdicate^ 

A aVSCHCS from 87; HEbBKA. 493 

thtti^he is dead. '^He hasA coiiipUunt in hia breast 
which faos rendered him quite another kind of man. 
Sachet, Clausel, and Gerard, are in my opinion 
the .first of the French generals. It is difficult to 
pronounce which is superior,* as they have not 
had many opportunities of commanding in chiei^ 
which is the only mode by which you can ascer- 
tain the extent of a man's talents.** He also mei>- 
tioned Soult in terms of commendation. 

Went along with Captain Poppleton, Captsi^ 
Fuller, Impett, and other officers of the 53rd, to a 
rat hunt in the camp, which was conducted in the 
following manner. Some soldiers had been fuiv 
nished with spades and began to dig close by a 
ditch and a wall, which were infested with rats. 
Two dogs were in waiting, and we were provided 
with sticks. As soon as the rats found their 
premises moving about them, they sallied out and 
endeavoured to make their escape. They were 
then attacked by the dogs and men, and a most 
animated scene of confusion took place ; the rats 
trying to get into other holes, and the others pur* 
suing and striking at them in every direction, and 
hitting each other's legs, in their eagerness to reach 
their prey. Some of the rats turned upon the 

* As the emperor ^aa rolling the halls of the hilliard-taUe 
about at this moment^ I am not positive whether it was only the 
two last that he mentioned as not having often commanded in 


vered the holes, and attacked the rats, who fre- 
quently made a desperate resistance, and bit the 
assailants severely. 

However good the dogs may have been at first, 
they generally became indifferent, or unwilling to 
attack those noxious animals ; and the same may 
be said of the cats. Poisoning them was imprao* 
ticable, as the smell of their putrid carcases would 
render the rooms uninhabitable. Indeed in more 
instances than one it has been necessary to open 
a partition, for the purpose of extracting the body 
of a rat that had died there, and had caused an 
insupportable stench. 

The wretched and ruinous slate of the build* 
ing, the roofs* and ceilings of which were chiefly 
formed of wood, and covered with brown paper 
smeared with a composition of pitch and tar, 
together with the partition being chiefly of wood, 
greatly favoured the introduction of those reptiles, 
and was productive of another great inconvenience, 
as the composition, when heated by the rays of 
the sun, melted and ran off, leaving a number of 

* All the additions made to the old building were roofed in this 
manner. As this book may fall into the hands of some readers who 
may not credit the above description of Longwood House, I beg to 
call the attention of respectable persons who may touch at St. Hele- 
na, to the state of the house in which the exiled sovereign of France 
breathed his last after six years of captivity. To them I confidently 
appeal for a confirmation of the above^ and of the description of the 
island in the Appendix. 


o'clock. Something happened which prevented 
him from going; but he sent word to the French 
ministers^ that they might consider the treaty as 
having been signed, and that he would sign it the 
following day. A courier from England arrived 
at night, with directions to him to refuse his con- 
sent to certain articles, and not to sign the treaty. 
Although Cornwallis had not signed it, and might 
have easily availed himself of this order, he was a 
man of such strict honour, that he said he consi- 
dered his promise to be equivalent to his signa- 
ture, and wrote to his government that he had 
promised, and that having once pledged his word, 
he would keep it. That ^^h^^jivere not satisfied, 
they might refuse to ratify tjualSSteaty. There was 
a man of honour — a true Eii^lishman. Such a 
man as Cornwallis ought to have been sent here, 
instead of a compound of falsehood suspicion, 
and meanness. I was much grieved when I heard 
of his death. Some of his family occasionally 
wrote to me, to request favours for some prison- 
ers, which I always complied with." 

He then spoke about his having g^ven himself 
up to the Ikiglish^ and observed, ^^My having 
given myself up to you, is not so simple a matter 
as you ima^e. Before I went to Elba, Lord 
Castlereagh offered me an asylum in England, 
and sdd^ that I should be very well treated there, 
and much better off than at Elba.** I said, that 

VOL. I. 3 8 


advised, and did not declare himself until the pro- 
per time had arrived, that is to say, until that ac- 
cident of Russia, of which he took immediate 
advantage." A pause now took place. Napoleon 
walked a few paces, stopped, looked at me, and 
said, in an expressive manner, " none but myself 
ever did me any harm ; I was, I may say, the 
only enemy to myself : my own projects, that ex- 
pedition to Moscow, and the accidents which 
happened there, were the causes of ray fall. I 
may, however, say, that those who made no op* 
position to me, who readily agreed with me, en- 
tered into all my views, and submitted with facit 
lity, were those who did me t^jjinost injury, and 
were my greatest enemies ; be^?Bse, by the facility 
of conquest they afforded, they encouraged me tD 
go too far. They were more my enemies than 
those who formed intrigues against me, because 
the latter put me upon my guard, and rendered 
me more careful. I caused Stein to be S^ot 
away from the court of Prussia. It would, how^ 
ever, have been very fortunate for me if his pro- 
jects had been followed, as Prussia would have 
broken out prematurely, and I should have ex- 
tinguished her like that,** (raising one of his feet, 
and stamping, as if he were putting out the snuff 
of a candle) ; " I could," continued he, ** have de* 
throned the King of Prussia, or the Emperor of 
Austria, upon the slightest pretext, as easily as I 


satisfied with your reception, and stated your 
opinion that all would go on well/ He did not 
know what to answer^ and said, ^But this account 
is also true." 

^^ Your ministei*s never publish the facts," con- 
tinued he : *^ If this governor sent no other ac- 
counts of the battles, and other circumstances, 
than those that were published in the papers, 
he betrayed his countiy; as they are almost all 
false, similar to those of others employed on your 
political missions. A false account is sent to 
be submitted to the publiq, ^nd deposited in the 
archives; and a secret one, stating the truth, 
for your ministers themselves to act upon, but 
never to be produced. So that your ministers, 
upon an enquiry being. made*liament, have 
a set of documents in the archivas ready to sub^ 
mit for inspection ; from whence conclusions are 
to be drawn, and decisions made. In this man- 
ner, although the contents are . untrue, the minis- 
ters cannot be\accused of imposing false state- 
ments upon the parliament, because they were 
officially transmitted to them, and the public and 
parliament are satisfied. References are made^ 
and every thing appears satisfactory, yet the 
ground-work of the whole is false. In conse- 
quence of having been so long opposed to your 
ministers, there is nobody knows them better than 
I do. Yaur system is ^ co^ponnd of lies and 


the war^ you had almost all the Mediterranean 
trade. The reason you sent that expedition to 
Algiers^ was to ingratiate yourselves with the 
Italians, and to prevent their regretting me. For 
I gave the French flag to all the Italian states, 
and made the barbarians respect it ; which has not 
been the case since the Bourbons mounted the 
throne. The Italians would have been discon- 
tented, and have cried, that in Napoleon s reign, 
they were at least free from the attacks and pira- 
cies of the corsairs. That expedition deserves no 
credit except for the great bravery and nauti- 
cal skill displayed by the admiral, and by those 
under him. As to the negociations. Lord Ex- 
mouth has failed ; as he ought to have made the 
extinction of piracy, the surrender of their fleet, 
and an obligation to build no more ships of 
war, (unless the Grand Signor made war upon 
some of the European powers,) the sine qua mm. 
You say that it has been stipulated that only 
prisoners, and not slaves, are in future to be 
made. I fear much that if any difference be 
made amongst those barbarians between the lot 
of prisoner and of slave, it will be to the disad- 
vantage of the former. For those wretches had 
gome interest in preserving the lives of their slaves, 
in other to obtain their ransom ; whereas with 
prisoners they will have no such expectation ; 
and therefore giving way to their natural cruelty 
and deadly hatred of Christians, they will in aU 


with a seventy-four and two or three frigates, im- 
der Caption Usher or Maitland, would have gmned 
you just as good terms as you have got, without 
the loss of a man.** 

'M always had a high opinion of your seamen,** 
continued Napoleon. *' When I was returning from 
Holland along with the Empress Marie Louise, 
we stopped to rest at Givet. During the night, 
a violent storm of wind and rain came on, which 
swelled the Meuse so much that the bridge of 
boats over it was carried away. I was very anx- 
ious to depait ; and ordered all the boatmen of 
the place to be assembled, that I might be enabled 
to cross the river. They said that the waters 
were so liigh that it would be impossible to pass 
before two or three days. I questioned some of 
them, and soon discovered that they were fresh- 
water seamen. I then recollected that there were 
English prisoners in the caserns ; and ordered 
that' some of the oldest and best seamen amongst 
them should be brought before me to the banks 
of the river. The waters were very high and the 
current rapid and dangerous. I asked them if 
they could join a number of boats so that I might 
pass over. They answered, that it was possible 
but hazardous. I desired them to set about it 
instantly. In the course of a few hours they 
succeeded in effecting what the other imbecilles 
had pronounced to be impossible; and I crossed 

VOL. I. 3 T 


Bertrand relative to the ride towards Woody 
Range^ and had said that if the count would give 
an assurance that certain houses would not be 
entered, it might be arranged. " What houses are 
there ?" replied Napoleon, *^ Miss Mason's, and 
that of Legge, the carpenter. Is he afraid of Miss 
Robinson's virtue ? BStises^ if I wished to cor- 
respond, you well know that I could cause letters 
to be sent to Europe every day." 

8th. — On the 7th, the races were held at Dead- 
wood, at which Madame Sturmer, the three com- 
missioners, and Captain Gor, were present. Gene- 
ral Gourgaud also went, and had a long conversa- 
tion with the Baron and Baroness Sturmer, Count 
Balmaine, and, latterly. Marquis Montchenu. 
During the greatest part of the time no British 
officer listened to them. Sir Hudson Lowe and 
Sir Thomas Reade were spectators a considerable 
portion of the time. Lady Lowe was also pre- 
sent. Towards the end of the races, the commis- 
sioners, Madame Sturmer, and Baron Gourgaud^ 
went to Mrs. Younghusband*s house in camp, 
where they remained together for some time, be- 
fore any of the governor's officers followed them. 
Mentioned to Sir Hudson Lowe the opinion which 
Napoleon had expressed of Marquis Cornwallis, 
to which his excellency replied, that " Lord Corn- 
wallis was too honest a man to deal with him." 

Napoleon went down to Count Bertrand*s, 


14th. — General Gourgaad, while going through 
the camp, went into the apartments of Major 
Fehrzen of the 63rd regiment, where he remained 
for a few minutes. 

15/A. — Sir Hudson Lowe sent for the orderly 
officer, and demanded " what business General 
Gourgaud had to enter Major Fehrzen's rooms ?" 

Saw Napoleon, who was reclining upon his 
jofa. Very anxious in his enquiries about the 
health of Madame Bertrand, Tristan de Montho- 
Ion, and the little Napoleonne, both of whom were 
very unwell, especially Tristan, who laboured 
imder a severe attack of dysentery of a highly in- 
flammatory nature, and for which I had bled him. 
When I told Napoleon that the bleeding had af- 
forded the child great relief, ^' Ah," said he, " ex- 
perience, experience is every thing."* 

Shewed him a very curious edict which had 
been issued by the emperor of China relative to 
the English ambassador, and explained the pur- 
port of it. After he had heard what I had to say, 
he replied that he was still of opinion, that the 
ambassador ought to have complied with such ce- 
remonies as were practised by the first mandarins 
of the empire towards the emperor. That the 
Chinese did not ask us to send ambassadors to 

* Napoleon had frequently before condemned the practice of 
bleeding, which he maintained was abstracting so much of onfl^s 


•' A great deal more ; if I recollect right, a million 
of francs for each. But I always refused my con- 
sent. There wanted nothing but that. I even 
forbade the attempt to be made." 

16th. — ^Napoleon informed me that he was now 
employed in writing observations, military and 
otherwise, upon the seven years war of the Great 
Frederic, which would when finished form two 
or three volumes. 

In the course of conversation he mentioned Ge- 
neral Lallemand, whose character he described in 
very favourable terms. ^* Lallemand,'' said he, 
" whom you saw in the Bellerophon, was employed 
by me at Acre as a negociator with Sydney Smith, 
during which he displayed considerable address 
and ability. After my return from Elba, he, like 
Lab^doyfere, declared for me in a moment of the 
greatest danger, and excited a movement of pri- 
mary importance amongst the troops of his divi- 
sion, which would have succeeded, had it not been 
for the indecision of Davoust and some others 
who had agreed to join with him, but who failed 
when the hour of trial arrived. Lallemand a beat^ 
coup de ddcisiorij est capable de faire des cotnbinaU 
sonSy and there are few men more qualified to lead 
a hazardous enterprize. He has the feu sacrd. 
He commanded the chasseurs de la garde at Wa- 
terloo, and enfonpa some of your battalions." Vic- 
tor he described to be ^^ une bite sans talens ei sans 



^^^^^^m Stanford University Libraries 
^^^^^^1 Stanford, CoUfonua 

^^^^^^^H Return ifab book on or before date doo. 

^^^H MAR 8B